Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.
 

Re: [JatHistory] B S Dhillon's book Chapter 1

Expand Messages
  • Nadia Deol
    Ravi would you know what customs this is referring to: Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin
    Message 1 of 3 , Apr 29, 2003
      Ravi would you know what customs this is referring to: "Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have
      customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---".

      This quote was in the text circulated from Dhillion's book.

      Although I noticed that this chapter makes no referrence to the biological evidence of blood typing and that the Jats are predominately of B blood type, and though this blood type exists in Europe, it is in the minority, while it is the dominate blood type among the Jats. Further evidence that Jat groups migrated outward from the Subcontinent, and thus left a trace among other populations in Asia and Europe, while majority of the people with blood type B still continue to live on the Sub-continent.

      Nadia

      Ravi Chaudhary <ravichaudhary2000@...> wrote:Posted without comment

      Ravi


      History and Study of the Jats - B S Dhillon, Beta Publishers, Canada
      Chapter 1 - PART I


      Are the Jats Scythians?

      The word "Jat" in Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary [l] is defined
      as "a member of an Indo- European people of the Punjab and Uttar
      Pradesh (India)" and according to Hewitt [2] the word "Gut"
      means "bull".

      Furthermore, the Persian-English Dictionary [3,4] defines "Gut/Guta"
      as "Great or Grand". According to Professor Leake [5], the old Gothic
      word Jaet means a giant ("by which no more is meant than a stout man,
      great warrior or hero"). In the Punjabi language, the word "Gut or
      Gutan" also means long hair". This could very well be derived from
      the fact that they or their forefathers (i.e., Scythians, nomadic
      Indo-European people who settled in Scythia (south-east Europe and
      central Asia) [1]) used to keep their hair long. The long hair and
      beards of the scythians can easily be verified by examining objects
      found by various archaeologists [6] over the years. In the case of
      modern Jats, Professor Pettigrew [7] says by citing the legend of
      Mirza and Sahiban (Jat's Romeo and Juliet) [8] "uncut hair was a Jat
      custom----" and Professor McLeod [9] also says by citing Refs. [8, 10-
      12] "Uncut hair was a Jat custom----".

      In 1925, according to Professor Qanungo [13] the population of Jats
      was around nine millions in South Asia and were the followers of
      three great religions: Islam (one-third), Sikhism (one-fifth), and
      Hinduism (the rest). Since there is no reliable current figure for
      the Jat population available for South Asia an estimate can be made.
      By taking into consideration the population growth of both India and
      Pakistan since 1925, Professor Qanungo's figure of nine million could
      be translated into at least 30 million people. Today's Jats are
      mainly found in several Indian/Pakistani provinces: Punjab, Haryana,
      Sind, Rajasthan, and Kashmir [14,15]. Among the followers of the
      Sikhism they form a two-third majority in this faith as per 1881
      Census returns [9]. Millions of the South Asian Jats call many
      Western countries their home. The most visible of them are the Jat-
      Sikhs which can easily be distinguished from their clan or family
      names [16]:
      Gill, Mann, Bains, Malhi or Malli, Dhaliwal, Dhillon, Sahota, Sidhu,
      Sandhu, Lalli, Virk, etc.

      Over the past century, western and Indian researchers and authors
      have debated the Jats place of origin. In fact, the researchers and
      authors almost unanimously stated that they belong to the Scythian
      people who originated in Central Asia. In order for readers to pass
      their own judgement on this issue, the comments and findings of
      various authorities are given below.
      Ammianus Marcellinus (a fourth century A.D. Roman writer)[17]
      said, "the Halani (Alani) mount to the eastward, divided into
      populous and extensive nations; these reach as far as Asia, and, as I
      have heard, stretch all the way to the river Ganges, which flows
      through the territories of India---".

      Furthermore, he writes "---the Halani (Alani), once were known as the
      Massagetae". The classical and modern authorities say that the
      word "Massagetae" means "great" getae (Jats?). The ninth-century work
      De Universo of Rabanus Maurus [5,18] states, "The Massagetae are in
      origin from the tribe of the Scythians, and are called massagetae, as
      if heavy, that is, strong Getae".

      Also, Sir H.M. Elliot [19] writes the word "Massa" means "great" in
      the Pehlevi language of Persia or Central Asia. Sir John Marshall
      [20] (formerly Director-General of Archaeology in India writes "The
      eclipse of Greek rule at Taxila (presently in Pakistan) was brought
      about by an invasion of nomad tribes from the interior of Asia. Known
      to the western world under the comprehensive name of Scythians, to
      the Indians as Saka, and to the Chinese as Sai or Sai-wang, these
      invaders came principally from the three great tribes of Massagetae,
      Sacaraucae, and Dahae, whose home at the beginning of the second
      century BC was in the country between the Caspian Sea and the
      Jaxartes river".

      Professor Thompson [21] supports Ammianus Marcellians's statements
      regarding Halani (Alani). He wrote, "Two new nations made their
      sinister appearance in Roman history in the years which the
      additional books were to cover, the Huns and the Alans (Alani). Since
      they were new to the Romans there was little literature on them to be
      read up, excerpted, ---. So, like Eunapius (another classical
      writer), who felt the same difficulty, he (Ammianus) simply set down
      what his own inquiries could discover, thus produced one of the most
      interesting and valuable of all his disquisitions. He wrote it with
      some literary care---".

      Ptolemy's [22] Geography of 90 to 168 A.D., also supports Ammianus's
      statement regarding Alani being stretched all the way to the river
      Ganges. Ptolemy wrote, " After this is a bend of the Imaus (Himalaya)
      mountains toward the north. Those who inhabit Scythia toward the
      north along the Terra Incognita are called Alani-Scythae----".

      Tod, J. (Lt. Col.) [23] wrote in 1829; "a translation of the
      Nehrwalla conqueror's inscription, which will prove beyond a doubt
      that these Jit (Jat) princes of Salpoori in the Punjab, were the
      leaders of that very colony of the Yuti (Jats) from Jaxartes (river
      in Central Asia), who in the fifth
      century AD, as recorded by De Guignes (a French writer), crossed the
      Indus (river) and possessed themselves of the Punjab; and strange to
      say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs of Nanuk (Nanak) are
      almost all of Jit (Jat) origin----the present Jit (Jat) prince of
      Lahore (Ranjit Singh, the famous Sikh ruler), whose successor, if he
      be endued with similar energy, may, on the reflux of population, find
      himself seated in their original haunts of Central Asia. ----- their
      (Jats) habits confirmed the tradition of their Scythic origin. They
      (Jats) considered themselves, in short, as a distinct class, and, as
      a Pooniah Jit (Jat) informed me, their "Wuttan" (homeland) was far
      beyond the Five Rivers (Punjab)".


      Cunningham, J.D. (Captain and author the of a well known book
      entitled "History of the Sikhs") [24] wrote in 1849, "Brahmans and
      Kshattriya (two upper Hindu castes) had developed a proculiar
      civilization, have been overrun by Persian or Scythic tribes, from
      the age of Darius (a Persian emperor) and Alexander (a great Greek
      conqueror) to that of Babar and Nadir Shah (two invaders of India).
      Particular traces of the successive conquerors may yet perhaps be
      found, but the main features are: (i) the introduction of the
      Muhammadan creed; and (ii) the long antecedent emigration of hordes
      of Jats from the plains of Upper Asia. It is sufficient to observe
      that the vigorous Hindu civilization of the first ages of
      Christianity soon absorbed its barbarous invaders, and that in the
      lapse of centuries the Jats became essentially Brahmanical (following
      Hinduism) in language and belief".


