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History Scrapbooks - Runaway Indentured Servants or Redemptioners

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  • Cathy Joynt Labath
    The next series of articles I will run for History Scrapbooks will be articles on runaway Irish indentured servants or redemptioners who came to America
    Message 1 of 2 , Sep 2, 2005
      The next series of articles I will run for "History Scrapbooks" will be
      articles on runaway Irish indentured servants or redemptioners who came to
      America before 1800.

      Before I start running the ads - first a little background on redemptioners
      or indentured servants as taken from a variety of sources.

      ----------
      Definition: Redemptioner
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
      A redemptioner is an immigrant, generally from the 18th or 19th century,
      that gained passage to America by selling themselves as an indentured
      servant.

      Indentured servant
      From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
      An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a
      specified amount of time) for another person or a company/corporation, often
      without any monetary pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other
      essentials, training, or passage to a new country. After working for the
      term of the contract (traditionally seven years) the servant was then free
      to farm or take up trade of his own. The term comes from the medieval
      English "indenture of retainer" - a contract written in duplicate on the
      same sheet, with the copies separated by cutting along a jagged (toothed,
      hence the term "indenture) line so that the teeth of the two parts could
      later be refitted to confirm authenticity.

      ----------
      Roe, Melissa. "Differential Tolerances and Accepted Punishments for
      Disobedient Indentured Servants and Their Masters in Colonial Courts."
      Indentured Servants. http://www.eh.net/Clio/Publications/indentured.shtml
      (30 Aug 2005)

      Indentured servitude first appeared in America a little over a decade
      after the settlement of Jamestown in 1607. Labor was scarce; land was
      abundant and transportation costs to America were high compared to wages in
      England. An early economist noted that ...industry is limited by capital;
      but, through lack of labor, its limit is not always reached in older
      communities and seldom if ever in newer countries. Capital is an
      accumulation of labor and, like land, yields most when quickened by human
      toil. So dependent is capital upon labor that what is taken to new
      settlements often wastes away through lack of a labor supply. One obstacle
      to migration was the high cost of transportation. The Virginia Company,
      attempting to overcome high transportation costs, developed various schemes
      to increase migration; these schemes resulted in indentured servitude. The
      indenture system allowed for labor mobility from England to America...which
      made available the cultivation of vast amounts of new land that would
      satisfy the demands of the large English market resulting in a marginal
      productivity of labor in agriculture exceeding that in England. The Virginia
      Company eventually sold the labor of the servants to individual planters,
      forcing the planters to incur all costs of supervision and enforcement of
      contracts, including risks of escape or death of the servant. The indenture
      system, although initiated by the Virginia Company, was quickly utilized by
      private planters and merchants. Because this system worked so well in
      attracting labor to America, it remained in use long after the Virginia
      Company went out of business in 1624. Market efficiency occurs when the
      marginal revenue product of labor is equal to the wage. In other words, the
      price paid for the servant equals the value of the servant contract length.
      Although the typical servant contract in England was for a period of one to
      two years, those in America were considerably longer. This was because the
      transportation costs were high, and the lender needed to recover his
      investment, forcing servants to enter into longer contracts. Contracts were
      usually four to seven years long depending on the details. If a servant
      contracted to be taught a specific trade or skill or an education, the
      contract length would increase. Economists such as Farley Grubb and David
      Galenson have examined indentured servitude in colonial America and
      suggested that the system was efficient and, thus, fair. Historians,
      however, have looked at various practices of physical coercion and abuse, as
      well as punishments prescribed by law for criminal and runaway servants, and
      have claimed the system to be exploitive and cruel.
      ----------
      Novak, George. "Negro Slavery in North America." Negro Slavery in North
      America. http://www.marxists.org/archive/novack/works/1939/oct/x01.htm (30
      Aug 2005)

