Re: [JatHistory] B S Dhillon's book Chapter 1
- Ravi would you know what customs this is referring to: "Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have
customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---".
This quote was in the text circulated from Dhillion's book.
Although I noticed that this chapter makes no referrence to the biological evidence of blood typing and that the Jats are predominately of B blood type, and though this blood type exists in Europe, it is in the minority, while it is the dominate blood type among the Jats. Further evidence that Jat groups migrated outward from the Subcontinent, and thus left a trace among other populations in Asia and Europe, while majority of the people with blood type B still continue to live on the Sub-continent.
Ravi Chaudhary <ravichaudhary2000@...> wrote:Posted without comment
History and Study of the Jats - B S Dhillon, Beta Publishers, Canada
Chapter 1 - PART I
Are the Jats Scythians?
The word "Jat" in Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [l] is defined
as "a member of an Indo- European people of the Punjab and Uttar
Pradesh (India)" and according to Hewitt  the word "Gut"
Furthermore, the Persian-English Dictionary [3,4] defines "Gut/Guta"
as "Great or Grand". According to Professor Leake , the old Gothic
word Jaet means a giant ("by which no more is meant than a stout man,
great warrior or hero"). In the Punjabi language, the word "Gut or
Gutan" also means long hair". This could very well be derived from
the fact that they or their forefathers (i.e., Scythians, nomadic
Indo-European people who settled in Scythia (south-east Europe and
central Asia) ) used to keep their hair long. The long hair and
beards of the scythians can easily be verified by examining objects
found by various archaeologists  over the years. In the case of
modern Jats, Professor Pettigrew  says by citing the legend of
Mirza and Sahiban (Jat's Romeo and Juliet)  "uncut hair was a Jat
custom----" and Professor McLeod  also says by citing Refs. [8, 10-
12] "Uncut hair was a Jat custom----".
In 1925, according to Professor Qanungo  the population of Jats
was around nine millions in South Asia and were the followers of
three great religions: Islam (one-third), Sikhism (one-fifth), and
Hinduism (the rest). Since there is no reliable current figure for
the Jat population available for South Asia an estimate can be made.
By taking into consideration the population growth of both India and
Pakistan since 1925, Professor Qanungo's figure of nine million could
be translated into at least 30 million people. Today's Jats are
mainly found in several Indian/Pakistani provinces: Punjab, Haryana,
Sind, Rajasthan, and Kashmir [14,15]. Among the followers of the
Sikhism they form a two-third majority in this faith as per 1881
Census returns . Millions of the South Asian Jats call many
Western countries their home. The most visible of them are the Jat-
Sikhs which can easily be distinguished from their clan or family
Gill, Mann, Bains, Malhi or Malli, Dhaliwal, Dhillon, Sahota, Sidhu,
Sandhu, Lalli, Virk, etc.
Over the past century, western and Indian researchers and authors
have debated the Jats place of origin. In fact, the researchers and
authors almost unanimously stated that they belong to the Scythian
people who originated in Central Asia. In order for readers to pass
their own judgement on this issue, the comments and findings of
various authorities are given below.
Ammianus Marcellinus (a fourth century A.D. Roman writer)
said, "the Halani (Alani) mount to the eastward, divided into
populous and extensive nations; these reach as far as Asia, and, as I
have heard, stretch all the way to the river Ganges, which flows
through the territories of India---".
Furthermore, he writes "---the Halani (Alani), once were known as the
Massagetae". The classical and modern authorities say that the
word "Massagetae" means "great" getae (Jats?). The ninth-century work
De Universo of Rabanus Maurus [5,18] states, "The Massagetae are in
origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called massagetae, as
if heavy, that is, strong Getae".
Also, Sir H.M. Elliot  writes the word "Massa" means "great" in
the Pehlevi language of Persia or Central Asia. Sir John Marshall
 (formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India writes "The
eclipse of Greek rule at Taxila (presently in Pakistan) was brought
about by an invasion of nomad tribes from the interior of Asia. Known
to the western world under the comprehensive name of Scythians, to
the Indians as Saka, and to the Chinese as Sai or Sai-wang, these
invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae,
Sacaraucae, and Dahae, whose home at the beginning of the second
century BC was in the country between the Caspian Sea and the
Professor Thompson  supports Ammianus Marcellians's statements
regarding Halani (Alani). He wrote, "Two new nations made their
sinister appearance in Roman history in the years which the
additional books were to cover, the Huns and the Alans (Alani). Since
they were new to the Romans there was little literature on them to be
read up, excerpted, ---. So, like Eunapius (another classical
writer), who felt the same difficulty, he (Ammianus) simply set down
what his own inquiries could discover, thus produced one of the most
interesting and valuable of all his disquisitions. He wrote it with
some literary care---".
Ptolemy's  Geography of 90 to 168 A.D., also supports Ammianus's
statement regarding Alani being stretched all the way to the river
Ganges. Ptolemy wrote, " After this is a bend of the Imaus (Himalaya)
mountains toward the north. Those who inhabit Scythia toward the
north along the Terra Incognita are called Alani-Scythae----".
Tod, J. (Lt. Col.)  wrote in 1829; "a translation of the
Nehrwalla conqueror's inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt
that these Jit (Jat) princes of Salpoori in the Punjab, were the
leaders of that very colony of the Yuti (Jats) from Jaxartes (river
in Central Asia), who in the fifth
century AD, as recorded by De Guignes (a French writer), crossed the
Indus (river) and possessed themselves of the Punjab; and strange to
say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs of Nanuk (Nanak) are
almost all of Jit (Jat) origin----the present Jit (Jat) prince of
Lahore (Ranjit Singh, the famous Sikh ruler), whose successor, if he
be endued with similar energy, may, on the reflux of population, find
himself seated in their original haunts of Central Asia. ----- their
(Jats) habits confirmed the tradition of their Scythic origin. They
(Jats) considered themselves, in short, as a distinct class, and, as
a Pooniah Jit (Jat) informed me, their "Wuttan" (homeland) was far
beyond the Five Rivers (Punjab)".
