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  • Carol Dove
    If you are interested sign up and they send you the news. Carol http://www.artukraine.com/historical/lviv.htm
    Message 1 of 2 , Oct 1, 2007
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      If you are interested sign up and they send you the news.

      Carol



      http://www.artukraine.com/historical/lviv.htm
    • zenon.kuzik
      Dear Carol, I clicked on the link and found the following on the home page: A CURIOUS MONUMENT WITH NO EPITAPH SUMS UP THE YEARS OF BITTERNESS By: Patrick
      Message 2 of 2 , Oct 5, 2007
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        Dear Carol,

        I clicked on the link and found the following on the home page:


        "A CURIOUS MONUMENT WITH NO EPITAPH
        SUMS UP THE YEARS OF BITTERNESS"

        By: Patrick Cockburn
        The Independent
        United Kingdom, July 2, 2001


        LVIV IS a beautiful city full of evil memories. I have always liked
        cosmopolitan places and, at first sight, the blend of Italian,
        Austrian and Slavic architecture in the heart of the unofficial
        capital of western Ukraine gives a pleasing sense of national diversity.

        That is a deeply misleading impression. Lviv owes its architectural
        riches to its position on one of the main political, ethnic and
        religious fault lines of Europe, where cultures met and clashed over
        hundreds of years. Once a largely Polish and Jewish city, it is now
        wholly Ukrainian. In its placid way, the city is a monument to ethnic
        cleansing and the destructive power of nationalism.

        People in Lviv have understandably cultivated a certain amnesia
        towards the past. Stalin transferred many Poles living in Lviv and
        western Ukraine to the parts of eastern Germany he added to Poland at
        the end the war.

        That is not the only reason the Poles left. Over the past year,
        Poland's National Remembrance Institute has been investigating the
        massacre of 35,000 Polish villagers by west Ukrainian nationalists in
        1943.

        It is a delicate subject. The Ukrainians I questioned said they had
        never heard of it. When I asked Wincenty Debicki, an official at the
        Polish consulate in Lviv, about the killings and the impact of the
        investigation on Ukrainian-Polish relations, he did not reply directly
        but, instead, gave a piece of personal biography.

        "I myself was born in Lviv," he said. "I remember as a small boy
        having to hide from Ukrainian nationalist groups with my father in
        1944 because we were Poles."

        The Ukrainian woman translating his Polish interjected to ask in
        surprise: "But surely you were frightened of the Germans and Soviets
        as well?" After a slight hesitation, Mr Debicki agreed to this more
        politically correct explanation.

        There are other signs that historic rivalries have not ended.
        Traditionally, the Polish gentry were the landowners and the
        Ukrainians the peasantry in west Ukraine. After years of
        Austro-Hungarian rule, the region became part of Poland after the
        First World War. But the cemetery at Lykachiv below a wooded hill on
        the outskirts of Lviv, where Polish and Ukrainian soldiers killed in
        1918-19 are buried, has a curious monument that illustrates the
        longevity of national sensitivities.

        The monument is a piece of rock with nothing written on it. It was
        originally intended to be the tomb of the Unknown Polish Soldier. An
        appropriate epitaph was written. It said the Polish soldier had died
        "in defence of Lviv". The Ukrainians objected strongly. They said this
        implied Lviv should be Polish. The Poles amended the wording to read
        that the soldier had died for an independent Poland. Again, the
        Ukrainians said that, since the Polish soldiers had died on Ukrainian
        soil, they could not accept this. In the end, the tomb was left
        without an epitaph.

        * * * *

        It would take a dispassionate outsider to approach the delicate
        subject of Lwow so well. Thank you, Mr. Cockburn! I personally
        witnessed the "amnesia" he described when I visited Lwow. Maybe I'll
        relay some examples eventually...

        Zenon Kuzik
        New Zealand

        --- In Kresy-Siberia@yahoogroups.com, "Carol Dove" <stashaok@...> wrote:
        >
        > If you are interested sign up and they send you the news.
        >
        > Carol
        >
        >
        >
        > http://www.artukraine.com/historical/lviv.htm
        >
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