      Bingley, A.H. (Captain) [25] said, "It is from these Scythian
      Immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly
      descended". He proceeded to say, "shortly after their arrival in
      India, the majority of these Scythian immigrants became converts to
      Buddhism, in course of time, however, their religion was assimilated
      to that of their Aryan neighbors, and by the 10th century they had
      not only accepted the spiritual supremacy of the Brahmans (Hindu
      priests), but also, in a modified degree, the restrictions and
      distinctions of caste". Interestingly, he also wrote, " The ancestors
      of the four agnicular or fire tribes of Rajputs (sons of kings) are
      generally considered to have been Scythian warriors who assisted
      Brahmans in their final struggles with the Buddhists, and were
      admitted into the ranks of the "twice born" as a reward for their
      services to Hinduism. Some sort of story being necessary to account
      for their origin and rank, the ready-witted Brahmans bestowed upon
      them the title of "fireborn" to distinguish them from the original
      Rajputs races which claimed descent from the Sun and Moon".

      This belief is further strengthened since several Rajput and Jat clan
      names are the same;

      Chohan, Bhatti, Bagri, and Dahiya are the examples of this. According
      to Ref. [26] "Dahiyas in Jodhpur area (Rajasthan, India) call
      themselves Rajputs, and Dahiya is also the clan name of Gujars
      (another Scythian Tribe)". More information on this issue may be
      found in Refs. [26, 27].
      Barstow, A.E. (Major of the 2/11th Sikh Regiment-Late 15th Ludhiana
      Sikhs) [16] wrote, "Greeks of Bactria (partly modern Afghanistan),
      expelled by the hordes of Scythians, entered India in the second and
      first centuries BC and are said to have penetrated as far as Orissa
      (an Indian province in south-east). Meanwhile the Medii, Xanthii,
      Jatii, Getae and other Scythian races, were gradually working their
      way from the banks of the Oxus (in Central Asia) into Southern
      Afghanistan and the pastoral highland about Quetta (a Pakistani
      city), whence they forced their way by the Bolan Pass, through the
      Sulaiman Mountains into India, settling in the Punjab about the
      beginning of the first century AD. It is from these Scythian
      immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly
      descended".

      Sir A. Cunningham (Major General and former Director-General of the
      Archeological Survey of India) [28] said, "But there are other
      foreign races in the north-west of India, the date of whose
      occupation is quite unknown. The best known and the most numerous of
      these foreign races are the Gakars, the Jats, the Gujars, and the
      Ahirs". In fact the later authorities agree that all these four
      belong to the Scythian people.


      Smith, V.A. (Professor and author of the Oxford History of India)
      [29] wrote, "Other Huns who invaded Europe are known to have been
      fierce tribesmen of the Mongolian kind; but the assailants of India
      are distinguished as Ephthalites or White Huns, a name which may
      imply that they were fair people like the Turks. Many of the Rajput
      (sons of kings) castes or clans, as well as the Jats, Gujars, and
      certain other existing communities, are descended either from the
      Hunas or from allied hordes which arrived about the same time". Other
      historians have established that the White Huns belong to the
      Scythian race [30].
      Elphinstone, M. (Hon.) [31] wrote, "My conclusion, therefore, is,
      that the Jats may be of Scythian descent----".


      De Guignes [32]: He says as quoted by Elphinstone [30] on page
      227 "That De Guignes, mentions, on Chinese authorities, the conquest
      of the country of the Indus (river) by body of Yuchi or Getae (Jats),
      and that there are still Jits (Jats) on both sides of that river".
      Elphinstone support the above statement by saying "The account of De
      Guignes has every appearance of truth".
      Hewitt, J.F. [2] wrote, "The Getae of the Balkans are said by
      Herodotus (a fifth century BC writer) to be the bravest and most just
      of the Thracians ----. These Thracian Getae must, as a Northern race
      of individual proprietors, have held their lands on the tenure
      existing in the Jat villages, and these Indian Jats, or Getae, have
      not degenerated from the military prowess of their forefathers, for
      those Jats, who have become Sikhs in the Punjab, are known as some of
      the best and most reliable Indian soldiers".

      He goes on to state "Further evidence both of the early history and
      origin of the race of Jats, or Getae, is given by the customs and
      geographical position of another tribe of the same stock, called the
      Massagetae, or great (massa) Getae".
      MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General) [33] said, "---Alexander came to
      India in his capacity as the holder of the Persian throne. From his
      camp near Kabul (Afghanistan), the Macedonian (Alexander) summoned
      those chiefs whom Skylax (Persian general) had conquered in the old
      time afore, to come and renew their homage to their ancient Persian
      overlord in the person of himself. Several obeyed his summons, others
      did not, and it has been surmised that those who did were later
      arrivals, of Jat or Scythian origin, outside the normal Aryan fold as
      later comers to India---".


      Pettigrew, J. (Professor) [7] said, "Another view holds that the Jats
      came from Asia Minor and Armenia in the successive invasions during
      the period 600 B.C. to A.D. 600".

      Elliot, H.M. (Sir) [34] wrote, "----these ignorant tribes (Jats)
      pointing to the remote Ghazni (Afghanistan) as their original seat,
      the very spot we know to have been occupied by the Yuechi, or, as
      Klaproth says, more correctly, Yuti, in the first centuries of our
      era, after the Sakas (a Scythian tribe) were repelled back from the
      frontiers of India, and left the country between India and Persia
      open for their occupation. The Jat tribes not doubt emigrated, no at
      all once, but at different times, and it is probable that those in
      the North-West are among the latest importations".

      Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor) [35]
      said, "With the Rajput problem is closely connected that of the Jat
      and Gujar, the latter tribe being believed to be of Huna descent; the
      Gurjara probably entered India about the same time as the White Huns
      and settled in Rajputana (presently Indian Province called
      Rajasthan), and the Jat is included in the same ethnic group".
      Rose, H.A. [27] wrote, "Many of the Jat tribes of the Punjab have
      customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---". Rose
      goes on to state "Suffice it to say that both Sir Alexander
      Cunningham [27] and Colonel Tod [23] agreed in considering the Jats
      to be of Indo-Scythian Stock. The former identified them with the
      Zanthi of Strabo (Greek Geographer of the ancient times) and the
      Jatii of Pliny (Roman writer) and Ptolemy (Another Greek Geographer
      of the ancient times); and held that they probably entered the Punjab
      from their home on the Oxus (in Central Asia) very shortly after the
      Meds or Mands (still exist as one of the Jat clans of the Punjab),
      who also were Indo-Scythians, and who moved into the Punjab about a
      century before Christ".
      Caroe, O [36] wrote, "With the Ephthalites (White Huns) moreover, as
      all agree, came in the Gujars, and when the Ephthalite power fell the
      Gujar people remained. And it has been asserted that the Jats of the
      Punjab, the main stream from whom the rural Sikhs are drawn, and even
      many of the proud Rajput clans, are descended from these invading
      White Huns".


      McGovern, W.M. (Professor) [37] said, "many scholars believe that the
      proud Rajput clans of Rajputana (presently Indian Province called
      Rajasthan) and the stalwart Jats of the Punjab are likewise
      descended, in part at least, from these ancient invaders (White
      Huns), even though the Gujaras (Gujars), the Rajputs and the Jats
      have long since adopted an Indian language and been absorbed in the
      vast bulk of Hinduism". Furthermore, he adds "Today, all traces of
      the Scythians and their language have disappeared from Europe; but,
      in Asia, the descendants of the Scythians still occupy a prominent
      position---".


      Willliams, H.S. (Professor) [38] wrote, "The extent of the Scythian
      invasion has been variously estimated. Some scholars believe that
      they virtually supplanted the previous population of India (means
      Punjab), and there seems little doubt that by far the most numerous
      section of the Punjab population is of Scythian origin".


      Beny, R. [39]: He said, "A few Rajasthan states such as Bharatpur and
      Dholpur were ruled by Jats whom some authorities believe to be, like
      the Rajputs, offspring of Central Asian invaders (Scythians)".
      Leeds, R.J. [40]: He wrote, "I have not heard any mention of the
      story to which

      Elliot [33] alludes of their (Jats) having come originally from
      Ghazni (presently in Afghanistan), but their customs certainly point
      to an origin different from that of other Hindus".


      Bingley, A.H. (Captain) [41]: He said "It is moreover almost certain
      that the joint Jat-Rajput race -------, ------- is in the main Aryo-
      Scythian".
      Legge, J. (Professor, Oxford University) [42]: He translated Fa-
      Hien's memoirs of his travels through India in 519 A.D. Fa-Hien was
      from China. In his memoirs he wrote, "Formerly, a King of Yueh-she
      (Chinese name for a Scythian tribe) raised a large force and invaded
      this country, wishing to carry the bowl (Buddha's alms-bowl) away".
      Professor Legge added a footnote to this statement that said "Dr.
      Eitel suggests that a relic of the old name of the country may still
      exist in that of the Jats or Juts of the present day". This means
      Juts belong to the Scythian race.


      Masson-Oursel, P. (Professor), De Willman-Grabow-Ska, H. (Professor),
      and Stern, P. [43]:

      They said, "Moreover, the expulsion (out of India) of the White Huns
      was not equally complete everywhere. A great many remained in the
      basin of the Indus river. What is more, the damage done by the
      invasion outlasted the invasion itself". This strengthened the
      observations of other authorities that the Jats are the descendants
      of White Huns.


      Seymour, J. (British Author and BBC commentator)[44]: According to
      Mahil [45] Seymour wrote, "The Jats are not only Hindu caste of
      course, they are a race. They are descended from a wave of invaders
      that came from Central Asia perhaps a thousand years ago". It appears
      Seymour was referring to Scythians.

      Twigg, C. [46]: He said, "we know from the "Zafarnama" (memoirs) of
      Sharfuddin (a writer) that Timur, when he invaded India, believed
      that Jats of the Punjab to be of the same race as the Tartars whom he
      met in Central Asia".

      Sir Cunningham, A. (Major-General and Former Director-General of the
      Archeological Survey of India) [47] wrote, "the Xanthii (a Scythian
      tribe) are very probably the Zaths (Jats) of the early Arab writers.
      As the Zaths were in Sindh (presently a Pakistani province) to the
      west of the Indus (river), this location agrees very well with what
      we know of the settlement of the Sakas (Scythians) on the Indian
      frontier".

      Latham, R.G. (Cambridge University Professor and Fellow of the Royal
      Society (U.K.)) [48]: He said, "The Bhattis (a Rajput and Jat clan)
      of Jessulmir (a district in the Indian province of Rajasthan) amongst
      whom is a belief that their ancestors came from Zabulistan (presently
      in Afghanistan)-----".
      Latif, S.M. [49]: He wrote, "A considerable portion of the routed
      army of the Scythians settled in the Punjab, and a race of them,
      called Nomardy, inhabited the country on the west bank of the Indus
      (river). They are described as a nomadic tribe, living in wooden
      houses, after the old Scythian fashion, and settling where they found
      sufficient pasturage. A portion of these settlers, the descendants of
      Massagetae, were called Getes, from whom sprung the modern Jats".
      Hunter, J. [50]: As per Latif's [49] quotation "According to Dr.
      Hunter, a branch of these Scythian hordes, having overrun Asia about
      B.C.625, Occupied Patala on the Indus (river), the modern Hyderabad
      in Sindh (presently in Pakistan). They were all, in subsequent times,
      called Jats, and now form a most numerous, as well as the most
      important section of the agricultural population of the Punjab".


      pART II

      Woodcock, G. (a well-known author of over 15 books) [51]: He wrote, "-
      ----physical characteristics among Pathans (presently in the north-
      west frontier province of Pakistan) and Punjabi, that one can detect
      a Greek strain among the complexly hybrid races that inhabit west
      Pakistan and north-west India.

      He goes on to state "What happened to the remnants of the Yavanas
      (Hindu name for Greeks), Saka and Parthians (both belong to the
      Scythian race) defeated by Gautamiputra (a Hindu king) has not been
      recorded, but their obvious line of retreat would have been into the
      mountains and deserts of Rajasthan, the region out of which, four
      centuries afterwards, the mysterious Rajputs (other authorities have
      already stated they belong to the Scythian race same as that of the
      Jats) appeared with their claims to replace the ancient Kshatriya
      caste (a Hindu warrior caste) which had become almost extinct. It is
      generally recognized that the Rajputs are not of the same stock as
      the original Aryan invaders of India---a hybrid people who became
      converted to Hinduism----
      ".

      Kephart, C. (a Ph.D. scientist and author)[52]: He wrote, "In India
      the descendants of the Scytho-Indian dynasties and their branches
      probably became the ancestors of many of the historic Rajput clans
      (cousins of Jats as accepted by many authorities) of northern India,
      who form the land-owning, fighting, and ruling caste".


      Daniell, C.J.[53]: He said, "----Jats, etc., who describe their
      ancestors as being immigrants from the west".


      Singh, K.L. [54]: He said, "This caste (Jats) is nowhere mentioned in
      the ancient Hindu books. According to their tradition, the original
      Jat tribe, called Ponea, sprung from the locks (jata) of Mahadeo (a
      Hindu god), or one of his chief attendants at Mount Kylas. It must be
      observed that Mount Kylas is not very far from the Hindu Kush (Indian
      Caucuses), which, according to the Greek historians of Antiquity, was
      the abode of the Getes, of whom, the Jats are conjectured to be a
      colony. From Kylas the Jats are said to have descended into the
      plains of the Punjab, ----".


      Prakash, Buddha (an eminent Indian Historian of ancient history)
      [55]: He wrote, "In the wake of their invasion many outlandish tribes
      such as the Jartas, the Joati of Ptolemy (a Greek Geography writer of
      antiquity) and the Jats of modern times, the Abhiras (modern Ahirs)
      perhaps the Apiru or Ibhri who played a part in the history the
      Middle East and are repeatedly mentioned in the Cuneiform Nuziaan,
      Hittite, and Amarna documents, the Balhikas or Bactrians, who gave
      the name Balhika or Vahikas (means foreigners) to the people of the
      whole Punjab and whose modern descendants are probably the Bhallas,
      Bahls, and Behls----".
      Singh, Fauja (Professor and a famous Punjabi Historian) [56]: He
      wrote, "In the Hindu society, another progressive group, if we may
      use the word in this connection, was that of the Jatts (Jats). Most
      of them had come from outside, and, as such, the old of Hindu rituals
      on those people has not yet become too strong (also see Bingly,
      [23]). They were so anxious for social reform that when the Sikh
      movement (fifteenth century religion believing in one god and
      equality among the mankind) started gaining ground, they welcomed it
      with open arms". There is no doubt at least 70% of the Sikhs belong
      to the Jat background.
      Gill, P.S. (former Principal of a University College) [57]: He
      wrote, "There is a general concensus of opinion that Jats, and with
      them Rajputs and Gujjars were foreigners who came from their original
      home, near the Oxus, Central Asia".
      Sara, I. (a Canadian Barrister and Solicitor) [58]: He wrote, "Recent
      excavations in the Ukraine and Crimea. The finds points to the
      visible links of the Jat and Scythians".


      Dhillon, D.S. (Professor) [59]: He said, "Descendants of certain
      tribes that had originally came from foreign lands and settled in the
      country, Jat Sikhs known for their tribal freedom and fighting traits
      were naturally an assertive and virile people who only needed a
      component and gifted leader to rouse them to action [56]".


      Mahil, U.S. [45]: He said, "Jat were called Scythians; because they
      were the inhabitants of the ancient country of Scythia. The Jats who
      invaded the Punjab and conquered India up to Benares (Hindu holy city
      in the heart of India) were called Indo-Scythians".


