Re: [JatHistory] Jats Gujjar and Rajputs
- I think we can ignore such biased articles as Diggi's. I don't mind glorifying Rajputs especially house of Mewar and few other princes. But that all is well known, we should bring out information which is not given its deserved prominance.-vinod
On 1/31/07, ranjitjat@... <ranjitjat@...> wrote:Dear Narender and all.We have list of 3000 Jat Gotra with origin & branches of old Syryavansi & Chander vansi Kula in our Modern History book- Adhunik Jat Itihas. This will give source to all Gotras of Akshtriya- warrior Races for further research in this field. Every Aadivasi has gotra like Chohan- Pawar- Solanki. Some of them called Criminal tribes of india, Like Pardhi- Naik or Haedi in Haryana.If they were Old rulers. Who made them criminal tribes from RAJPUT. When Rajput and Marhata were ruling most of the India.Here is a another link for Digi.
Criminal Tribes Of India
Dr. K. Jamanadas,
Dr. Ambedkar had condemned the Brahminic culture for creating three groups of people, SCs STs and Criminal tribes. We know a great deal about SCs and something about STs. Here is some information of Criminal Tribes.
Social Science Centre at St. Xavier College, 5, Nagarpalika Marg Mumbai, under the leadership of Father Rudy Herediya, believes in the principles of Democracy and Socialism embedded in the Constitution of India. They are working on adventurous research projects in the field of Social Sciences for Change, for the benefit of Nomadic Tribes and ex-Criminal Tribes. Working under them is Centre for Learning Resources 8, Deccan College Road, Yerwada, Pune, which prepared bilingual text books for about 60 balvadis -- run by their sister organization 'Lokparishad' -- in the language of Adivasis - Lamani, Dhangari, Paradhi etc. with Marathi. They claim that teaching in mother tongue is better.
They have established a "Sonthaymar Cultural Association" and propose to set up a Museum at Jejuri to preserve the folk traditions in Maharashtra. Following history is condensed from these books, which give some historical points about the tribes like Ramoshis and Paradhis.
*History of Paradhis*
The Paradhi community is labeled as ex-criminal tribes on one side and is struggling to stand on its own feet on the other. The Paradhis have many sub-castes like Fase-Paradhi, Gav-Paradhi, Berad-Paradhi, Gay-Paradhi, Chita-Paradhi etc.
All of them were declared criminal Tribes except the Gav- Paradhis, who had taken to farming and settled well during British rule having a good population in Amravati District. They have given up hunting and very few have now guns. Fairly well educated, they are in Government employment in good numbers.
Their culture and civilization is changing fast with the changing times. Their traditional apparel used to be a 'pheta' (head dress) and 'langoti' (loin cloth) only. But things are now changing.
They worship nature and the goddesses more than the gods. They worship 'dhani' and 'jarane' by sacrificing goats.
There are only three surnames among them -- Chauhan, Pawar and Solanke. There is no inter-marriage within a surname. Marriage system resembles that of other castes.
Their language is akin to Hindi that is spoken in rural Gujrath and Rajasthan. They claim descent from Rana Pratap and Prithwiraj Chauhan and original home in Gujrath and Rajasthan. Their colonies are on the outskirts of towns.
The term "adivasi" denotes their 'political and social' identity. The terms indigenous and aboriginal are used by the Imperial States to enslave whole of Africa. In India, what the British could not do, was done by Independence. In the name of 'development', Adivasis are uprooted exploited and again 'rehabilitated' and this is called story of success in modern India. The strong edifice of modern India has lives of millions of Adivasis trenched under its foundation.
In the definition of modern India, an Adivasi means backward, having queer traditions, illiterate and devoid of history. Some of those who made this definition take refuge by calling then 'girijan' (dwellers of hills) or 'vanvasi' (dwellers of forests). They are already removed from the fields of arts and literature.
Because of these misunderstandings, Adivasis are faced with the problem of Identity Crisis. The reply to this question will be given by the now awakening Adivasi through the medium language in the modern terms, but still all traditions and customs would be its inseparable part.