Cunningham, J.D. (Captain and author the of a well known book
entitled "History of the Sikhs")  wrote in 1849, "Brahmans and
Kshattriya (two upper Hindu castes) had developed a proculiar
civilization, have been overrun by Persian or Scythic tribes, from
the age of Darius (a Persian emperor) and Alexander (a great Greek
conqueror) to that of Babar and Nadir Shah (two invaders of India).
Particular traces of the successive conquerors may yet perhaps be
found, but the main features are: (i) the introduction of the
Muhammadan creed; and (ii) the long antecedent emigration of hordes
of Jats from the plains of Upper Asia. It is sufficient to observe
that the vigorous Hindu civilization of the first ages of
Christianity soon absorbed its barbarous invaders, and that in the
lapse of centuries the Jats became essentially Brahmanical (following
Hinduism) in language and belief".
Bingley, A.H. (Captain)  said, "It is from these Scythian
Immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly
descended". He proceeded to say, "shortly after their arrival in
India, the majority of these Scythian immigrants became converts to
Buddhism, in course of time, however, their religion was assimilated
to that of their Aryan neighbors, and by the 10th century they had
not only accepted the spiritual supremacy of the Brahmans (Hindu
priests), but also, in a modified degree, the restrictions and
distinctions of caste". Interestingly, he also wrote, " The ancestors
of the four agnicular or fire tribes of Rajputs (sons of kings) are
generally considered to have been Scythian warriors who assisted
Brahmans in their final struggles with the Buddhists, and were
admitted into the ranks of the "twice born" as a reward for their
services to Hinduism. Some sort of story being necessary to account
for their origin and rank, the ready-witted Brahmans bestowed upon
them the title of "fireborn" to distinguish them from the original
Rajputs races which claimed descent from the Sun and Moon".
This belief is further strengthened since several Rajput and Jat clan
names are the same;
Chohan, Bhatti, Bagri, and Dahiya are the examples of this. According
to Ref.  "Dahiyas in Jodhpur area (Rajasthan, India) call
themselves Rajputs, and Dahiya is also the clan name of Gujars
(another Scythian Tribe)". More information on this issue may be
found in Refs. [26, 27].
Barstow, A.E. (Major of the 2/11th Sikh Regiment-Late 15th Ludhiana
Sikhs)  wrote, "Greeks of Bactria (partly modern Afghanistan),
expelled by the hordes of Scythians, entered India in the second and
first centuries BC and are said to have penetrated as far as Orissa
(an Indian province in south-east). Meanwhile the Medii, Xanthii,
Jatii, Getae and other Scythian races, were gradually working their
way from the banks of the Oxus (in Central Asia) into Southern
Afghanistan and the pastoral highland about Quetta (a Pakistani
city), whence they forced their way by the Bolan Pass, through the
Sulaiman Mountains into India, settling in the Punjab about the
beginning of the first century AD. It is from these Scythian
immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly
Sir A. Cunningham (Major General and former Director-General of the
Archeological Survey of India)  said, "But there are other
foreign races in the north-west of India, the date of whose
occupation is quite unknown. The best known and the most numerous of
these foreign races are the Gakars, the Jats, the Gujars, and the
Ahirs". In fact the later authorities agree that all these four
belong to the Scythian people.
Smith, V.A. (Professor and author of the Oxford History of India)
 wrote, "Other Huns who invaded Europe are known to have been
fierce tribesmen of the Mongolian kind; but the assailants of India
are distinguished as Ephthalites or White Huns, a name which may
imply that they were fair people like the Turks. Many of the Rajput
(sons of kings) castes or clans, as well as the Jats, Gujars, and
certain other existing communities, are descended either from the
Hunas or from allied hordes which arrived about the same time". Other
historians have established that the White Huns belong to the
Scythian race .
Elphinstone, M. (Hon.)  wrote, "My conclusion, therefore, is,
that the Jats may be of Scythian descent----".
De Guignes : He says as quoted by Elphinstone  on page
227 "That De Guignes, mentions, on Chinese authorities, the conquest
of the country of the Indus (river) by body of Yuchi or Getae (Jats),
and that there are still Jits (Jats) on both sides of that river".
Elphinstone support the above statement by saying "The account of De
Guignes has every appearance of truth".
Hewitt, J.F.  wrote, "The Getae of the Balkans are said by
Herodotus (a fifth century BC writer) to be the bravest and most just
of the Thracians ----. These Thracian Getae must, as a Northern race
of individual proprietors, have held their lands on the tenure
existing in the Jat villages, and these Indian Jats, or Getae, have
not degenerated from the military prowess of their forefathers, for
those Jats, who have become Sikhs in the Punjab, are known as some of
the best and most reliable Indian soldiers".
He goes on to state "Further evidence both of the early history and
origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and
geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the
Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae".
MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General)  said, "---Alexander came to
India in his capacity as the holder of the Persian throne. From his
camp near Kabul (Afghanistan), the Macedonian (Alexander) summoned
those chiefs whom Skylax (Persian general) had conquered in the old
time afore, to come and renew their homage to their ancient Persian
overlord in the person of himself. Several obeyed his summons, others
did not, and it has been surmised that those who did were later
arrivals, of Jat or Scythian origin, outside the normal Aryan fold as
later comers to India---".
Pettigrew, J. (Professor)  said, "Another view holds that the Jats
came from Asia Minor and Armenia in the successive invasions during
the period 600 B.C. to A.D. 600".
Elliot, H.M. (Sir)  wrote, "----these ignorant tribes (Jats)
pointing to the remote Ghazni (Afghanistan) as their original seat,
the very spot we know to have been occupied by the Yuechi, or, as
Klaproth says, more correctly, Yuti, in the first centuries of our
era, after the Sakas (a Scythian tribe) were repelled back from the
frontiers of India, and left the country between India and Persia
open for their occupation. The Jat tribes not doubt emigrated, no at
all once, but at different times, and it is probable that those in
the North-West are among the latest importations".
Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor) 
said, "With the Rajput problem is closely connected that of the Jat
and Gujar, the latter tribe being believed to be of Huna descent; the
Gurjara probably entered India about the same time as the White Huns
and settled in Rajputana (presently Indian Province called
Rajasthan), and the Jat is included in the same ethnic group".
Rose, H.A.  wrote, "Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have
customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---". Rose
goes on to state "Suffice it to say that both Sir Alexander
Cunningham  and Colonel Tod  agreed in considering the Jats
to be of Indo-Scythian Stock. The former identified them with the
Zanthi of Strabo (Greek Geographer of the ancient times) and the
Jatii of Pliny (Roman writer) and Ptolemy (Another Greek Geographer
of the ancient times); and held that they probably entered the Punjab
from their home on the Oxus (in Central Asia) very shortly after the
Meds or Mands (still exist as one of the Jat clans of the Punjab),
who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the Punjab about a
century before Christ".
Caroe, O  wrote, "With the Ephthalites (White Huns) moreover, as
all agree, came in the Gujars, and when the Ephthalite power fell the
Gujar people remained. And it has been asserted that the Jats of the
Punjab, the main stream from whom the rural Sikhs are drawn, and even
many of the proud Rajput clans, are descended from these invading
McGovern, W.M. (Professor)  said, "many scholars believe that the
proud Rajput clans of Rajputana (presently Indian Province called
Rajasthan) and the stalwart Jats of the Punjab are likewise
descended, in part at least, from these ancient invaders (White
Huns), even though the Gujaras (Gujars), the Rajputs and the Jats
have long since adopted an Indian language and been absorbed in the
vast bulk of Hinduism". Furthermore, he adds "Today, all traces of
the Scythians and their language have disappeared from Europe; but,
in Asia, the descendants of the Scythians still occupy a prominent
Willliams, H.S. (Professor)  wrote, "The extent of the Scythian
invasion has been variously estimated. Some scholars believe that
they virtually supplanted the previous population of India (means
Punjab), and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous
section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin".
Beny, R. : He said, "A few Rajasthan states such as Bharatpur and
Dholpur were ruled by Jats whom some authorities believe to be, like
the Rajputs, offspring of Central Asian invaders (Scythians)".
Leeds, R.J. : He wrote, "I have not heard any mention of the
story to which
Elliot  alludes of their (Jats) having come originally from
Ghazni (presently in Afghanistan), but their customs certainly point
to an origin different from that of other Hindus".
Bingley, A.H. (Captain) : He said "It is moreover almost certain
that the joint Jat-Rajput race -------, ------- is in the main Aryo-
Legge, J. (Professor, Oxford University) : He translated Fa-
Hien's memoirs of his travels through India in 519 A.D. Fa-Hien was
from China. In his memoirs he wrote, "Formerly, a King of Yueh-she
(Chinese name for a Scythian tribe) raised a large force and invaded
this country, wishing to carry the bowl (Buddha's alms-bowl) away".
Professor Legge added a footnote to this statement that said "Dr.
Eitel suggests that a relic of the old name of the country may still
exist in that of the Jats or Juts of the present day". This means
Juts belong to the Scythian race.
Masson-Oursel, P. (Professor), De Willman-Grabow-Ska, H. (Professor),
and Stern, P. :
They said, "Moreover, the expulsion (out of India) of the White Huns
was not equally complete everywhere. A great many remained in the
basin of the Indus river. What is more, the damage done by the
invasion outlasted the invasion itself". This strengthened the
observations of other authorities that the Jats are the descendants
of White Huns.
Seymour, J. (British Author and BBC commentator): According to
Mahil  Seymour wrote, "The Jats are not only Hindu caste of
course, they are a race. They are descended from a wave of invaders
that came from Central Asia perhaps a thousand years ago". It appears
Seymour was referring to Scythians.
Twigg, C. : He said, "we know from the "Zafarnama" (memoirs) of
Sharfuddin (a writer) that Timur, when he invaded India, believed
that Jats of the Punjab to be of the same race as the Tartars whom he
met in Central Asia".
Sir Cunningham, A. (Major-General and Former Director-General of the
Archeological Survey of India)  wrote, "the Xanthii (a Scythian
tribe) are very probably the Zaths (Jats) of the early Arab writers.
As the Zaths were in Sindh (presently a Pakistani province) to the
west of the Indus (river), this location agrees very well with what
we know of the settlement of the Sakas (Scythians) on the Indian
Latham, R.G. (Cambridge University Professor and Fellow of the Royal
Society (U.K.)) : He said, "The Bhattis (a Rajput and Jat clan)
of Jessulmir (a district in the Indian province of Rajasthan) amongst
whom is a belief that their ancestors came from Zabulistan (presently
Latif, S.M. : He wrote, "A considerable portion of the routed
army of the Scythians settled in the Punjab, and a race of them,
called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus
(river). They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden
houses, after the old Scythian fashion, and settling where they found
sufficient pasturage. A portion of these settlers, the descendants of
Massagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jats".
Hunter, J. : As per Latif's  quotation "According to Dr.
Hunter, a branch of these Scythian hordes, having overrun Asia about
B.C.625, Occupied Patala on the Indus (river), the modern Hyderabad
in Sindh (presently in Pakistan). They were all, in subsequent times,
called Jats, and now form a most numerous, as well as the most
important section of the agricultural population of the Punjab".
Woodcock, G. (a well-known author of over 15 books) : He wrote, "-
----physical characteristics among Pathans (presently in the north-
west frontier province of Pakistan) and Punjabi, that one can detect
a Greek strain among the complexly hybrid races that inhabit west
Pakistan and north-west India.