      Dahiya, B.S. (A Senior Civil Servant of the Indian Union) [3]: He
      wrote, "The Chinese were right in stating that the Hiung-nu were a
      part of the Yue-Che (reads a Guti) people, and these Guti people had
      two divisions, the Ta-Yue-Che and the Siao-Yue-Che, exactly
      corresponding to the Massagetae and Thyssagetae of Herodotus (a
      classical Greek writer of fifth century B.C.), meaning the "Great-
      Jats" and the "Little-Jats", respectively. Almost every tribe of
      ancient Middle East (West Asia) and Central Asia, is represented
      among the present day Jats in India".


      He also quoted from A.K. Narain's Presidential address of Indian
      History Congress, Bhagalpur (India) session,

      "In my opinion, the history of the Indian Union, if it has to be
      written in the right perspective, should include, not only what
      happened in Pakistan, but also what happened in Afghanistan and
      Central Asia".

      Pradhan, M.C. (a Canadian Professor) [14]: He wrote, "The Jats and
      the Rajputs were originally groups who came under the influence of
      Hinduism and became castes. Nevertheless they retained their tribal
      structures in varying degrees, as also traditions of the time when
      they had possessed independent organizations of their own. Jats and
      Rajputs do have many traits in common, for example, some of the Jat
      clans have Rajput names".


      Thapar, R. (a well known historian of Indian history) [60]: She
      wrote, "Together with the (White) Huns came a number of Central Asian
      tribes and peoples, some of whom remained in northern India ----.
      Some of the tribes who lived in Rajasthan fled from their homeland
      when they displaced by the new tribes who became the ancestors of
      some of the Rajput families, and again were to dominate the history---
      -".

      According to classical Greek and other historians, there was no
      Central Asian Scythian tribe as such (i.e., Rajput) but tribes named
      Massagetae (great Jats), Sakas, etc. Obviously, the Rajputs must have
      belonged to the Great Jat tribe and that is why some of the Jat and
      the Rajput clan names are identical [3, 14].
      New encyclopedia Britannica [61]: It states "The presence of
      foreigners, most of whom settled in Indian cities and took on Indian
      habits and behaviour in addition to religion, became a problem for
      social theorists because the newcomers had to fitted into caste
      society. The Greeks and the Sakas (Scythians or Jats), clearly of non-
      Indian origin, who were initially the ruling group were referred to
      as "fallen Ksatriyas (Hindu warrior caste)".


      Marshall, J. (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College (Cambridge
      University), and formerly Director-General of Archaeology of India)
      [20]: He wrote, "---these invaders (Scythians) came principally from
      the three great tribes of Massagetae (great Jats), Sacaraucae, and
      Dahae (It is interesting to note, presently, in India Dahiya is a
      well known Jat and Rajput clan name [3]), whose home at the beginning
      of the second century B.C. was in the country between the Caspian
      (sea) and the Jaxartes river (Central Asia)".


      Tarn, W.W. (A well known author, Cambridge University) [62]: Dr. Tarn
      wrote, "----a separate horde by being absorbed into another horde,
      just as the Massagetae (that is, those of them who had remained in
      their original country) were absorbed soon afterwards; most of them
      had gone on into India----".
      Banerjea, J.N. (a well known Indian Historian of ancient history)
      [63]: Dr. Banerjea said "The Scythian and Parthian (also belongs to
      the Scythian race) invaders of India find occasional mention in many
      of the old Indian texts----.

      The Sakas (Scythians) of Sogdiana (in southern Central Asia),
      however, were compelled to move south and south-eastwards under
      pressure from other nomadic hordes of Central Asia and Western
      China. ----Yue-chi (reads as Yuti (Jats), when defeated by the Hiung-
      nu (Huns), moved westwards from their original homeland in the region
      between the Great Wall built by the Chinese Emperors as a protective
      measure against the Huns -----.

      These Saka (Scythian) military chiefs had adopted high-sounding
      Indian names; they have become Hindunised ----- inscriptions of the
      period discovered in various parts of Northern India prove that these
      new recruits to the Hindu fold became ardent followers of different
      Indian religious creeds".
      Briggs, J. (Lt. Col.) [64]: He wrote in 1829 A.D., "We have no
      satisfactory account of these Juts (Jats); but there seems reason to
      believe them to be a horde of Tartars (probably means Scythians) of
      the same stock as the Getae, so often mentioned in ancient history ---
      -".


      Waddell, L.A. (Professor, London University, author of over twelve
      books on historical subjects, Fellow of the Royal Anthropological
      Institute, and Honorary Correspondent of Indian Archaeological
      Survey) [65]: Dr. Waddell wrote, "Most of the leading kings of the
      early Sumerian (Middle East) dynasties, including "Sargon-the-Great"
      and Menes the first Pharaoh of the First Dynasty of Egypt repeatedly
      call themselves in their official documents and seals Gut (pronounced
      Goot) or Got.

      And one of the more progressive Early Summerian Dynasties in
      Mesopotamia called themselves Guti or Goti; "Goti" was the regular
      title of the Goths in Europe-the aspirated form "Goth having been
      coined merely by the Romans and never used by these people
      themselves".


      Owen, F. (a Canadian Professor) [66]: He wrote, "In the shape of
      face, stature and general physical build the Sikhs approximate the
      Nordic type". Over seventy percent of the Sikhs belong to the Jat
      background.

      Coon, C.S., Hunt, E.E. [67]: They wrote, "Most of them (the Indo-
      European speaking-Peoples of South Asia) are descended in part or
      wholly from invaders from Western Asia, the plains west of the
      Caspian sea, or, more remotely, even from Europe and a minority are
      indistinguishable from Western Asians or even Europeans. ---- The
      second invasion (of India) was that of the Sanskrit-speaking
      (probably means Indo-European language speaking) peoples, who were
      related to the Scythians and Sarmatians (also related to Scythian
      people). The tallest people are found in Rajasthan and the Punjab and
      beards are fullest among the warrior castes and the Sikhs. Most of
      these people have glossy black hair, although brown hair is not
      uncommon. Reddish and blond hair are extremely rare. Almost all of
      them have brown eyes of various shades, but one see light and mixed
      eyes in rare individuals, particularly among the Sikhs".
      Rose, H.A. [27]: He wrote, "we find to this day in the Punjab a
      physical type predominating which in many respect resembles that of
      certain European races, and is radically different from the typical
      characteristics of the other Indian stocks----".


      Singh, N. [68]: In a recent book on Canadian Sikhs he said, "The
      Scythians appear to originate from Central Asia ---. They reached
      Punjab between 50 B.C. and A.D. 50. It seems probable that the
      Scythian ancestors of the Sikh-Jat entered the Sindh Valley
      (presently in Pakistan) between 100 B.C. and A.D. 100".
      Singh, G. [69]: Dr. Singh wrote, "----the Jats of the Panjab, are
      Scythians in origin and came from Central Asia, whose one branch
      migrated as far south in Europe as Bulgaria".


      Sulimirski, T. (Professor, Central and East European Archaeology at
      the University of London) [70]: He wrote, "The evidence of both the
      ancient authors and the archaeological remains point to a massive
      migration of Sacian (Sakas)/Massagetan ("great" Jat) tribes from the
      Syr Daria Delta (Central Asia) by the middle of the second century
      B.C. Some of the Syr Darian tribes; they also invaded North India".


      There is very little published and reliable literature which presents
      worthwhile arguments to contradict the assertions of the above
      historians and authorities. The three most important contradictory
      arguments are presented below for balance.