*History of Ramoshis*
In 1871 the British Government declared some tribes as "Criminal". The established society did ot oppose this, contrararily they seem to have liked it. Some clauses were:
1. Permission should be obtained from police while shifting from one location to other.
2. Govt. could send the group of people outside the bounds of a certain area.
3. Govt. got the right to form a 'settlement' and keep the groups of people there.
Before the British came, what was their history? Today's Ramoshi was called Boya, Berad and Vedan. In Andhra it was called Boya and in Karnataka and Tamilnadu it was called Berad and Bedar. Ramoshis of Maharashtra have come from mostly Karnataka and their surnames are same as Berad-Ramoshi of Karnataka. Their original language is sothern. They first got settled in Karnataka and later migrated to Maharashtra. Word 'Bhuyal' in Berad's language seems to have originated from Boya. though it is known in Maharashtra as Ramoshi-Berad, the name 'Ramoshi' is not older than 100-200 years.
1. Maharashtra -- Ramoshis are Berads or Boyas. Ramoshi did not originate from 'Ram vamshi'. It is in use only for hundred to hundred and fifty years. Before that, they were called Berad or Bedar, as mentioned during rule of Peshavas.
Narveer Umaji Naik, in a letter of 1828, mentions as Ranvasi addressed to Ramoshis. Those days they were staying in hills and doing the job of protection of villages and crops in fields.
2. Andhra Pradesh -- Boya, Dorabiddu and Valmiki are the names in vogue. Dorabiddu means sons of sardars. Boya consider themselves as sons of sardars and descendents of Valmiki.
3. Tamilnadu -- Name in vogue is 'Vedan'.
4. Karnataka -- Names Berad and Bedar are in vogue. Bedar was word used by Muslims either to show the dauntless quality or may be inability to pronounce properly. Muslim books use word Bedar.
The names are Berad, Bedar, Nayak, Talwar, Nayavadi, Naykar, Valmiki, Palegar etc. each having distinctive meaning.
1. Nayak and Nayakar -- During Kakatiya and Vijayanagar rules in Andhra a head of a region was called Nayak, and traditional 'vatandars' were called Naykar. Akin to Deshmukh and Desais in Maharashtra, were Palegar and Naykars. Many Berads became Palegar on their own bravery. Nayak in Telgu means Ownner or Head. May be this is origin of word.
2. Naykvadi was the title of Killedar. Those protecting outer walls of fortes were called Nayakvadi.
3. Talwar was name one doing work of village watchman or revenue work. For villege policing, carrying the land revenue to treasury headquarters, the workers had to bear arms, so called Talwar meaning sword.
*Religious customs of Berad-Ramoshis*
1. Devata and kulswami -- Ramoshis of Maharashtra worship Khandoba as 'kulswami'. Also worship Mariaai, kalubai, janaai, firanjaai, tukaai, bhairoba etc., and also Yellamma.
Berads of Karnataka worship Mallikarjuna, Mauti, Vekatesh as main deities and also worship Yellamma.
Boyas worship Tirupati Venkat Ramana, Mariamma, Kanathrathan etc. Most of Berads are Shaivaites. They worship Shiva and engage Jangam or Lingayat Swami for religious functions.
2. Devak (Totems) -- Every kula has separate totem. No marriages take place within same totem though surnames may be different. They include pan-kanis, vasan-vel, surya-ful, umbar, jambhul etc.
3. Caste Panchayat of Berad Ramoshis -- The head is called Naik in Maharashtra and well respected. Previously they dealt with all disputes. In Karnataka he is called Nayak or Kahimani and Head of Boyas is called Naidu, Doraa or Sinhasan Boya. Their word is final and punishments differed, fine, feast to excommunication.
4. Wedding / Barase / Marmik -- Lingayat or Jangam is required. Sometimes Brahmin does it. Remarriages and widow marriages are allowed. Groom pays to bride's father some teej/dej/tyaj. There WAS no dowry system.
5. Barase and pachavi -- Child is named on 13th day. 'ghugarya' are distributed. On 5th day 'pachava chi puja' is performed. This time 'satwai' is worshiped. Child is named on twelth or twentyfirst day.
6. Funeral rites -- Burial was in vogue. Somewhere they cremate. On 3rd or 7th or 12th day they do 'mati lotne'. 'uttar karya vidhi' is performed that time.
At the burial place, the stones are aranged, gulal is sprinkled. On 3rd day flowers and 'naivadya' is offered.