He goes on to state "What happened to the remnants of the Yavanas
(Hindu name for Greeks), Saka and Parthians (both belong to the
Scythian race) defeated by Gautamiputra (a Hindu king) has not been
recorded, but their obvious line of retreat would have been into the
mountains and deserts of Rajasthan, the region out of which, four
centuries afterwards, the mysterious Rajputs (other authorities have
already stated they belong to the Scythian race same as that of the
Jats) appeared with their claims to replace the ancient Kshatriya
caste (a Hindu warrior caste) which had become almost extinct. It is
generally recognized that the Rajputs are not of the same stock as
the original Aryan invaders of India---a hybrid people who became
converted to Hinduism----
Kephart, C. (a Ph.D. scientist and author): He wrote, "In India
the descendants of the Scytho-Indian dynasties and their branches
probably became the ancestors of many of the historic Rajput clans
(cousins of Jats as accepted by many authorities) of northern India,
who form the land-owning, fighting, and ruling caste".
Daniell, C.J.: He said, "----Jats, etc., who describe their
ancestors as being immigrants from the west".
Singh, K.L. : He said, "This caste (Jats) is nowhere mentioned in
the ancient Hindu books. According to their tradition, the original
Jat tribe, called Ponea, sprung from the locks (jata) of Mahadeo (a
Hindu god), or one of his chief attendants at Mount Kylas. It must be
observed that Mount Kylas is not very far from the Hindu Kush (Indian
Caucuses), which, according to the Greek historians of Antiquity, was
the abode of the Getes, of whom, the Jats are conjectured to be a
colony. From Kylas the Jats are said to have descended into the
plains of the Punjab, ----".
Prakash, Buddha (an eminent Indian Historian of ancient history)
: He wrote, "In the wake of their invasion many outlandish tribes
such as the Jartas, the Joati of Ptolemy (a Greek Geography writer of
antiquity) and the Jats of modern times, the Abhiras (modern Ahirs)
perhaps the Apiru or Ibhri who played a part in the history the
Middle East and are repeatedly mentioned in the Cuneiform Nuziaan,
Hittite, and Amarna documents, the Balhikas or Bactrians, who gave
the name Balhika or Vahikas (means foreigners) to the people of the
whole Punjab and whose modern descendants are probably the Bhallas,
Bahls, and Behls----".
Singh, Fauja (Professor and a famous Punjabi Historian) : He
wrote, "In the Hindu society, another progressive group, if we may
use the word in this connection, was that of the Jatts (Jats). Most
of them had come from outside, and, as such, the old of Hindu rituals
on those people has not yet become too strong (also see Bingly,
). They were so anxious for social reform that when the Sikh
movement (fifteenth century religion believing in one god and
equality among the mankind) started gaining ground, they welcomed it
with open arms". There is no doubt at least 70% of the Sikhs belong
to the Jat background.
Gill, P.S. (former Principal of a University College) : He
wrote, "There is a general concensus of opinion that Jats, and with
them Rajputs and Gujjars were foreigners who came from their original
home, near the Oxus, Central Asia".
Sara, I. (a Canadian Barrister and Solicitor) : He wrote, "Recent
excavations in the Ukraine and Crimea. The finds points to the
visible links of the Jat and Scythians".
Dhillon, D.S. (Professor) : He said, "Descendants of certain
tribes that had originally came from foreign lands and settled in the
country, Jat Sikhs known for their tribal freedom and fighting traits
were naturally an assertive and virile people who only needed a
component and gifted leader to rouse them to action ".
Mahil, U.S. : He said, "Jat were called Scythians; because they
were the inhabitants of the ancient country of Scythia. The Jats who
invaded the Punjab and conquered India up to Benares (Hindu holy city
in the heart of India) were called Indo-Scythians".
Dahiya, B.S. (A Senior Civil Servant of the Indian Union) : He
wrote, "The Chinese were right in stating that the Hiung-nu were a
part of the Yue-Che (reads a Guti) people, and these Guti people had
two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and the Siao-Yue-Che, exactly
corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus (a
classical Greek writer of fifth century B.C.), meaning the "Great-
Jats" and the "Little-Jats", respectively. Almost every tribe of
ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia, is represented
among the present day Jats in India".
He also quoted from A.K. Narain's Presidential address of Indian
History Congress, Bhagalpur (India) session,
"In my opinion, the history of the Indian Union, if it has to be
written in the right perspective, should include, not only what
happened in Pakistan, but also what happened in Afghanistan and
Pradhan, M.C. (a Canadian Professor) : He wrote, "The Jats and
the Rajputs were originally groups who came under the influence of
Hinduism and became castes. Nevertheless they retained their tribal
structures in varying degrees, as also traditions of the time when
they had possessed independent organizations of their own. Jats and
Rajputs do have many traits in common, for example, some of the Jat
clans have Rajput names".
Thapar, R. (a well known historian of Indian history) : She
wrote, "Together with the (White) Huns came a number of Central Asian
tribes and peoples, some of whom remained in northern India ----.
Some of the tribes who lived in Rajasthan fled from their homeland
when they displaced by the new tribes who became the ancestors of
some of the Rajput families, and again were to dominate the history---
According to classical Greek and other historians, there was no
Central Asian Scythian tribe as such (i.e., Rajput) but tribes named
Massagetae (great Jats), Sakas, etc. Obviously, the Rajputs must have
belonged to the Great Jat tribe and that is why some of the Jat and
the Rajput clan names are identical [3, 14].
New encyclopedia Britannica : It states "The presence of
foreigners, most of whom settled in Indian cities and took on Indian
habits and behaviour in addition to religion, became a problem for
social theorists because the newcomers had to fitted into caste
society. The Greeks and the Sakas (Scythians or Jats), clearly of non-
Indian origin, who were initially the ruling group were referred to
as "fallen Ksatriyas (Hindu warrior caste)".
Marshall, J. (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College (Cambridge
University), and formerly Director-General of Archaeology of India)
: He wrote, "---these invaders (Scythians) came principally from
the three great tribes of Massagetae (great Jats), Sacaraucae, and
Dahae (It is interesting to note, presently, in India Dahiya is a
well known Jat and Rajput clan name ), whose home at the beginning
of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian
(sea) and the Jaxartes river (Central Asia)".
Tarn, W.W. (A well known author, Cambridge University) : Dr. Tarn
wrote, "----a separate horde by being absorbed into another horde,
just as the Massagetae (that is, those of them who had remained in
their original country) were absorbed soon afterwards; most of them
had gone on into India----".
