- Of great interest in trying to locate people of past, especially in knowing how records were kept and written, see research story below copied from :-Message 1 of 1 , Mar 21 4:48 PMView Source
Of great interest in trying to locate people of past, especially in knowing how records were kept and written, see research story below copied from :- RootsWeb: HERBARZ-L Memories from the Zhitomir Archive http://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=16&ved=0CE4QFjAFOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Farchiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com%2Fth%2Fread%2FHERBARZ%2F2003-11%2F1067948324&ei=XJdLUeHdDYyYlQWeyYGoCw&usg=AFQjCNEsOqCSW8RAhxSgSirCXjXPep39Gg&cad=rja
From: "Andrzej Bajor" <herb@...>
Subject: Memories from the Zhitomir Archive
Date: Tue, 4 Nov 2003 13:35:03 +0100
I had spent 8 days working at the state archive of Zhitomir, Ukraine, and I would like to share with you some of my knowledge I have acquired.
1. There had been the following censuses (revizskiye skazki) in tsarist Russia : 1795/96; 1816/17; 1834/35; 1857/58; 1864/65, ..., etc., i.e. repeated every 8 years until Ocober revolution. Providing that one knows the location (town, village) of his family, by tracing back the registers one is always able to complete his family tree until at least the middle of 18th century. Since 1795 and until 1857 the two categories of people have been officially (and separately) recorded : noblemen and peasants (the Jews have had their separate registers). Since 1864 the following categories have appeared : clergy, noblemen, govt. officials, military, townsmen, and peasants. The townsmen and the pesants were recorded both in towns and villages. The term "townsmen" (mieszczanie) clearly depicts those (former) nobles, who, however, have not been verified by the Heroldia in the years 1840-45. The nobles in 1857 were dramatically reduced compared to 1795 (I think that by 90-95 %). These fig!
ures are true for the counties of Ovruch and Zhitomir I have checked, and are noticeably larger compared with the average for the three Ukrainian Gubernias (81 %). In my opinion this implies that the region of Zhitomir was nearly in 100 % inhabited by the nobles, who, irrespective of their nationality or father's tongue, have declared themselves to be the Poles.
In a census all members in a family have been counted and registered. However, no precise dates of birth have been registered, but solely someone's age. I also do think that this "age" in many cases has been "rounded", since too many figures like 50, 40, 35, etc. appear in these records. Even in the case of noble woman her maiden surname is an extremally rare exception from the general rule of registering only her given name(s) and the so-called "otchestvo" (father's given name).
2. The so-called "zascianki" were inhabited practically by one family only. It was curious for me that the village of Niewmierzyce (county of Ovruch) in 1795 was inhabited solely by 64 Niewmierzycki families, while the same village of Lewkowicze (the village of Niewmierzyce was a part of Lewkowicze, however, retaining its geographical name until approx. the middle of 19th cent.) was inhabited by approx. 100 Lewkowski families only. This, I believe, confirms my suspicion that the Niewmierzyckis and the Lewkowskis are, in fact, the same family stricly related by blood.
3. In the middle of 19th cent. the noble families were often using nicknames, like e.g. Niewmierzycki-Demidko (a descendant of Demian), Niewmierzycki-Soloviuk (descendant of Solovian), or Niewmierzycki-Lisovets (this, however, comes from "Lisovtsy", being a part of the village of Lewkowicze), and as such they had been also mentioned in the official registers. By the way, the spellings of this surname, like "Niemierzycki" and "Nieumierzycki" registered in heraldry, have been found to be clear mistakes compared to the proper surname "Niewmierzycki" registered as such in Polish and in Russian.
4. I had no the slightest idea that the Kosciuszkos were so numerous, especially in the village of Kosciuszkowszczyzna. However, the women at the archive have informed me that no evidence exists that those Kosciuszkos were related by blood to Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Nevertheless, I am not quite sure of this, since Tadeusz Kosciuszko was born in Belarus not faraway from the (present) Ukrainian border.
5. Neither peasant had a surname in 1795. Their later surnames usually come from their "otchestvo". Hence a lot of people like Makarchuk, Ivanov, Petrov, ..., etc, etc., are nowadays living in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, and also in another countries. Also a couple of surnames ending in "-ski" have been found in registers of the peasants after the year 1857 (undoubtedly, those "peasants" were members of the (former) gentry).
6. The noblemen as a rule had their surnames ending in "-ski". The "-icz" ending has been found to be relatively scarce (remember that the county of Ovruch is bordering Belarus). A rare case were also the nobles like e.g. Perszko (originating from the village of Perszko'w, county of Ovruch). The "-o" surname ending is rather typical for the Lithuanian-Belarussian border.
7. The surname "Mudrewski" officially recorded in 1795, in the middle of 19th cent. has been re-spelled to become "Modrzewski".
LENARDA, SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA