Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, the Exalted, says:
"And they were commanded
not, but that they should worship Allaah, and worship none but Him Alone
(abstaining from ascribing partners to Him), and perform As-Salaat
(Iqamat-as-Salaat) and give Zakaat, and that is the right religion.''
"It is neither their
meat nor their blood that reaches Allaah, but it is piety from you that
reaches Him.'' (22:37)
"Say (O Muhammad):
Whether you hide what is in your breasts or reveal it, Allaah knows
1. Narrated 'Umar bin
Al-Khattab (radhiallahu`anhu) reported: The Messenger of Allaah Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "The deeds are considered by the
intentions, and a person will get the reward according to his intention.
So whoever emigrated for Allaah and His Messenger, his emigration
will be for Allaah and His Messenger; and whoever emigrated for worldly
benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration would be for what he
emigrated for". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: According to some Ahadeeth,
the reason for this Hadeeth is that a person sent a proposal of
marriage to a woman named Umm Qais, which she turned down saying that he
should have to emigrate to Al-Madeenah for it. Accordingly, he did it for
this specific purpose, and the two were married there. On account of this
event, the man came to be known among the Companions as Muhajir Umm Qais.
basis of this Hadeeth, 'Ulama' are of the unanimous opinion that the real
basis of one's actions is Niyyah (intention) and everyone will be requited
according to his Niyyah. It is true that Niyyah is founded in one's heart,
that is to say, one has first to make up one's mind for what he intends to
do and he should not express it verbally. In fact, the latter is a Bid`ah
(innovation in religion) because no proof of it is found in Sharee`ah.
point which becomes evident from this Hadeeth is that Ikhlaas (sincerity)
is a must for every action. In other words, in every righteous deed, one
should seek only the Pleasure of Allaah; otherwise, it will not be
accepted by Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala.
2. Narrated 'A`ishah
(radhiallahu`anha) reported: The Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi
wa sallam said, "An army will raid the Ka`bah and when it reaches a desert
land, all of them will be swallowed up by the earth.'' She asked; "O
Messenger of Allaah! Why all of them?'' He answered, "All of them will be
swallowed by the earth but they will be raised for Judgement according to
their intentions.'' [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Everyone will be rewarded
or punished according to his aim and intention. This Hadeeth also proves
that the company of depraved persons is extremely dangerous. Whose army
would it be, which has been referred to in the Hadeeth, and when will it
invade Ka`bah, is a matter known to Allaah Alone. Such prophecies are a
part of the Unseen world. Since they come in the category of the miracles
of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam, it is necessary to believe
in their veracity and occurrence. Believing in such prophesies is also
essential because they were revealed by Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala).
A`ishah (radhiallahu`anha) narrated that the Prophet Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said, "There is no emigration after the conquest
(of Makkah) but only Jihaad [(striving and fighting in the cause of
Allaah) will continue] and good intention.* So if you are summoned to fight, go forth.''
* Intention according to
An-Nawawi: It means that goodness which ceased to continue by the
cessation of emigration can still be obtained by Jihaad and by intending
accomplishing good deeds.
Commentary: When a country or a region
is regarded as Dar-ul-Islam (
Islam ), it is not necessary to
migrate from it to some other place. It is, however, obligatory to
emigrate from such regions which are Dar-ul-Kufr (land of infidels) and
where it is difficult to adhere to Islamic injunctions. It is also evident
from this Hadeeth that when it is not necessary to migrate from one
Islamic country to another then it is also not permitted by the Sharee`ah
to leave an Islamic country to settle permanently in Dar-ul-Kufr only for
the reason that the latter has plenty of wealth and social welfare.