Banerjea, J.N. (a well known Indian Historian of ancient history)
: Dr. Banerjea said "The Scythian and Parthian (also belongs to
the Scythian race) invaders of India find occasional mention in many
of the old Indian texts----.
The Sakas (Scythians) of Sogdiana (in southern Central Asia),
however, were compelled to move south and south-eastwards under
pressure from other nomadic hordes of Central Asia and Western
China. ----Yue-chi (reads as Yuti (Jats), when defeated by the Hiung-
nu (Huns), moved westwards from their original homeland in the region
between the Great Wall built by the Chinese Emperors as a protective
measure against the Huns -----.
These Saka (Scythian) military chiefs had adopted high-sounding
Indian names; they have become Hindunised ----- inscriptions of the
period discovered in various parts of Northern India prove that these
new recruits to the Hindu fold became ardent followers of different
Indian religious creeds".
Briggs, J. (Lt. Col.) : He wrote in 1829 A.D., "We have no
satisfactory account of these Juts (Jats); but there seems reason to
believe them to be a horde of Tartars (probably means Scythians) of
the same stock as the Getae, so often mentioned in ancient history ---
Waddell, L.A. (Professor, London University, author of over twelve
books on historical subjects, Fellow of the Royal Anthropological
Institute, and Honorary Correspondent of Indian Archaeological
Survey) : Dr. Waddell wrote, "Most of the leading kings of the
early Sumerian (Middle East) dynasties, including "Sargon-the-Great"
and Menes the first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly
call themselves in their official documents and seals Gut (pronounced
Goot) or Got.
And one of the more progressive Early Summerian Dynasties in
Mesopotamia called themselves Guti or Goti; "Goti" was the regular
title of the Goths in Europe-the aspirated form "Goth having been
coined merely by the Romans and never used by these people
Owen, F. (a Canadian Professor) : He wrote, "In the shape of
face, stature and general physical build the Sikhs approximate the
Nordic type". Over seventy percent of the Sikhs belong to the Jat
Coon, C.S., Hunt, E.E. : They wrote, "Most of them (the Indo-
European speaking-Peoples of South Asia) are descended in part or
wholly from invaders from Western Asia, the plains west of the
Caspian sea, or, more remotely, even from Europe and a minority are
indistinguishable from Western Asians or even Europeans. ---- The
second invasion (of India) was that of the Sanskrit-speaking
(probably means Indo-European language speaking) peoples, who were
related to the Scythians and Sarmatians (also related to Scythian
people). The tallest people are found in Rajasthan and the Punjab and
beards are fullest among the warrior castes and the Sikhs. Most of
these people have glossy black hair, although brown hair is not
uncommon. Reddish and blond hair are extremely rare. Almost all of
them have brown eyes of various shades, but one see light and mixed
eyes in rare individuals, particularly among the Sikhs".
Rose, H.A. : He wrote, "we find to this day in the Punjab a
physical type predominating which in many respect resembles that of
certain European races, and is radically different from the typical
characteristics of the other Indian stocks----".
Singh, N. : In a recent book on Canadian Sikhs he said, "The
Scythians appear to originate from Central Asia ---. They reached
Punjab between 50 B.C. and A.D. 50. It seems probable that the
Scythian ancestors of the Sikh-Jat entered the Sindh Valley
(presently in Pakistan) between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100".
Singh, G. : Dr. Singh wrote, "----the Jats of the Panjab, are
Scythians in origin and came from Central Asia, whose one branch
migrated as far south in Europe as Bulgaria".
Sulimirski, T. (Professor, Central and East European Archaeology at
the University of London) : He wrote, "The evidence of both the
ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive
migration of Sacian (Sakas)/Massagetan ("great" Jat) tribes from the
Syr Daria Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century
B.C. Some of the Syr Darian tribes; they also invaded North India".
There is very little published and reliable literature which presents
worthwhile arguments to contradict the assertions of the above
historians and authorities. The three most important contradictory
arguments are presented below for balance.
Qanungo, K.R. (Assistant Professor of History, Lucknow University,
India) : In 1925 he wrote, "The European pioneers of Indian
antiquities and ethnology apparently started with the presumption
that fine and energetic martial peoples like the Rajput and the Jat
must have been comparatively newcomer from the north-west into India
who overcame the effete descendants of the Vedic Aryans (Hindus)----.
Sir Herbert Risley  declared the Rajput and the Jat to be the
true representatives of the Vedic Aryans. Since then Risely's theory
and classification have been attacked by many scholars on different
grounds. The Scythians who were very probably men with broad faces
and high check-bones, sturdy and short in stature, are little likely
to have been the ancestors of a tall-statured and long-headed people
like the Jats". Qanungo appeared to rely on Sir Risley's theory which
in later editions of his book, a note on page 59 stated, "The account
in the text of the Scythians and Huns needs to be corrected".
Classical Greek and Roman writers as well as recent discoveries give
totally opposite information to Qanungo's beliefs on Scythians.
Other statements made in Qanungo's work are rather weak and without
any historical evidence. For example, he said, "If popular tradition
counts for anything, it points to the view that they (Jats) are an
essentially Indo-Aryan (Hindus?) people who have migrated from the
east to the west and not Indo-Scythian----and No Hindu has been ever
known to claim a Chinese origin, but the people of China----".
Singh, Khushwant (A well respected Indian Journalist) : He
wrote, "It is now generally accepted that the Jats who made the
northern plains of India their home were of Aryan stock (He probably
means Hindus otherwise Scythian were also Indo-European people). The
origin of the Jats has been exhaustively dealt with by K.R. Quanungo
, who states emphatically that the Jats are of Aryan stock
(Hindus) who came from Rajasthan into Punjab (The flimsiness of the
Quanungo's theory was already discussed)". In Vol. 2 of his book 
Singh said, "This upward mobility of Sikh-Jats considered as sudras,
the lowest of the four castes of Hindus-----". Here, it is not my
attention to dwell into the sensitive issue of race but to explain
Singh's comment, I have no other choice-I firmly believe in the
equality of the mankind. The word "caste" is derived from Spanish
and Portuguese [31, 59, 74] word "casta" meaning lineage, race,
breed, etc. Thaper , a well respected Indian Historian,
wrote, "The Sanskrit (ancient language of the Indo-Aryans or Hindus)
word for caste, "Varna", actually means colour.