*History of Berads*
There is no written history. Scanty writings are available by others. It has to be corelated with oral yraditions.
The original man was Guh. According to Rajguru of Shorapur princely state, Berads come from Tamilnadu migrating to Karnatake during Vijaynagar rule. Names of 14 ancestors are known to him but not whereabouts. The last was 'goshti pid nayaka', a contemporary of Shivaji Maharaj. This means the history dates back to 800 years from Shivaji's known date of 1630. Epigraphs of 8th to 11th century mention 'Bed-Beda', are they for the community?
During Vijaynagar rule, these Nayak kings were assigned duty of protecting province of Tungabhadra. After of fall of Vijaynagar, the kings of Shorpur became independant. They only came under Bijapur court for name sake. But the Bijapur court was always afraid of Berad Nayak Kings.
Later, during Maratha - Moghul conflict, Nayak kings played important role. After fall of Sambhaji and migration of Rajaram to Jinji, Moghu-Maratha conflict spread from Narmada to Tamilnadu and from east to west coast. Moghul Emperors realized they were fighting with a hurt identity in 1695. But it was not possible to turn back. During this conflict, Berad Nayaks played a delicate and important role. The families of all important Maratha sardars and their treasury was in Vagana-gera (or Wakin-kheda), the capital of these Nayak kings. Therefore, Aurangjeb had to fight his last battle of his life against Berad Nayaks of Vagana-gera during 1705 - 06.
*Struggle against the British*
Inumerable Berads sacrificed their lives in uprisings against the British. History knows very few names. The important are:
1. 1820 -1831 -- Umaji Naik, Bhulaji, Pandu Naik -- they rovolted in Pune, Nagar, Nasik, Satara, Solapur, Kokan. Most of participants in these rebelions were Ramoshis.
2. 1817 -- Gokak, Pachapur regions in Karnataka, Nayaks organized and rebelled. They were mostly Berads.
3. Revolt of Kittur Channamma and Sangoli Rayanna in Karnataka had mostly Berads,
4. 1817 -- Trimbak Dengale's revolt in Pune by sardars in Peshaai - mostly had Ramoshi, Bhil, Koli etc.
5. 1857 - Uprising of Rango Bapuji in Satara, rebelled in name of Chatrapati of Satara. Centres established for recruitment where Ramoshi Koli and Mangs were in majority. Two Madane Brothers of Ramoshi wadi (Koregaon Satara) and Nana Ramoshi of Kundal were blown by cannon. Many Ramoshis from Tasgaon in Bijapur Taluka participated.
6. 1844-50 -- Tukaram and Mahankal, two sons of Umaji Naik revolted.
7. 1857 - Berads of Village Halgali Dist. Bijapur Karnataka revolted against disarming act. 19 Berads were hanged at Mudhol.
8. 1857 -- Raja Venkappa Nayak of Shurpur Dist Gulbarga rebelled. He died in struggle,
9. 1870 -- 1880 Rebellion of Vasudev Balwant Phadake was participated by most of Ramoshis. Head was Daulati Naik, who died in fight against Capt. Daniel in Tisubai Hills. Hari Ramoshi was hanged at Jejuri and Berads at Mudhol.
10. 1910 -- Veer Sindhur Laxman rebelled against Sansthanik at Jat ant British, was killed by treachery.
11. Vajya - Baijya - fought against Saranjamdar at Kukudwad Dist Satara.
12. 1942 - 'Quit India' movement and formed 'prati sarkar' - parellel Government. Most Ramoshis of Satara Sangali Pune Districts participated.
----- Original Message ----
From: kharbnarender <kharbnarender@ yahoo.co.in>
Sent: Wednesday, 31 January, 2007 2:03:44 AM
Subject: [JatHistory] Jats Gujjar and Rajputs
Thanks Dharampal ji
It is only frank openion by historians like you which can help us to
try to solve this puzzle.
What is required a simple willingness to discuss this question with
an open mind.
I remember on of your post last year when you sent some info about
chohans of rajasthjan and there I found the parni clan of Chohans and
I thanked you for digging out the same .
