Riyad-us-Saliheen - 17-18-19: Obedience to the Command of Allaah and Heresies in Religion
- B i s m i l l a a h i r R a h m a a n i r R a h e e mRiyad-us-SaliheenGardens of the RighteousThe Book of MiscellanyChapters 17-18-19Obedience to the Command of Allaah is an Obligatory DutyProhibition of Heresies in ReligionHeretics Doing Desirable or Undesirable DeedsBy Imaam Yahyaa Ibn Sharaf an-Nawawi
Chapter 17: Obedience to the Command of Allaah is an Obligatory Duty
Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, the Exalted, says:
"But no, by your Rabb, they can have no Faith, until they make you (O Muhammad Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam) judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.'' (4:65)
"The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allaah (His Words, the Qur`aan) and His Messenger Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam, to judge between them, is that they say: `We hear and we obey.' And such are the successful (who will live forever in Jannah).'' (24:51)
168. Aboo Hurayrah radhiallaahu`anhu reported: When it was revealed to Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam: "To Allaah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your own selves or conceal it, Allaah will call you to account for it,'' the Companions of Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam felt it hard and severe and they came to Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam and sat down on their knees and said: "O Messenger of Allaah, we were assigned some duties which were within our power to perform, such as Salaat (prayer), Saum (fasting), Jihaad (striving in the Cause of Allaah), Sadaqah (charity). Then this (the above mentioned) Verse was revealed to you and it is beyond our power to live up to it.'' Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "Do you want to say what the people of two Books (Jews and Christians) said before you: 'We hear and disobey?' You should rather say: 'We hear and we obey, we seek forgiveness, our Rabb and unto You is the return.''' And they said: "We hear and we obey, (we seek) Your forgiveness, our Rabb! And unto You is the return.'' When the people recited it and it smoothly flowed on their tongues, then Allaah revealed immediately afterwards: "The Messenger (Muhammad Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Rabb, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allaah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. (They say), 'We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers' - and they say, 'We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your forgiveness, our Rabb, and to You is the return (of all)". When they did that, Allaah abrogated this (Aayah) and Allaah the Great revealed: "Allaah burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned.'' (The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said): "Yes. 'Our Rabb! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians)". (The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said): "Yes. 'Our Rabb! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear". (The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said): "Yes. 'Pardon us and grant us forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maula (Patron, Supporter and Protector) and give us victory over the disbelieving people". He (the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam) said: "Yes". [Muslim]
Commentary: We learn from this Hadeeth that initially every person was answerable for thoughts and doubts even those which crossed his mind; something on which nobody had any control. The Companions of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam were naturally disturbed on this situation. But when they heard and obeyed the orders of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam then Almighty Allaah revoked this order with the elaboration that He does not put anyone to trouble beyond his capacity. It is, therefore, essential for every Muslim to obey all the Injunctions of Allaah because none of it is such that he is unable to carry out.
Chapter 18: Prohibition of Heresies in Religion
Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, the Exalted, says:
"So after the truth, what else can there be, save error?''. (10:32)
"We have neglected nothing in the Book". (6:38)
"(And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam". (4:59)
"And verily, this is My straight path, so follow it, and follow not (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path". (6:153)
"Say (O Muhammad Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam to mankind): 'If you (really) love Allaah then follow me (i.e., accept Islamic Monotheism, follow the Qur`aan and the Sunnah), Allaah will love you and forgive you your sins". (3:31)
169. `Aishah radhiallaahu`anha reported: The Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "If anyone introduces in our matter something which does not belong to it, will be rejected". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim]
The narration in Muslim says: "If anybody introduces a practice which is not authenticated by me, it is to be rejected".
Commentary: This Hadeeth lays down a very important principle. Unfortunately, Muslims have not attached any importance to this Hadeeth and the principle given in it with the result that innovations in the Deen have become so common that they have been taken for true Deen; our people act upon them and are made to practice them. One reason for this is their lack of education and ignorance about Deen. The second reason is their lack of understanding of the principle prescribed in this Hadeeth although it is stated in very explicit terms.
The principle that we learn from this Hadeeth is that every such action or activity is innovation which is done as a virtue and to gain the Pleasure of Allaah but is not consonant with the teachings of the Qur`aan and Sunnah, or which does not agree with the interpretation of the Nuss (text) given by the Companions of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam or their successors (Tabi`un). The reason being that the period of the Companions and the Tabi`un is the Khair-ul-Qurun (the best of all generations). Thus any action or activity that is deprived of the support of these generations falls in the category of heresies.
170. Jabeer radhiallaahu`anhu reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam delivered a Khutbah, his eyes would become red, his tone loud and he showed anger as if he were warning us against an army. He Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam would say, "The enemy is about to attack you in the morning and the enemy is advancing against you in the evening". He would further say, "I am sent with the final Hour like these two fingers of mine.'' The Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam held up his index finger and the middle finger together to illustrate. He used to add: "To proceed, the best speech is the Book of Allaah and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam, the worst practice is the introduction of new practices in Islam and every Bid`ah is a misguidance". He would also say, "I am, in respect of rights, nearer to every believer than his own self. He who leaves an estate, it belongs to his heirs, and he who leaves a debt, it is my responsibility to pay it off.'' [Muslim]. Same Hadeeth as reported by `Irbad bin Sariyah radhiallaahu`anhu has already been recorded in the previous chapter regarding safeguarding the Sunnah of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam. (See Hadeeth number 158)
1. This Hadeeth mentions the style of the speech of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam. His auspicious presence is regarded in it as a sign of the nearness of the Day of Resurrection.