      Qanungo, K.R. (Assistant Professor of History, Lucknow University,
      India) [13]: In 1925 he wrote, "The European pioneers of Indian
      antiquities and ethnology apparently started with the presumption
      that fine and energetic martial peoples like the Rajput and the Jat
      must have been comparatively newcomer from the north-west into India
      who overcame the effete descendants of the Vedic Aryans (Hindus)----.


      Sir Herbert Risley [71] declared the Rajput and the Jat to be the
      true representatives of the Vedic Aryans. Since then Risely's theory
      and classification have been attacked by many scholars on different
      grounds. The Scythians who were very probably men with broad faces
      and high check-bones, sturdy and short in stature, are little likely
      to have been the ancestors of a tall-statured and long-headed people
      like the Jats". Qanungo appeared to rely on Sir Risley's theory which
      in later editions of his book, a note on page 59 stated, "The account
      in the text of the Scythians and Huns needs to be corrected".
      Classical Greek and Roman writers as well as recent discoveries give
      totally opposite information to Qanungo's beliefs on Scythians.
      Other statements made in Qanungo's work are rather weak and without
      any historical evidence. For example, he said, "If popular tradition
      counts for anything, it points to the view that they (Jats) are an
      essentially Indo-Aryan (Hindus?) people who have migrated from the
      east to the west and not Indo-Scythian----and No Hindu has been ever
      known to claim a Chinese origin, but the people of China----".

      Singh, Khushwant (A well respected Indian Journalist) [72]: He
      wrote, "It is now generally accepted that the Jats who made the
      northern plains of India their home were of Aryan stock (He probably
      means Hindus otherwise Scythian were also Indo-European people). The
      origin of the Jats has been exhaustively dealt with by K.R. Quanungo
      [13], who states emphatically that the Jats are of Aryan stock
      (Hindus) who came from Rajasthan into Punjab (The flimsiness of the
      Quanungo's theory was already discussed)". In Vol. 2 of his book [73]
      Singh said, "This upward mobility of Sikh-Jats considered as sudras,
      the lowest of the four castes of Hindus-----". Here, it is not my
      attention to dwell into the sensitive issue of race but to explain
      Singh's comment, I have no other choice-I firmly believe in the
      equality of the mankind. The word "caste" is derived from Spanish
      and Portuguese [31, 59, 74] word "casta" meaning lineage, race,
      breed, etc. Thaper [60], a well respected Indian Historian,
      wrote, "The Sanskrit (ancient language of the Indo-Aryans or Hindus)
      word for caste, "Varna", actually means colour.

      The colour element of caste was emphasized----eventually to become
      deep-rooted in north-Indian Aryan culture". More information on this
      subject is provided by Professor Owen [66]. Thus, four colours of
      people represent four castes (i.e. darker the colour lower the caste,
      see Ref. Captain Bingly [25] for more information on this issue). If
      Mr. Singh's theory is correct then Jats should be of the darkest
      colour. However, Professors Coon and Hunt [67] do not agree, "Most of
      the these people (warrior castes and Sikhs) have glossy black hair,
      although brown hair is not uncommon. ---have brown eyes of various
      shades, but one can see light and mixed eyes in rare individuals,
      particularly among the Sikhs".

      Over 70% of the Sikhs belong to the Jat background. Furthermore,
      Mahil [45] said, "A Jat can be easily distinguished from the Aryan
      race of the Punjab by his Physiognomy and other characteristics or
      even by the accent or tone of his speech". Major Barstow [16]
      wrote, "The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique
      and surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and
      soldiery bearing". He then quoted District Gazetteer of Amritsar
      (Sikh holy city), "In physique they (Jat Sikhs) are inferior to no
      race of peasantry in the province, and among them are men, who, in
      any country in the world, would be deemed fine specimens of the human
      race".

      Dahiya [3] on page 23 of his book explained it very well why the Jats
      being called sudra by saying "The foreign origin of these people is
      further clear from their description by the Indian writers. Almost
      all these people are called Asura, Sudra, Mlecchas, etc.".


      Majmalu-T Tawarikh (written in the twelfth century A.D.) [75]
      said, "The Jats and Meds or Mands (Mands also a present day Jat clan)
      are reputed to be descendants of Ham, the son of Noah, and they
      occupied the banks of the Indus in the province of Sind (presently in
      Pakistan)". Unfortunately, I have come across no convincing evidence
      to this claim to date.
      Other Logical Supporting Factors

      There are many other supporting factors that point to the origin of
      the Jats in Central Asia.

      Some of those are as follows:

      As per Sir Marshall [20] Scythians ruled India (B.C. 90-525 A.D.) for
      over 500 years. Now the common sense question arise that these rulers
      must have had an army substantially made up of Scythian people and
      other supporting Scythian groups. When their ruling period came to an
      end, there was no mass migration. Therefore, it can be assumed that
      those people, must have settled in Punjab and in surrounding areas.


      The homeland of the Jats is Punjab and the surrounding areas. On the
      other hand, Aryan Hindus can be traced all over India. Now, the
      question that arises, is if the Jats had belonged to the Hindu
      origin, would they have had also settled all over India and not just
      in the north-west section of the South Asia?
      The clan names of the Jats are unique in India. However, some of
      their clan names do overlap with the Rajputs and Gujars who are also
      said to be of the Scythian origin or at least partially. It is
      interesting to note that if all of the Rajputs would have belonged to
      the original Kashatriya group of the Indo-Aryans, as is generally
      claimed by the Punjabi Khatris, then at least some of their (Rajputs)
      clan names should have been identical to that of the Khatris.


      This is not the case. In fact intermarriage took place between these
      two groups.


      There is wide physical and other characteristic variations between
      Jats and other, non-Scythian origin people as observed by Mahil [45].

      Other ancient people such as the Egyptians, Greeks, Persians,
      Chinese, and Romans, still exist today. Therefore, it is difficult to
      believe that the powerful Scythian people who once extended from
      Europe to the northern tip of India [76] totally vanished from the
      face of the earth. For example, despite Massagetae's dominion being
      over fifteen hundered miles away from Greece it still caught the
      Greek writers' attention. Therefore, the dominion must have been a
      very powerful group of those times.

      The Roman historians tell us that the Alani (a branch of Massagetae)
      went as far as France and Spain and it looks quite improbable that
      they would have spared their nearest next door southern neighbor,
      India. (the closeness of India to the Massagetae is clearly confirmed
      by the Strabo [77] a first century A.D. Greek Geographer: "They
      (Persians) did not invade India, but only approached its frontiers
      when Cyrus (Persian Emperor) marched against the Massagetae".
      Historical evidence shows that a major proportion [62] of Massagetae
      went to India and managed to have kept their distinct identity
      (modern Jats) probably because of the influence of the rigid Hindu
      caste system. The caste system prohibits intermarriages among the
      people of different castes, and that is probably why the Jats still
      intermarry among themselves and keep their identity in South Asia to
      date. This subject is discussed in detail by Falcon [78], Mason [79],
      and Barstow [16].

      All of the above material should be sufficient for the reader to pass
      his or her own judgement whether the Jats belong to the Central Asian
      origin (Scythian) or not. I being of a scientific discipline find it
      hard not to believe that the Jats are descended from the Scythian
      people after reviewing the above overwhelming evidence.