Unfortunately, Muslims today are afflicted with this disease. The transfer
of their capital and talent to Dar-ul-Kufr is indeed very disturbing
because on one side these two factors are lending support to the economy
of Bilad-ul-Kufr (countries of infidels) and on the other, obscenity
and indecency that are common in such countries, are becoming increasingly
common among the Muslims too.
highly important reason for the prohibition of migration of Muslims to
Dar-ul-Kufr is that it goes against the spirit as well as their readiness
for Jihaad fee sabeelillaah (striving and fighting in the way of Allaah
Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala). This spirit and readiness must be kept always
alive so that the Muslims may respond at once to the call of Jihaad
whenever the need for it arises anywhere.
bin Abdullah Al-Ansari (radhiallahu`anhu) reported: We accompanied
the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam in an expedition when he said,
"There are some men in Al-Madeenah who are with you wherever you march and
whichever valley you cross. They have not joined you in person because of
their illness.'' In another version he said: "They share the reward with
narrated by Bukhari from Anas bin Malik (radhiallahu`anhu): We were coming
back from the battle of TAbook with the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa
sallam when he remarked, "There are people whom we left behind in
Al-Madeenah who accompanied us in spirit in every pass and valley we
crossed. They remained behind for a valid excuse.''
Commentary: What we learn from this
Hadeeth is that if the intention and spirit of Jihaad are present in the
heart of a Muslim but physically he is unable to take part in it for valid
reasons, he will get the reward of Jihaad without even his actual
participation in it.
5. Ma`n bin Yazid bin
Akhnas (radhiallahu`anhu) (he, his father and his grandfather, all were
Companions) reported: My father set aside some dinars for charity and gave
them to a man in the masjid. I went to that man and took back those
dinars. He said: "I had not intended you to be given.'' So we went to
Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam, and put forth the
matter before him. He said to my father, "Yazid, you have been rewarded
for what you intended.'' And he said to me, "Ma`n, you are entitled to
what you have taken.''
1. This Hadeeth leads us
to the conclusion that if Sadaqah (charity), goes to a needy son of a
Muslim, there is no need to take it back from him for the reason that the
father had intended to give it to a deserving person. The former gets the
reward for it on account of his Niyyah (intention). This however, will be
reckoned as Nafli Sadaqah (voluntary charity) because the obligatory
Zakaat (Sadaqah) cannot be given to the donor's own dependents.
2. It is
permissible in Sharee`ah to make someone a Wakil (attorney or agent) for
does not amount to disobedience on the part of a son to take his father to
a competent authority or scholar to know the legal position on any issue,
in the same way, as mutual discussion and debate on matters of Sharee`ah
does not amount to insolence. (Fath Al-Bari, chapter on Zakaat).
6. Aboo Ishaq Sa`d bin Aboo
Waqqas (radhiallahu`anhu) (one of the ten who had been given the glad
tidings of entry into Jannah) narrated: Messenger of Allaah Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam visited me in my illness which became severe in
the year of Hajjat-ul-Wada` (Farewell Pilgrimage). I said, "O Messenger of
Allaah, you can see the pain which I am suffering and I am a man of means
and there is none to inherit from me except one daughter. Should I give
two-thirds of my property in charity?'' He Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam
said, "No". I asked him, "Then half?'' He said, "No". Then I asked, "Can I
give away one-third". He said, "Give away one-third, and that is still too
much. It is better to leave your heirs well-off than to leave them poor,
begging people. You will not expend a thing in charity for the sake of
Allaah, but you will be rewarded for it; even the morsel of food which you
feed your wife''. I said, "O Messenger of Allaah, would I survive my
companions?'' He said, "If you survive others and accomplish a thing for
the sake of Allaah, you would gain higher ranking and standing. You will
survive them ... your survival will be beneficial to people (the Muslim)
and harmful to others (the enemies of Islam). You will survive others till
the people will derive benefit from you, and others would be harmed by
you.'' Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam further said, "O
Allaah, complete for my Companions their emigration and do not cause them
to retract.'' Sa`d bin Khaulah was unfortunate. Messenger of Allaah Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam lamented his death as he died in Makkah.
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: In spite of all their love
for it, the Companions of the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam did
not like to die in a city from which they emigrated for the sake of Allaah
Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala. For this reason Sa`d (radhiallahu`anhu) was afraid
of dying in Makkah. The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam prayed for
the accomplishment of Sa`d's emigration and expressed regret over the
misfortune of Sa`d bin Khaulah. The latter died in Makkah.
