Re: [www.Kresy-Siberia.org] Polish prisoners of war. October 1940 -
- View SourceHi Beata and for anybody else with an interest/connection to police.
The website for the Family Police Association 1939 is:
Under the "English" section there is a huge amount of historical information of the Police of the 2nd Polish Republic.
Under the first tab in Polish, Aktualnosci if you scroll down towards the end is a large section and many photographs on the opening ceremony of the Katyn memorial at Bykownia. I was there with several other Kresy-Siberia members in September.
The President, Maria Nowak, (contact details under the Kontakt tab on the website)has been wonderfully helpful and was able to confirm for me that my grandfather was killed/buried at the Katyn Bykownia site.
--- In Kresy-Siberia@yahoogroups.com, Beata Hanks <beatahanks@...> wrote:
> Hello Anna
> My grandfather Jan Nikiel, Â was a policeman, but not in the Kresy region, he lived north east of Warsaw, in a village named Troszyn. Â He was arrested by the NKVD and imprisoned in the town of Lomza, he was kept there for approx 1 month and then, just disappeared. Â You refer to a website and I wonder if you would please let me have the email address for The Family Police Association, maybe they have some record of my grandfather.
> Thank you in anticipation.
> Beata (Skotna-Nikiel) Hanks
> Melton Mowbray UK
> From: annapacewicz <annapacewicz@...>
> To: Kresy-Siberia@yahoogroups.com
> Sent: Tuesday, 1 January 2013, 5:10
> Subject: Re: [www.Kresy-Siberia.org] Polish prisoners of war. October 1940 -
> Hi Mark,
> I've just been reading Katyn: A crime without Punishment by Anna Cienciala, Natalia Sergeevna Lebedeva and Wojciech Materski. It is a compilation and analysis of all of the Soviet archival documents released to date, with some analysis and commentary.
> And the editors touch on this point. Certainly the majority of the Katyn victims were executed because they were potential future leaders of an independent Poland (Officers, intelligentsia, judges etc). But over 6,000 of the total 21,857 victims were ordinary policemen. As you know, my own grandfather was one of them. He was not an officer but a regular constable. In addition to wiping out the Polish elite and leaders, the Soviets were also ridding the Eastern Borderlands of the most patriotic elements. They may not have been the leadership elite but they had positions of authority nonetheless and were very patriotic. I have heard anecdotes of policemen who were given the chance to abandon their posts in the mayhem of September 1939 but chose not to. They were unquestionably loyal to Poland, armed and viewed by the general population as authoritative figures.
> When Poland regained her independence in 1918, the Polish Parliament established the State Police in July 1919. There was actually a pretty strict recruitment policy. The Family Police Association in Katowice has a very detailed and informative website about the fate of the policemen during WW2:
> "The most patriotic circles of former riflemen from the Polish Legions formed by JÃ³zef PiÂ³sudski, soldiers from the Polish Military Organization (POW), soldiers from the Silesian and Posnanian Wars and Poles coming from the Kresy of the Second Republic of Poland became the base for founding the State Police and the Silesian Police. Those veterans, like nobody else, knew the price that had been paid to achieve independence, and were aware of what may be required to maintain independence. We can safely acknowledge that the most patriotic and state conscious Poles served in the ranks of the State Police."
> Two medals were awarded to my grandfather prior to September 1939, the Bronze 10 year Long Service Medal and the 10th anniversary of the restoration of independence medal which was awarded in 1928. He would very likely have fought in the Polish-Soviet War.
> Particularly with the Army away at the front or being POWs, the State Police would have been seen to represent a threat to Soviet hegemony in the Borderlands.
> Unfortunately unlike the detailed NKVD records that survived in the archives for the 3 special POW camps, the NKVD files for the "civilian" victims, those on the Katyn Ukraine and Belarus lists have not been found (other than just the list of names for the Ukraine List vicitms). I am going on memory here (haven't got the book on holiday with me) but I think Kruschev ordered the files to be destroyed in the 1950's.
> Best regards,
> Anna Pacewicz
> > Dec 31, 2012 5:21 am (PST) . Posted by:
> > "Mark" turkiewiczm
> > . . .When I started this search [for what happened to my grandfather], I figured out the bolshevik motive
> > for mass murder to be elimination of the leaders so that the rest can be
> > converted to communism. People who threatened the process or were dangerous had
> > to go.
> > I havent been able to identify my grandfather particularly as 'a
> > leader' yet he was listed for death.
> > I want to understand why it was
> > important to kill him when others were not.
> > It seems the answer is his status
> > as a State Police Sergeant, or/and service in the Bolshevik War/Defence of
> > Lwow.
> > Records I have do not show military service of 'significance' (to
> > warrant death) as he was a young guy at the time. He wasnt wealthy I dont think
> > as they lived in an apartment in Przemysl.
> > Since persons of more prominent
> > status were not death-listed as he was, there must be something of significance
> > that he did against them or was doing. I am exploring from that
> > perspective.
> > Mark T.
> > Canada