      By XXX on Wednesday, September 25, 2002 - 06:46 pm:




      Published Literature on Jats

      Over past 150 years, several books and other related materials
      partially or wholly concerning Jats have appeared. This section
      presents some of it for the benefit of readers and future
      researchers. Most of the books totally devoted to Jats are as
      follows:


      Bingley, A.H., History, Caste, and Culture of Jats and Gujars,
      Reprinted by Ess Ess Publications, New Delhi, India, 1978, first
      published in 1899. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling
      Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980. Qanungo, K.R., History
      of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita Publications, Delhi, India, 1987,
      first published in 1925.
      Pradhan, M.C., The Political System of the Jats of Northern India,
      Oxford University Press, London, 1966.
      Mahil, U.S., Antiquity of Jat Race, Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi, India,
      1955. Pettigrew, J., Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political
      System of the Sikh Jats, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975.
      Shastri, Y.P., Jat Kshatriya Itihas (History of the Jats and the
      Kshatriyas), Hardwar, India, 1943.
      Desh Raj, Jat Ithihas (History of the Jats), Kanti Press, India,
      1938.
      Selective articles totally devoted to the Jats are as follows:
      Rose, H.A., Jats, in a Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the
      Punjab and North-West Frontier Province, Reprinted by the Languages
      Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970, first published in 1883, pp. 1-59
      (Vol. I), pp. 357-378 (Vol. II).
      Elliot, H.M., Encylopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and Superstitions
      of the Races of Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit
      Publications, Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 131-
      137.
      Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part I), The Sikh
      Review, March 1978, pp. 26-35.
      Sara, I., The Scythian Origin of the Sikh-Jat (Part II), The Sikh
      Review, April 1978, pp. 15-27. Habib, I., Jatts (Jats) of Punjab and
      Sind, in Essays in Honour of Dr. Ganda Singh, Punjabi University
      Press, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 92-103.
      Singh, J., Sikh Militancy and Jats, in Advanced Studies in Sikhism,
      edited by J.S. Mann and H.S. Saraon, Published by Sikh community of
      North America, P.O. Box 16635, Irvine, California, 1989, pp. 214-233.
      Helweg, A.W., Punjabi Farmers: Twenty Years in England, India
      International Center Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1978.
      Pettigrew, J.J.M., The Emigration of Sikh-Jats from the Punjab to
      England, in Social Science Research Council Report, Project HR 331-1,
      edited by A.C. Mayer, London, 1971. In Fear of Jats, The Economist,
      Feb. 1991, pp. 37.
      Some of the books which cover a substantial amount of material on the
      Jats are as follows:
      Barstow, A.E., The Sikhs: An Enthonology, Reprinted by B.R.
      Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, first published at the
      Request of the Government of India in 1928. Bingley, A.H., Handbooks
      for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the
      Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing
      Office, Simla, India, 1899. Falcon, R.W., Handbook on Sikhs for the
      Use of Regimental Officers, Printed at the Pioneer Press, Allahabad,
      India, 1896.
      Cunningham, J.D., History of the Sikhs, Reprinted by S. Chand &
      Company Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849.
      Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India, South-
      Western Asia, and Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London,
      1894, pp. 481-487. Risley, H., The People of India, Reprinted by
      Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi, India, 1969, first
      published in 1915, pp. 132-133 (Jat proverbs).
      Tod, J., Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, 2 Vols., Routledge &
      Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829.
      MacMunn, G., The Martial Races of India, Reprinted by Mittal
      Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932.
      Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia
      Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1990, pp. 510.
      Sleeman, W.H., Rambles and Recollections, Reprinted by Oxford
      University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1973, first published in 1844,
      pp. 300-310, 355-383, 475-479. Burton, R.F., Sindh and the Races
      that Inhabit the Valley of the Indus, Reprinted by Oxford University
      Press, Karachi, 1975, first published in 1851, pp. 246-365, 411.
      Lane-Poole, S., Medieval India: Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-
      1764), Reprinted by Haskell House Publishers Ltd., New York, 1970,
      first published in 1903, pp. 9-10, 27-28, 41-43, 406.
      As the overwhelming historical and other factors support that the
      Jats are ethicnically related to the Scythian people (Scythians,
      Sarmatians, and Alans or Alani), thus the selected literature on
      these people is given below.
      Talbot-Rice, T., The Scythians, Frederick A. Praeger, New York, 1961.
      Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970.
      Bachrach,B.S., A History of the Alans in the West, University of
      Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 1973.
      Konow, S., Notes on Indo-Scythians Chronology, Journal of Indian
      History, Vol. XII, 1916, pp. 8. Scythians, The New Encyclopaedia
      Britannica, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1984, pp. 438-
      442.
      Smirnow, A.P., Die Skythen, Dresden, 1979.
      Grakow, B.N., Die Skythen, Berlin, 1978.
      Minns, E.H., Scythians and Greeks, 2 Vols., Biblo and Tannen, New
      York, 1965. The Getae and the Dacians, and Sarmatae (Sarmatians) and
      Parthians (related to Scythians), in The Cambridge Ancient History,
      edited by S.A. Cook, F.E. Adcock, M.P. Charlesworth, Vol. II,
      Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1954.
      Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols.,
      Scythians and Cimmerians, (Vol.
      2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
      Banerji, R.D., The Scythian Period of Indian History, Indian
      Antiquary, Vol. XXXVIII, 1909-1910, pp. 25-74.
      Cunningham, A., Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans,
      Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first
      published in 1888. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians),
      Time Life Books, New York, 1974. Eggermont, P.H.L., Alexander's
      Campaign in Gandhara and Ptolemy's List of Indo-Scythian Towns,
      Orientalis Lavaniensia Periodica I, 1970, pp. 63-123. Cunningham,
      A., Later Indo-Scythians (Coins), No. 11, Reprinted by Indological
      Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first published in 1893-94.
      Bachrach, B.S., The Alans in Gaul, Tradito, XXIII, 1967, pp. 476-
      489. Thompson, E.A., The Settlement of the Barbarians in Southern
      Gaul, Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. XLVI, 1956, pp. 65-75.
      Vernadsky, G., Eurasian Nomads and Their Impact on Medieval Europe,
      Studi Medievali, 3rd Ser., Vol. 4, 1963, pp. 401-434.
      Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of California
      Press, Berkeley, 1989. Rostovtzeff, M., Iranians (Scythians) and
      Greeks in South Russia, Russell and Russell, A Division of Atheneum
      Publishers, Inc., New York, 1922, Reprinted in 1969. Leake, J.A.,
      The Geats of Beowulf, The University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
      1967.
      Williams, H.S., The Historians' History of the World, 25 Vols.,
      Scythians and Cimmerians (Vol.
      2), The Outlook Company, New York, 1905, pp. 400-410.
      Banerjea, J.N., The Scythians and Parthians (also related to
      Scythians) in India, in a Comprehensive History of India, edited by
      K.A.N. Sastri, Vol. 2, People's Publishing House, New Delhi, India,
      1987, pp. 186-309, 830-838.
      Bachhofer, L., On Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of
      the American Oriental Society, Vol. LXI, 1941, pp. 223-250.
      Jenkins, G.K., Indo-Scythic Mints, Journal of the Numismatic Society
      of India, Vol. XVII, No. 2, 1955, pp. 1-26.
      Marshall, J., Greeks and Sakas (Scythians) in India, Journal of the
      Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1947, pp. 3f.
      Smith, V.A., The Kushana or Indo-Scythian Period of Indian History
      (165 B.C.-A.D. 320, Journal of the Royal Asiatic society of Great