Your search was very important as We find parni tribe of aryans
living in central asia and well recorded in central asia ,than we
found those parni and dhaes forming Parthia and their ruling elite
called zats ,than we find those parthians jats ,parani ,dhaes forming
kingdom in Northwest .But we could not find Parani presence
here ,which was brought to light by you.Such a complete linkage may
prove and hint a path of movement ,this may again confirm that same
people were earlier called jATS.Now parani as found there may have
largely intermarried with other local people and could have resulted
in tribal people but the fact remains that some paranis who are
closely related to chohans guhelots and other jat gujjar clans ,came
and settled in present areas and call them rajput who earlier called
Digvijay I can feel is perturbed at the neo facts emerging that
Rajput is nothing but a title of very late significance so in a
desperate attempt take every king and put Rajput after him with out
having any proof or a statement varifying same by that king or any
Ashok and people like us found it quite disturbing that rulers and
kings who called them gujjar and jats are later unnecessary put as
some different kings so are trying to correct wrong info.
Yaswant ji and some other well learned people dispite knowing the
facts, wants myths to continue as some MALLAYA has put mallaya clan
in rajput too,which is no where mentioned either in 36 kula or
inscription or some Todd book.
Ishwa and others are too fan of VARNA and don't want to believe that
these varna were interchanging among all sections proving a fallacy
of all varna system.
So what we see prejudices hampering a honest attempt of search.
But I am particularly disappointed by attitude of Ravi ji in this
case as we wish thatlearned and experinced people like him should
give his frank openion so that people need not waste time on theories
already searched and found wrong by Him.
Ravi ji this time I hope you will break your stoic silence and will
help in taking discussion to a next phase.
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- near Mandsor is Gharot village/town. Burdakji will tell you its longitude and latitude. However, mostly the Gujjar villages today are found on hilly, or khadar area jahan loot ke or dubak jao. Sultans of Delhi wanted some revenue/food for their standing armies and they allotted some agricultural land to these people. most of the famous dacoits were like mohr, madho, sundar etc. were gujjars. OBC Jat ke Rajasthan me aatte hi in Gujaron ke pasine chhoot gaye. Meena ne in ki aisi ki taisi kar di. Bhai Gujjar pahle Meena te nipat ke aale phir Jattan tte bat kariye.
Vinod Sangwan <sangwan.vinod@...> wrote:Ishwa,
I was surprised to see your opinion on Virk and varika. We have read about Vishnuvardhan being a Virk in so many places. You could read about Virks in Ibbeston's book on Panjab castes to start with. Does anyone has original text of Bijaygarh and Mandaur inscription? if so post here. Lets see what does virk or varika means. I couldn't find word varika in sanskrit dictionaries
http://spokensanskr it.de/index. php?script= HK&tinput=varika&country_ID=&trans=Translate&direction=AU
not even in Monier's http://hu.wiktionar y.org/wiki/ F%C3%BCggel% C3%A9k:monier/ v
Though I could one meaning of Varika as "Budhhist Official" somewhere, I dont dont know how that would fit in this context.
As per conversion of dental T to celeberal T, I still have to do more search to convince myself and will post on that later.
For meaning of Jaata and Jatta consult
http://spokensanskr it.de/index. php?script= HK&tinput=jata&country_ID=&trans=Translate&direction=AU
http://hu.wiktionar y.org/wiki/ F%C3%BCggel% C3%A9k:monier/ j
I am not saying that these link prove affinity of jata to Jat in any way. But if you look Jartika(Monier) stands for "people in N W India, also BAhika" which as per Dahiya and others are related to Jats and other 'outsider' hordes of NW India. As per meaning of Jartu, it is very rare word and appears only in one link, Moneir, with two meaings 'vulva' and 'elephant'. It's very unusual name for elephant there are dozens of more common names of elephants http://vedabase. net/g/gaja and one would wonder why such a vague name is used for elephant here. And does Jartu means elephant everywhere it appears in inscriptions?
Even if we give benefit of doubt to this interpretation, we are eager to hear your "symbolic" interpretation. What does an elephant defeating huns signify?
I raised this point before also, existence for cognate words doesn't necessarily prove correlation. If you want to find Jats in ancient history we can't ignore "clan" names by which they were at that time and Virk is excellent example of that no matter what do critics say.
Pinpoint customers who are looking for what you sell.