1. The Hadeeth lays down
that in the course of a disease which seems to prove fatal, one cannot
give more than one-third of the property in charity.
2. It is
also emphasized that one gets reward even for what he spends on his wife
can report to others his ailment or to seek treatment and ask them to
supplicate from him.
the matter of Sadaqah (charity), which one gives to seek the Pleasure of
Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala, his closest relatives. should always have
priority and preference over others.
7. Aboo Hurayrah
(radhiallahu`anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi
wa sallam said, "Allaah does not look at your figures, nor at your attire
but He looks at your hearts and accomplishments". [Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadeeth highlights the
importance of sincerity and good intention. It is, therefore, essential
that every noble action should be based on these two virtues; and heart
should be free from all such things that destroy noble deeds.
Hypocrisy, ostentation, greed for wealth, riches and other wordly things
fall in the category of such evils. Since the true condition of heart is
known to Allaah alone, the true position of one's actions will be known on
the Day of Resurrection when one will be requited for them by
Allaah. In this world, one will be treated according to his apparent
condition while his insight will be left to Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala.
8. Aboo Musa Al-Ash`ari
(radhiallahu`anhu) reported that Messenger of Allaah Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam was asked about who fights in the
battlefield out of valour, or out of zeal, or out of
hypocrisy, which of this is considered as fighting in the cause of
Allaah? He said: "He who fights in order that the Word of Allaah remains
the supreme, is considered as fighting in the cause of
[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: Since one's action will be
evaluated in terms of intention, so he alone would be a Mujahid (warrior
in the cause of Deen) who fights to glorify the Name of Allaah Subhaanahu
9. Aboo Bakrah Ath-Thaqafi
(radhiallahu`anhu) reported: The Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam
said: "When two Muslims are engaged in a combat against each other with
their sword's and one is killed, both are doomed to Hell". I said, "O
Messenger of Allaah! As to the one who kills, it is understandable, but
why the slain one?" He Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam replied: "He was
eager to kill his opponent". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadeeth leads to the
conclusion that one would be punished for such sinful intention for which
he has made a firm determination, and for the commitment of which he has
adopted necessary measures, even if he does not succeed in committing it
because of certain obstruction. Thus determination is different from a
suggestion of the devil. The latter is excusable while one is accountable
for his determination. However, what is mentioned in the Hadeeth will
happen when Muslims fight among themselves for worldly honour and
prejudices, and no religious issue would be the cause of their conflict,
because in the latter case, it is possible that both might be depending on
their own Ijtihad (exercise of opinion) for which they may be excused.
10. Aboo Hurayrah
(radhiallahu`anhu) reported that: The Messenger of Allaah Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam said: "The reward for Salaat performed by a
person in congregation is more than 20 times greater than that of the
Salaat performed in one's house or shop. When one performs Wudu' perfectly
and then proceeds to the masjid with the sole intention of performing
Salaat, then for every step he takes towards the masjid, he is upgraded
one degree in reward and one of his sins is eliminated until he enters the
masjid, and when he enters the masjid, he is considered as performing
Salaat as long as it is the Salaat which prevents him (from leaving the
masjid); and the angels keep on supplicating Allaah for him as long as he
remains in his place of prayer. They say: 'O Allaah! have mercy on him; O
Allaah! forgive his sins; O Allaah! accept his repentance'. This will
carry on as long as he does not pass wind". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: This Hadeeth shows that
although it is permissible to perform Salaat individually in market places
and houses, but its collective performance in the Masjid is 25, 26, or 27
times more meritorious, as mentioned in other Ahadeeth.
11. `Abdullah bin `Abbas
(radhiallahu`anhu) reported: Messenger of Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi
wa sallam said that Allaah, the Glorious, said: "Verily, Allaah Subhaanahu
wa Ta`aala has ordered that the good and the bad deeds be written down.