The colour element of caste was emphasized----eventually to become
deep-rooted in north-Indian Aryan culture". More information on this
subject is provided by Professor Owen . Thus, four colours of
people represent four castes (i.e. darker the colour lower the caste,
see Ref. Captain Bingly  for more information on this issue). If
Mr. Singh's theory is correct then Jats should be of the darkest
colour. However, Professors Coon and Hunt  do not agree, "Most of
the these people (warrior castes and Sikhs) have glossy black hair,
although brown hair is not uncommon. ---have brown eyes of various
shades, but one can see light and mixed eyes in rare individuals,
particularly among the Sikhs".
Over 70% of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background. Furthermore,
Mahil  said, "A Jat can be easily distinguished from the Aryan
race of the Punjab by his Physiognomy and other characteristics or
even by the accent or tone of his speech". Major Barstow 
wrote, "The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique
and surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and
soldiery bearing". He then quoted District Gazetteer of Amritsar
(Sikh holy city), "In physique they (Jat Sikhs) are inferior to no
race of peasantry in the province, and among them are men, who, in
any country in the world, would be deemed fine specimens of the human
Dahiya  on page 23 of his book explained it very well why the Jats
being called sudra by saying "The foreign origin of these people is
further clear from their description by the Indian writers. Almost
all these people are called Asura, Sudra, Mlecchas, etc.".
Majmalu-T Tawarikh (written in the twelfth century A.D.) 
said, "The Jats and Meds or Mands (Mands also a present day Jat clan)
are reputed to be descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, and they
occupied the banks of the Indus in the province of Sind (presently in
Pakistan)". Unfortunately, I have come across no convincing evidence
to this claim to date.
Other Logical Supporting Factors
There are many other supporting factors that point to the origin of
the Jats in Central Asia.
Some of those are as follows:
As per Sir Marshall  Scythians ruled India (B.C. 90-525 A.D.) for
over 500 years. Now the common sense question arise that these rulers
must have had an army substantially made up of Scythian people and
other supporting Scythian groups. When their ruling period came to an
end, there was no mass migration. Therefore, it can be assumed that
those people, must have settled in Punjab and in surrounding areas.
The homeland of the Jats is Punjab and the surrounding areas. On the
other hand, Aryan Hindus can be traced all over India. Now, the
question that arises, is if the Jats had belonged to the Hindu
origin, would they have had also settled all over India and not just
in the north-west section of the South Asia?
The clan names of the Jats are unique in India. However, some of
their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujars who are also
said to be of the Scythian origin or at least partially. It is
interesting to note that if all of the Rajputs would have belonged to
the original Kashatriya group of the Indo-Aryans, as is generally
claimed by the Punjabi Khatris, then at least some of their (Rajputs)
clan names should have been identical to that of the Khatris.
This is not the case. In fact intermarriage took place between these
There is wide physical and other characteristic variations between
Jats and other, non-Scythian origin people as observed by Mahil .
Other ancient people such as the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians,
Chinese, and Romans, still exist today. Therefore, it is difficult to
believe that the powerful Scythian people who once extended from
Europe to the northern tip of India  totally vanished from the
face of the earth. For example, despite Massagetae's dominion being
over fifteen hundered miles away from Greece it still caught the
Greek writers' attention. Therefore, the dominion must have been a
very powerful group of those times.
The Roman historians tell us that the Alani (a branch of Massagetae)
went as far as France and Spain and it looks quite improbable that
they would have spared their nearest next door southern neighbor,
India. (the closeness of India to the Massagetae is clearly confirmed
by the Strabo  a first century A.D. Greek Geographer: "They
(Persians) did not invade India, but only approached its frontiers
when Cyrus (Persian Emperor) marched against the Massagetae".
Historical evidence shows that a major proportion  of Massagetae
went to India and managed to have kept their distinct identity
(modern Jats) probably because of the influence of the rigid Hindu
caste system. The caste system prohibits intermarriages among the
people of different castes, and that is probably why the Jats still
intermarry among themselves and keep their identity in South Asia to
date. This subject is discussed in detail by Falcon , Mason ,
and Barstow .
All of the above material should be sufficient for the reader to pass
his or her own judgement whether the Jats belong to the Central Asian
origin (Scythian) or not. I being of a scientific discipline find it
hard not to believe that the Jats are descended from the Scythian
people after reviewing the above overwhelming evidence.
By XXX on Wednesday, September 25, 2002 - 06:46 pm:
Published Literature on Jats
Over past 150 years, several books and other related materials
partially or wholly concerning Jats have appeared. This section
presents some of it for the benefit of readers and future
researchers. Most of the books totally devoted to Jats are as
Bingley, A.H., History, Caste, and Culture of Jats and Gujars,
Reprinted by Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, India, 1978, first
published in 1899. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling
Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980. Qanungo, K.R., History
of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita Publications, Delhi, India, 1987,
first published in 1925.
Pradhan, M.C., The Political System of the Jats of Northern India,
Oxford University Press, London, 1966.
Mahil, U.S., Antiquity of Jat Race, Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi, India,
1955. Pettigrew, J., Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political
System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975.
Shastri, Y.P., Jat Kshatriya Itihas (History of the Jats and the
Kshatriyas), Hardwar, India, 1943.
Desh Raj, Jat Ithihas (History of the Jats), Kanti Press, India,
Selective articles totally devoted to the Jats are as follows:
Rose, H.A., Jats, in a Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the
Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Reprinted by the Languages
Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970, first published in 1883, pp. 1-59
(Vol. I), pp. 357-378 (Vol. II).
Elliot, H.M., Encylopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions
of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit
Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 131-
Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part I), The Sikh
Review, March 1978, pp. 26-35.
Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part II), The Sikh
Review, April 1978, pp. 15-27. Habib, I., Jatts (Jats) of Punjab and
Sind, in Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, Punjabi University
Press, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 92-103.
Singh, J., Sikh Militancy and Jats, in Advanced Studies in Sikhism,
edited by J.S. Mann and H.S. Saraon, Published by Sikh community of
North America, P.O. Box 16635, Irvine, California, 1989, pp. 214-233.
Helweg, A.W., Punjabi Farmers: Twenty Years in England, India
International Center Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1978.
Pettigrew, J.J.M., The Emigration of Sikh-Jats from the Punjab to
England, in Social Science Research Council Report, Project HR 331-1,
edited by A.C. Mayer, London, 1971. In Fear of Jats, The Economist,
Feb. 1991, pp. 37.
Some of the books which cover a substantial amount of material on the
Jats are as follows:
Barstow, A.E., The Sikhs: An Enthonology, Reprinted by B.R.
Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published at the
Request of the Government of India in 1928. Bingley, A.H., Handbooks
for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the
Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing
Office, Simla, India, 1899. Falcon, R.W., Handbook on Sikhs for the
Use of Regimental Officers, Printed at the Pioneer Press, Allahabad,
Cunningham, J.D., History of the Sikhs, Reprinted by S. Chand &
Company Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849.
Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-
Western Asia, and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London,
1894, pp. 481-487. Risley, H., The People of India, Reprinted by
Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi, India, 1969, first
published in 1915, pp. 132-133 (Jat proverbs).
Tod, J., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2 Vols., Routledge &
Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829.
MacMunn, G., The Martial Races of India, Reprinted by Mittal
Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932.
Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia
Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1990, pp. 510.
Sleeman, W.H., Rambles and Recollections, Reprinted by Oxford
University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1973, first published in 1844,
pp. 300-310, 355-383, 475-479. Burton, R.F., Sindh and the Races
that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus, Reprinted by Oxford University
Press, Karachi, 1975, first published in 1851, pp. 246-365, 411.
Lane-Poole, S., Medieval India: Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-
1764), Reprinted by Haskell House Publishers Ltd., New York, 1970,
first published in 1903, pp. 9-10, 27-28, 41-43, 406.
As the overwhelming historical and other factors support that the
Jats are ethicnically related to the Scythian people (Scythians,
Sarmatians, and Alans or Alani), thus the selected literature on
these people is given below.
Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1961.
Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970.
Bachrach,B.S., A History of the Alans in the West, University of
Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1973.
Konow, S., Notes on Indo-Scythians Chronology, Journal of Indian
History, Vol. XII, 1916, pp. 8. Scythians, The New Encyclopaedia
Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1984, pp. 438-
Smirnow, A.P., Die Skythen, Dresden, 1979.
Grakow, B.N., Die Skythen, Berlin, 1978.
Minns, E.H., Scythians and Greeks, 2 Vols., Biblo and Tannen, New
York, 1965. The Getae and the Dacians, and Sarmatae (Sarmatians) and
Parthians (related to Scythians), in The Cambridge Ancient History,
edited by S.A. Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, Vol. II,
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1954.
Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols.,
Scythians and Cimmerians, (Vol.
2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
Banerji, R.D., The Scythian Period of Indian History, Indian
Antiquary, Vol. XXXVIII, 1909-1910, pp. 25-74.
Cunningham, A., Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans,
Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first
published in 1888. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians),
Time Life Books, New York, 1974. Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's
Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo-Scythian Towns,
Orientalis Lavaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 63-123. Cunningham,
A., Later Indo-Scythians (Coins), No. 11, Reprinted by Indological
Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first published in 1893-94.
Bachrach, B.S., The Alans in Gaul, Tradito, XXIII, 1967, pp. 476-
489. Thompson, E.A., The Settlement of the Barbarians in Southern
Gaul, Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XLVI, 1956, pp. 65-75.
Vernadsky, G., Eurasian Nomads and Their Impact on Medieval Europe,
Studi Medievali, 3rd Ser., Vol. 4, 1963, pp. 401-434.
Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of California
Press, Berkeley, 1989. Rostovtzeff, M., Iranians (Scythians) and
Greeks in South Russia, Russell and Russell, A Division of Atheneum
Publishers, Inc., New York, 1922, Reprinted in 1969. Leake, J.A.,
The Geats of Beowulf, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols.,
Scythians and Cimmerians (Vol.
2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
Banerjea, J.N., The Scythians and Parthians (also related to
Scythians) in India, in a Comprehensive History of India, edited by
K.A.N. Sastri, Vol. 2, People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India,
1987, pp. 186-309, 830-838.
Bachhofer, L., On Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of
the American Oriental Society, Vol. LXI, 1941, pp. 223-250.
Jenkins, G.K., Indo-Scythic Mints, Journal of the Numismatic Society
of India, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1955, pp. 1-26.
Marshall, J., Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of the
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1947, pp. 3f.
Smith, V.A., The Kushana or Indo-Scythian Period of Indian History
(165 B.C.-A.D. 320, Journal of the Royal Asiatic society of Great
Britain and Ireland, 1903, pp. 1-64.
Some of the classical writers or documents covering material on
Scythians/ India are as follows:
Herodotus (B.C. 490-425): The Histories, translated by de Selincourt,
Penguin Books, New York, 1988.
Periplus (Written around A.D. 60), The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea
translated by W.H. Schoff, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1912.
Pliny, (A.D. 23-79): Natural History, translated by H. Rackham,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1947.
Arrian (A.D. 95-175): Anabasis of Alexander, translated by Professor
P.A. Brunt of Oxford University, Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, 1976. Diodorus of Sicily (Published around B.C. 49),
translated by C.H. Oldfather, 12 Vols., Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936.
Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Caludius Ptolemy, translated and
edited by E.L.
Stevenson, The New York Public Library, New York, 1932.
Strabo (born in B.C. 64), The Geography of Strabo, translated by H.L.
Jones, Harvard University Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954.