      Britain and Ireland, 1903, pp. 1-64.
      Some of the classical writers or documents covering material on
      Scythians/ India are as follows:
      Herodotus (B.C. 490-425): The Histories, translated by de Selincourt,
      Penguin Books, New York, 1988.
      Periplus (Written around A.D. 60), The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea
      translated by W.H. Schoff, Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1912.
      Pliny, (A.D. 23-79): Natural History, translated by H. Rackham,
      Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1947.
      Arrian (A.D. 95-175): Anabasis of Alexander, translated by Professor
      P.A. Brunt of Oxford University, Harvard University Press, Cambridge,
      Massachusetts, 1976. Diodorus of Sicily (Published around B.C. 49),
      translated by C.H. Oldfather, 12 Vols., Harvard University Press,
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936.
      Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Caludius Ptolemy, translated and
      edited by E.L.
      Stevenson, The New York Public Library, New York, 1932.
      Strabo (born in B.C. 64), The Geography of Strabo, translated by H.L.
      Jones, Harvard University Press,Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1954.
      Jordanes (A.D. 551), The Gothic History of Jordanes, translated by
      Dr.C.C. Mierow of Princeton University, Barnes and Noble, Inc.,New
      York, 1915, reprinted in 1966. Isidore of Seville (born in A.D.
      560), History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, translated by G.
      Donini, G.B. Ford, E.J.Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
      Bede (8th century A.D.?), Ecclesiastical History, translated by
      J.A.Giles, Bohn's Library, London, 1871.
      Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by J.C.
      Rolfe, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956.
      Some of the journals specifically devoted to the subject of the
      Scythians are listed below [80]:
      Skify i sarmaty (Scythians and Sarmatians), Kiev, Ukraine, 1977.
      Skify i Kavkaz (Scythians and the Caucasus), Kiev, Ukraine, 1980.
      Skifskie drevnosti (Scythian antiquities), Kiev, Ukraine, 1973.
      Skifskij mir (Scythian world), Kiev, Ukraine, 1975.
      References
      l. Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary, Canadian Edition, Lexicon
      Publications, Inc., New York, 1988.
      2. Hewitt, J.F., The Ruling Races of Prehistoric Times in India,
      South-Western Asia and
      Southern Europe, Archibald Constable & Co., London, 1894, pp. 481-
      487.
      3. Dahiya, B.S. (Indian Revenue Service - IRS), Jats: The
      Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers
      Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 23.
      4. Grass, S., Persian-English Dictionary, London, 1930.
      5. Leake, J.A. (Professor), The Geats of Beowulf, The University
      of Wisconsin Press, Madison,
      Milwaukee, 1967, pp. 172, 68.
      6. Trippett, F., The First Horsemen (Scythians), Time Life
      Books, New York, 1974.
      7. Pettigrew, J. (Professor), Robber Noblemen: A Study of the
      Political System of the Sikh Jats,
      Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd., London, 1975, pp. 25, 238.
      8. Temple, R.C., Legends of the Punjab, Vol. 3, Reprinted by the
      Language Department,
      Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1982, first published in 1886,
      pp. 23, line 273.
      9. McLeod, W.H., The Evolution of the Sikh Community, Oxford
      University Press, London, 1976, pp. 52, 93.
      10. Monserrate, S.J., The Commentary of Father Monserrate,
      translated by J.S. Hoyland, edited by S.N. Banerjee, London, 1922,
      pp. 110.
      11. Waris Shah, The Adventures of Hir and Ranjha (Jat Romeo and
      Juliet), translated by C.F.
      Usborne, edited by Mumtaz Hasan, Karachi, Pakistan, 1966, pp. 30.
      12. Masson, C., Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan,
      Vol. 1, London, 1842, pp. 434.
      13. Qanungo, K.R., History of the Jats, Reprinted by Sunita
      Publications, Delhi, India, 1987, first published in 1925, pp. 1, 3-
      4, 174-174.
      14. Pradhan, M.C. (Professor), The Political System of the Jats
      of Northern India, Oxford
      University Press, London, 1966, pp.1, 238-239.
      15. Jats, The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 6, Encyclopedia
      Britannica, Inc., Chicago,
      1990, pp. 510.
      16. Barstow, A.E., (Major 2/11th Sikh Regiment-late 15th Ludhiana
      Sikhs), The Sikhs: An
      Ethnology, Reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India,
      1985, first published in 1928, pp. 105-135, 63, 155, 152, 145.
      17. Ammianus, Marcellinus (born around A.D. 330), translated by
      J.C. Rolfe, Vols 2 & 3,
      Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1956, pp. 231-
      237, 343-345.
      18. Rabanus Maurus, De Universo, edited by Migne, P.L., Vol. CXI,
      Paris, 1864, XVI, ii, Col.
      439.
      19. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites
      and Superstitions of the Races of
      Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi,
      India, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 134.
      20. Marshall, J., (Sir, Hon. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge
      University, and formerly
      Director-General of Archaeology in India), A Guide to Taxila,
      Cambridge University Press, London, 1960, pp. 24.
      21. Thompson, E.A. (Professor), The Historical Work of Ammianus
      Marcellinus, Bouma's
      Boekhuis N.V. Publishers, Groningen, 1969, pp. 119.
      22. Ptolemy (90-168 A.D.), Geography of Claudius Ptolemy,
      translated by Dr. E.L. Stevenson,
      Published by The New York Public Library, New York, 1932, pp. 144-
      145.
      23. Tod, J., (Lt. Col.), Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan,
      Vol.1, Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.,
      London, 1972 (reprint), first published in 1829, pp. 623.
      24. Cunningham, J.D. (Captain), A History of the Sikhs, Reprinted
      by S. Chand & Company
      Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1985, first published in 1849, pp. 4.
      25. Bingley, A.H. (Captain, 7th duke of Connaught's Own Bengal
      Infantry), Handbooks for the
      Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled Under the Orders of the Government of
      India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla,
      India, 1899, pp. 8-9, 3.
      26. Dahiya, B.S., Jats: The Ancient Rulers, Sterling Publishers
      Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, 1980, pp. 71.
      27. Rose, H.A., A Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab
      and North-West Frontier
      Province, Reprinted by the Languages Dept., Patiala, Punjab, 1970,
      first published in 1883, pp.
      362-363, (Vol. II), 58 (Vol. I).
      28. Cunningham, A. (Sir and Major General), Later Indo-Scythians,
      Numismatic Chronicle 1893-
      94, Reprinted by Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1979, first
      published in 1893-94, pp.
      94.
      29. Smith, V.A. (Professor), The Oxford History of India, Oxford
      University Press, London, 1967, pp. 38.
      30. Cunningham, A., (Sir and Major General), Coins of the Indo-
      Scythians, Sakas, and
      Kushans, Reprinted by Indo-logical Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971,
      first published in 1888, pp. 27, 16.
      31. Elphinstone, M. (Hon.), The History of India, Reprinted by
      Kitab Mahal Private Ltd.,
      Allahabad, India, 1966, first published in 1874, pp. 226-229, 16-17,
      12.
      32. De Guignes, Academi des Inscriptions, Vol. XXV, pp. 32. For
      more information on this
      reference see Elphinstone Ref. [30].
      33. MacMunn, G. (Sir and Lt. General), The Martial Races of
      India, Reprinted by Mittal
      Publications, Delhi, India, 1979, first published in 1932, pp. 21-22.
      34. Elliot, H.M. (Sir), Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites
      and Superstitions of the Races of
      Northern India, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985,
      first published in 1870, pp.
      133-134.
      35. Haddon, A.C. (Fellow of Royal Society (U.K.) and Professor),
      The Races of Man and Their
      Distribution, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924, pp. 113.
      36. Caroe, O., The Pathans (500 B.C.-A.D. 1957), Macmillan & Co.
      Ltd., London, 1958, pp. 85.
      37. McGovern, W.M., (Professor), The Early Empires of Central
      Asia, The University of North
      Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 1939, pp. 419, 21.
      38. Williams, H.S. (Professor), The Historians' History of the
      World, 21 Vols., The Outlook
      Company, New York, 1905, Vol. 2, pp. 481.