2. It emphasizes the importance of the Qur`aan and the Sunnah and brings into focus the destruction caused by Bid`ah in Deen.
3. It clearly lays down that the orphans and the needy are the liability of the government/Bait-ul-Mal (public exchequer). The reason being that the caliphs were the successors of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam and the work which was done by him in his lifetime was after him their responsibility.
4. The rightful owners of the deceased are their heirs and none else.
Chapter 19: Heretics Doing Desirable or Undesirable Deeds
Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, the Exalted, says:
"And those who say: `Our Rabb! Bestow on us from our wives and our offspring the comfort of our eyes, and make us leaders of the Muttaqun (the pious)". (25:74)
"And We made them leaders, guiding (mankind) by Our Command". (21:73)
171. Jabeer bin`Abdullah radhiallaahu`anhu reported: We were withthe Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam shortly after dawn when there came to him some people clad in woollen rags, or covered with sleeveless blankets; and with swords hanging down from their necks. Most of them rather, all of them, belonged to the Mudar tribe. The face of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam changed when he saw them starving. Then he went into his house and came out; then he commanded Bilal radhiallaahu`anhu to proclaim Adhaan (call to prayers). So he proclaimed Adhaan and recited Iqamah and the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam led the Salaat. Then he delivered a Khutbah saying, "O mankind! Be dutiful to your Rabb, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women; and fear Allaah through Whom you demand your (natural) rights, and do not sever the relations of kinship. Surely, Allaah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.'' (4:1) He also recited the Aayah which is in the end of Soorat Al-Hashr: "O you who believe! Fear Allaah and keep your duty to Him. And let every one look what he has sent forth for the tomorrow". (59:18). Thereafter, every man gave in charity Dinar, Dirham, clothes, measure-fulls of wheat and measure-fulls of dates till he said: "(Give in charity) be it half a date". Then a man of the Ansar came with a bag which was difficult for him to hold in his hand. Thereafter, the people came successively (with charity) till I saw two heaps of food and clothes. I noticed that the face of the Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam was glowing like that of the bright moon or glittering gold. Then he Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "Whosoever introduces a good practice in Islam, there is for him its reward and the reward of those who act upon it after him without anything being diminished from their rewards. And whosoever introduces an evil practice in Islam, will shoulder its sin and the sins of all those who will act upon it, without diminishing in any way their burden" [Muslim]
1. Some people try to deduce a proof for good innovations from the words: "Mun sana ' fee Al- islam sunah hasanah". Whosoever introduces a good practice in Islam. Thus they classify innovations Bid`ah into two categories, namely good innovations and bad innovations. But this is wrong. No innovation can be good. It is always bad because it amounts to inventing Shar`eeah which no one has the right to do. Constitution of Shar`eeah is the exclusive Right of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala Alone. It is He who constitutes the Shar`eeah and it is on His behest that His Prophets convey it to the people. Not to speak of scholars and others.
2. What this Hadeeth makes abundantly clear is that anyone who tries to find new ways and means to preach and practice Islamic Shar`eeah, which are later on adopted by other people also, would not only get the reward of doing so but he will also be rewarded for the endeavours of those who will after him continue them and perform good deeds. But anything of which we do not find any trace in Shar`eeah is bad. It cannot be good in any case, no matter what means are adopted for this purpose.
3. Other benefits of this Hadeeth are self-evident and do not need further elaboration.
172. Ibn Mas`ood radhiallaahu`anhu reported: The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "The first son of Adam* takes a share of the guilt of every one who murders another wrongfully because he was the initiator of committing murder".
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
* The son of Adam in the Hadeeth is said to be Qabil. Allaah Sbhaanahu wa Ta`aala tells us about his story in Soorat Al-Maaidah (The Table spread with Food). Verses 27-31.
Commentary: This Hadeeth gives us an idea how serious is the crime of initiating an evil which is followed by others. One who initiates an evil would be sinful for all those who follow him in that crime till the Day of Resurrection. The safest course, therefore, is that one should abstain from heresy and stick to obedience only.Next: Chapters 21-22-23Calling to Right Guidance and Forbidding DepravityAssistance Towards Righteousness and PietyGiving Counsel
K a r i m a
N.B.: Previous installments are available at: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/DDN/files/%2ARiyad-us-Saliheen/The%20Book%20of%20Miscellany/'Riyad-us-Saliheen' - a collection of hadeeth with commentary concerning our day-to-day life.The Book of Miscellany:Chapter 1: Sincerity and Significance of Intentions and All Actions, Apparent and HiddenChapter 2: RepentanceChapter 3: Patience and PerseveranceChapters 4-5: Truthfulness and WatchfulnessChapters 6-7: Piety, Firm Belief and Perfect Reliance on AllaahChapters 8-9-10: Uprightness and Steadfastness, Pondering over the Great Creation of Allaah and Hastening to do Good Deeds.Chapter 11: The Struggle (In the Cause of Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala)Chapter 12: Urging Towards Increasing Good Actions in Later Part of LifeChapter 13: Numerous Ways of Doing GoodChapters 14-15: Moderation in Worship and the Righteous Conduct on Regular BaseChapter 16: Observing the Sunnah and the Manners of its Obedience