Jordanes (A.D. 551), The Gothic History of Jordanes, translated by
Dr.C.C. Mierow of Princeton University, Barnes and Noble, Inc.,New
York, 1915, reprinted in 1966. Isidore of Seville (born in A.D.
560), History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, translated by G.
Donini, G.B. Ford, E.J.Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Bede (8th century A.D.?), Ecclesiastical History, translated by
J.A.Giles, Bohn's Library, London, 1871.
Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by J.C.
Rolfe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956.
Some of the journals specifically devoted to the subject of the
Scythians are listed below :
Skify i sarmaty (Scythians and Sarmatians), Kiev, Ukraine, 1977.
Skify i Kavkaz (Scythians and the Caucasus), Kiev, Ukraine, 1980.
Skifskie drevnosti (Scythian antiquities), Kiev, Ukraine, 1973.
Skifskij mir (Scythian world), Kiev, Ukraine, 1975.
l. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadian Edition, Lexicon
Publications, Inc., New York, 1988.
2. Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India,
South-Western Asia and
Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-
3. Dahiya, B.S. (Indian Revenue Service - IRS), Jats: The
Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 23.
4. Grass, S., Persian-English Dictionary, London, 1930.
5. Leake, J.A. (Professor), The Geats of Beowulf, The University
of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
Milwaukee, 1967, pp. 172, 68.
6. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians), Time Life
Books, New York, 1974.
7. Pettigrew, J. (Professor), Robber Noblemen: A Study of the
Political System of the Sikh Jats,
Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975, pp. 25, 238.
8. Temple, R.C., Legends of the Punjab, Vol. 3, Reprinted by the
Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1982, first published in 1886,
pp. 23, line 273.
9. McLeod, W.H., The Evolution of the Sikh Community, Oxford
University Press, London, 1976, pp. 52, 93.
10. Monserrate, S.J., The Commentary of Father Monserrate,
translated by J.S. Hoyland, edited by S.N. Banerjee, London, 1922,
11. Waris Shah, The Adventures of Hir and Ranjha (Jat Romeo and
Juliet), translated by C.F.
Usborne, edited by Mumtaz Hasan, Karachi, Pakistan, 1966, pp. 30.
12. Masson, C., Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan,
Vol. 1, London, 1842, pp. 434.
13. Qanungo, K.R., History of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita
Publications, Delhi, India, 1987, first published in 1925, pp. 1, 3-
14. Pradhan, M.C. (Professor), The Political System of the Jats
of Northern India, Oxford
University Press, London, 1966, pp.1, 238-239.
15. Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia
Britannica, Inc., Chicago,
1990, pp. 510.
16. Barstow, A.E., (Major 2/11th Sikh Regiment-late 15th Ludhiana
Sikhs), The Sikhs: An
Ethnology, Reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India,
1985, first published in 1928, pp. 105-135, 63, 155, 152, 145.
17. Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by
J.C. Rolfe, Vols 2 & 3,
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956, pp. 231-
18. Rabanus Maurus, De Universo, edited by Migne, P.L., Vol. CXI,
Paris, 1864, XVI, ii, Col.
19. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites
and Superstitions of the Races of
Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi,
India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 134.
20. Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge
University, and formerly
Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila,
Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
21. Thompson, E.A. (Professor), The Historical Work of Ammianus
Boekhuis N.V. Publishers, Groningen, 1969, pp. 119.
22. Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Claudius Ptolemy,
translated by Dr. E.L. Stevenson,
Published by The New York Public Library, New York, 1932, pp. 144-
23. Tod, J., (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan,
Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.,
London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829, pp. 623.
24. Cunningham, J.D. (Captain), A History of the Sikhs, Reprinted
by S. Chand & Company
Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849, pp. 4.
25. Bingley, A.H. (Captain, 7th duke of Connaught's Own Bengal
Infantry), Handbooks for the
Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the Government of
India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla,
India, 1899, pp. 8-9, 3.
26. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers
Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 71.
27. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab
and North-West Frontier
Province, Reprinted by the Languages Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970,
first published in 1883, pp.
362-363, (Vol. II), 58 (Vol. I).
28. Cunningham, A. (Sir and Major General), Later Indo-Scythians,
Numismatic Chronicle 1893-
94, Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first
published in 1893-94, pp.
29. Smith, V.A. (Professor), The Oxford History of India, Oxford
University Press, London, 1967, pp. 38.
30. Cunningham, A., (Sir and Major General), Coins of the Indo-
Scythians, Sakas, and
Kushans, Reprinted by Indo-logical Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971,
first published in 1888, pp. 27, 16.
31. Elphinstone, M. (Hon.), The History of India, Reprinted by
Kitab Mahal Private Ltd.,
Allahabad, India, 1966, first published in 1874, pp. 226-229, 16-17,
32. De Guignes, Academi des Inscriptions, Vol. XXV, pp. 32. For
more information on this
reference see Elphinstone Ref. .
33. MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General), The Martial Races of
India, Reprinted by Mittal
Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932, pp. 21-22.
34. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites
and Superstitions of the Races of
Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985,
first published in 1870, pp.
35. Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor),
The Races of Man and Their
Distribution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924, pp. 113.
36. Caroe, O., The Pathans (500 B.C.-A.D. 1957), Macmillan & Co.
Ltd., London, 1958, pp. 85.
37. McGovern, W.M., (Professor), The Early Empires of Central
Asia, The University of North
Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1939, pp. 419, 21.
38. Williams, H.S. (Professor), The Historians' History of the
World, 21 Vols., The Outlook
Company, New York, 1905, Vol. 2, pp. 481.
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- --- In JatHistory@yahoogroups.com, Nadia Deol <nadiadeol@y...> wrote:
>Jat tribes of the Punjab have
> Ravi would you know what customs this is referring to: "Many of the
> customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---".********
Dr Dhillon has collected a lot of data and many references.
He slants towards the Scyhtian/central asian origin for the Jats,
and his persp[ective is more to that and their spread into Europe nd
This is Sunny and friends contribution to the net. and I thank them
I would like to see more of these books online !
It provides a base and a perspective.
Also makes for for good argumentaive discussion