      39. Benny, R., Rajasthan: Land of Kings, McClelland and Stewart
      Limited, Toronto, 1984, pp.
      54.
      40. Leeds, R.J., Muzaffarnagar ( A district in North India), in
      Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs,
      Rites, and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, by H.M.
      Elliot, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, India, 1985,
      first published in 1870, pp. 296-300.
      41. Bingley, A.H. (Captain), History, Caste & Culture of Jats and
      Gujars, Ess Ess Publications,
      New Delhi, India, 1978, first published in 1899, pp. 2.
      42. Legge, J., translator, A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being
      an Account by the Chinese
      Monk Fa-Hien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in
      search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline, Reprinted by Paragon Book
      Reprint Corp., New York, 1965, first Published in 1886, pp. 34.
      43. Masson-Oursel, P. (Professor), De Willman-Grabowska, H.,
      (Professor), Stern, P., Ancient
      India and Indian Civilization, Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.,
      Ltd., London, 1934, pp. 55.
      44. Seymour, J. (a well known British Author and BBC
      Commentator), Round About India, Eyre
      & Spottiswoode, London, 1953.
      45. Mahil, U.S., Antiquity of Jat Race, Atma Ram & Sons, Delhi,
      India, 1955, pp. 2, 9, 14.
      46. Twigg, C., Muttra (a district in North India), in
      Encylopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and
      Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, By H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1,
      Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in 1870, pp. 318-
      319.
      47. Cunningham, A. (Sir, Major-General, and former Director-
      General of the Archeological
      Survey of India), Coins of the Indo-Scythians, Sakas, and Kushans,
      Indological Book House, Varanasi, India, 1971, first published in
      1888, pp. 33.
      48. Latham, R.G. (Professor and Fellow of the Royal Society
      (U.K.)), Tribes and Races: A
      Descriptive Ethnology of Asia, Africa, and Europe, Vol. 1, Reprinted
      by Cultural Publishing House, Delhi, 1983, first published in 1859,
      pp. 385.
      49. Latif, S.M., History of the Panjab, Reprinted by Progressive
      Books, Lahore, Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
      50. Hunter, J., in History of the Panjab by S.M. Latif, Reprinted
      by Progressive Books, Lahore,
      Pakistan, 1984, first published in 1891, pp. 56.
      51. Woodcock, G., The Greeks in India, Faber and Faber Ltd.,
      London, 1966, pp. 131-135-136.
      52. Kephart, C., Races of Mankind, Peter Owen Limited, London,
      1960, pp. 535.
      53. Daniell, C.J., Shahjahanpur ( a district in north India), in
      Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs,
      Rites and Superstitions of the Races of Northern India by H.M.
      Elliot, Vol. 1, Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first
      published in 1870, pp. 309-315.
      54. Singh, K.L., Bijnore (a district in North India), in
      Encyclopaedia of Caste, Customs, Rites and
      Superstitions of the Races of Northern India, by H.M. Elliot, Vol. 1,
      Reprinted by Sumit Publications, Delhi, 1985, first published in
      1870, pp. 303-306.
      55. Prakash, Buddha, Ancient Punjab: A Panoramic View, in Essays
      in Honour of Dr. Ganda
      Singh, edited by H. Singh and N. Gerald Barrier, Published by the
      Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, 1976, pp. 1-26.
      56. Singh, Fauja, editor, History of the Punjab (A.D. 1000-1526),
      Vol. 3, Published by the
      Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi Univesity, Patiala,
      Punjab, 1972, pp. 17.
      57. Gill, P.S., Heritage of Sikh Culture, New Academic Publishing
      Co., Jullundur, Punjab, 1975, pp. 12-13.
      58. Sara, I., The Scythian Origins of the Sikh-Jat, The Sikh
      Review, March 1978, pp. 26-35.
      59. Dhillon, D.S., Sikhism: Origin and Development, Atlantic
      Publishers & Distributors, New
      Delhi, India, 1988, pp. 330-331, 55.
      60. Thapar, R., A History of India, Penguin Books, London, 1969,
      pp. 142-143, 38.
      61. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 21, Encyclopedia
      Britannica, Inc., Chicago, 1990, pp. 42-43.
      62. Tarn, W.W., The Greeks in Bactria and India, Cambridge
      University Press, London, 1966, pp. 306-307.
      63. Banerjea, J.N., The Scythians and Parthians in India, in a
      Comprehensive History of India, edited by K.A.N. Sastri, People's
      Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 1987, pp. 186-221.
      64. Briggs, J. (Lt. Col.), translator, History of the Rise of the
      Mahomedan Power in India (till the year A.D. 1612) by M.K. Ferishta
      (Persian), Vol. 1, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London,
      1829, pp. 81-81.
      65. Waddell, L.A. (Professor), The Makers of Civilization in Race
      and History, Reprinted by S.
      Chand & Co., Delhi, India, 1968, first published in 1929, pp. xii-
      xiii (preface).
      66. Owen, F., Germanic People: Their Origin, Expansion, and
      Culture, Dorset Press, New York,
      1960, pp. 50-51.
      67. Coon, C.S., Hunt, E.E., The Living Races of Man, Alfred A.
      Knopf, New York, 1965, pp. 204-
      206.
      68. Singh, N., Canadian Sikhs, Canadian Sikhs' Studies Institute,
      21 Jay Avenue, Nepean,
      Ontario, Canada, 1994, pp. 164.
      69. Singh, G., A History of the Sikh People (1469-1978), World
      Sikh University Press, Delhi,
      India, 1979, pp. 11-12.
      70. Sulimirski, T., The Sarmatians, Praeger Publishers, New York,
      1970, pp. 113-114.
      71. Risley, H. (Sir), The People of India, Reprinted by Oriental
      Books Reprint Corporation, Delhi,
      India, 1969, first published in 1915, pp. 59-60.
      72. Singh, Khushwant, A History of the Sikhs, Vol. I: 1469-1839,
      Oxford University Press, Delhi,
      India, 1977, pp. 14-15.
      73. Singh, Khushwant, A History of the Sikhs, vol. II: 1839-1974,
      Oxford University Press, Delhi,
      India, 1966, pp. 120-121.
      74. Fowler, H.W., Fowler, F.G., Editors, The Concise Oxford
      Dictionary of Current English,
      Oxford University Press, London, 1964, pp. 184-185.
      75. Majmalu-T Tawarikh, in the History of India as Told by Its
      Own Historians, edited by Sir H.M.
      Elliot and Professor J. Dowson, Vol. 1, Reprinted by AMS Press, Inc.,
      New York, 1966, first published in 1867, pp. 103-104, 519.
      76. Diodorus of Sicily (published around B.C. 49) translated by
      C.H. Oldfather, Harvard
      University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1936.
      77. Strabo (first Century A.D.), The Geography of Strabo
      concerning India, in Ancient India as described in Classical
      literature edited by J.W. McCrindle, reprinted by Eastern Book House,
      Patna, India, 1987, pp. 12-13, first published in 1901.
      78. Falcon, R.W., Handbook on Sikhs for the Use of Regimental
      Officers, Printed at the Pioneer
      Press, Allahabad, India, 1896, pp. 48-49.
      79. Mason, Philip, A Matter of Honour, Holt, Rinehart and
      Winston, New York, 1974, pp. 352-
      353.
      80. Rolle, R., The World of the Scythians, University of
      California Press, Berkley, 1989, pp. 136-
      137.




      Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
      To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
      JatHistory-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com



      Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.



      ---------------------------------
      Post your free ad now! Yahoo! Canada Personals


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Ravi Chaudhary
      ... Jat tribes of the Punjab have ... ******** Dr Dhillon has collected a lot of data and many references. . He slants towards the Scyhtian/central asian
      Message 2 of 3 , Apr 29, 2003
        --- In JatHistory@yahoogroups.com, Nadia Deol <nadiadeol@y...> wrote:
        >
        > Ravi would you know what customs this is referring to: "Many of the
        Jat tribes of the Punjab have
        > customs which apparently point to non-Aryan (Hindu) origin ---".
        >

        ********
        Dr Dhillon has collected a lot of data and many references.

        .

        He slants towards the Scyhtian/central asian origin for the Jats,
        and his persp[ective is more to that and their spread into Europe nd
        so on.



        This is Sunny and friends contribution to the net. and I thank them
        for that.

        I would like to see more of these books online !

        It provides a base and a perspective.

        Also makes for for good argumentaive discussion


        Ravi
      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.