Then He explained it clearly how (to write): He who intends to do a good
deed but he does not do it, then Allaah records it for him as a full good
deed, but if he carries out his intention, then Allaah the Exalted,
writes it down for him as from ten to seven hundred folds, and even more.
But if he intends to do an evil act and has not done it, then Allaah
writes it down with Him as a full good deed, but if he intends it and has
done it, Allaah writes it down as one bad deed". [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
Commentary: What the Prophet Sall
Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam relates to Allaah is called Hadeeth Qudsi (Sacred
Tradition). Such Hadeeth is revealed to the Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa
sallam by means of Ilham (inspiration). This Hadeeth mentions the
magnitude of Divine blessings which He bestows upon His faithful slaves on
the Day of Resurrection.
12. `Abdullah bin`Umar bin
Al-Khattab (radhiallahu`anhu) narrated that: He heard the Messenger of
Allaah Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam as saying: "Three men, amongst those
who came before you, set out until night came and they reached a cave, so
they entered it. A rock fell down from the mountain and blocked the
entrance of the cave. They said: `Nothing will save you from this unless
you supplicate to Allaah by virtue of a righteous deed you have done.'
Thereupon, one of them said: `O Allaah! I had parents who were old, and I
used to offer them milk before any of my children or slaves. One day, I
went far away in search of grazing and could not come back until they had
slept. When I milked as usual and brought the drink I found them both
asleep. I hated to disturb them and also disliked to give milk to my
children before them. My children were crying out of hunger at my feet but
I awaited with the bowl in my hand for them to wake up. When they awoke at
dawn, they drank milk. O Allaah! If I did so to seek Your Pleasure,
then deliver us from the distress caused by the rock'. The rock moved
slightly but they were unable to escape. The next said: `O Allaah! I had a
cousin whom I loved more than any one else (in another version he said: as
a man can love a woman). I wanted to have sexual intercourse with her but
she refused. Hard pressed in a year of famine, she approached me. I gave
her one hundred and twenty dinars on condition that she would yield
herself to me. She agreed and when we got together (for sexual
intercourse), she said: Fear Allaah and do not break the seal unlawfully.
I moved away from her in spite of the fact that I loved her most
passionately; and I let her keep the money I had given her. O Allaah! If I
did that to seek Your Pleasure, then, remove the distress in which we
are.' The rock moved aside a bit further but they were still unable to get
out. The third one said: `O Allaah! I hired some labourers and paid them
their wages except one of them departed without taking his due. I invested
his money in business and the business prospered greatly. After a long
time, he came to me and said: O slave of Allaah! Pay me my dues. I said:
All that you see is yours - camels, cattle, goats and slaves. He said: O
slave of Allaah! Do not mock at me. I assured him that I was not joking.
So he took all the things and went away. He spared nothing. O Allaah! If
I did so seeking Your Pleasure, then relieve us of our distress.'
The rock slipped aside and they got out walking freely". [Al-Bukhari and
1. It is permissible to pray
through our virtuous deeds. But to make someone a medium for it, is an
innovation in Deen which should be avoided for two major reasons. Firstly,
there is no evidence in Sharee`ah to support this. Secondly, it is against
the practice of Khair-ul-Qurun, the best of generations. (This term is
used for the first three generations of Muslims, the one in which the
Prophet Sall Allaahu`alayhi wa sallam lived and the two following).
Preference should be given to the service of parents, even over the
service of one's own wife and children.
abstain from sins out of fear of Allaah is a highly meritorious act.
Labourers should always be treated fairly. If someone has paid to a
labourer less than his due, it should be paid to him in a decent manner.
supplication which is made sincerely, and with real sense of humbleness is
granted by Allaah.
Allaah Subhaanahu wa Ta`aala sometimes helps His pious men even in an
unusual manner, which is termed as Karamat (wonder or marvel). Thus, like
the miracles of the Prophets, wonders of the righteous people are also
true. But miracles and wonders both appear with the Will of