      At first the landed proprietors relied upon the importation of white
      bondsmen from the mother country. England and the continent were combed for
      servants to be sent to America.
      Some of these indentured servants came of their own accord, voluntarily
      agreeing to serve their masters for a certain term of years, usually four to
      seven, in return for their passage. Many others, especially German serfs,
      were sold by their lords to the slave merchants and ship-owners. In addition
      the overflowing prisons of England were emptied of their inmates and the
      convicts brought to America to be sold into servitude for terms ranging from
      four to fourteen years.
      The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in the middle of the seventeenth
      century made slaves as well as subjects of the Irish people. Over one
      hundred thousand men, women, and children were seized by the English troops
      and shipped over to the West Indies where they were sold into slavery upon
      the tobacco plantations. In The Re-Conquest of Ireland James Connolly quotes
      the following instance of the methods used.
      "Captain John Vernon was employed by the Commissioners for Ireland to
      England, and contracted in their behalf with Mr. David Sellick and the
      Leader under his hand to supply them with two hundred and fifty women of the
      Irish nation, above twelve years and under the age of forty-five, also three
      hundred men above twelve years and under fifty, to be found in the country
      within twenty miles of Cork, Youghal and Kinsale, Waterford and Wexford, to
      transport them into New England." This British firm alone was responsible
      for shipping over 6,400 girls and boys. . . .
      As a result of the insistent demands of the planters for labor, the
      servant trade took on most of the horrible features of the slave trade.
      Gangs of kidnappers roamed the streets of English seaports and combed the
      highways and byways of Britain and Ireland for raw material. In the
      rapacious search for redemptioners the homes of the poor were invaded. Where
      promises could not persuade, compulsion was brought into play. Husbands were
      torn from their wives, fathers from their families, children from their
      parents. Boys and girls were sold by parents or guardians; unwanted
      dependents by their relatives; serfs by their lords-and all this human cargo
      was shipped to America to be sold to the highest bidder.
      Thus the bulk of the white working population of the English colonies
      was composed of bondsmen and criminals, who had been cajoled or coerced into
      emigration and had to pass through years of bondage before they could call
      themselves free. These people and their children became the hunters,
      trappers, farmers, artisans, mechanics, and even the planters and merchants,
      who were later to form the ranks of the revolutionary forces against the
      mother country.
      These white bondsmen however provided neither a sufficient nor a
      satisfactory supply of labor. They could not be kept in a permanent
      condition of enslavement. Unless they were marked or branded, if they ran
      away they could not readily be distinguished from their free fellows or
      their masters. As production expanded, it became increasingly urgent to find
      new, more abundant, and more dependable sources of labor.
      ----------
      Morris, Richard B. "Emergence of American Labor." US Department of Labor.
      http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm (30 Aug 2005)

      Regardless of the lures offered to working men and women to emigrate to
      the New World, free labor remained in short supply throughout the colonial
      period. As a consequence, the English settlers innovated several forms of
      bound labor for white Europeans and adopted a long-established coercive
      labor system for black Africans. One form of bound labor, indentured
      servitude, included all persons bound to labor for periods of years as
      determined either by a written agreement or by the custom of the respective
      colony. The bulk of indentured servants comprised contract labor. White
      immigrants, called redemptioners or "freewillers," in return for their
      passage to America bound themselves as servants for varying periods, four
      years being the average length of service. This amounted to a system for
      underwriting the transportation of prospective emigrants.
      It has been estimated that the redemptioners comprised almost eighty
      per cent of the total British and continental immigration to America down to
      the coming of the Revolution. Virginia and Maryland planters who assumed
      transportation charges received a head right or land grant for each
      immigrant. In the main, though, the business was carried on by merchants
      specializing in the sale of servants' indentures. Recruiting agents called
      "Crimps" in England and "Newlanders" on the continent were employed by these
      merchants. They hired drummers to go through inland towns in England or
      along the war-devastated Rhineland areas crying the voyage to America; with
      the help of a piper to draw crowds, they distributed promotional literature
      at fairs.
      On the positive side, it should be said that the redemptioner system
      provided the bulk of the white labor force in the colonies. On the negative
      side, it must be acknowledged that it was riddled with fraudulent practices
      and that prospective servants were lured to detention houses to be held for
      shipment overseas through coercive procedures which often gave rise to
      charges of kidnapping. The redemptioners were packed like herring in
      unsanitary ships; the mortality rate could run in excess of fifty percent
      for a typical voyage. The survivors, served inadequate rations, generally
      arrived in a seriously weakened condition. Once, ashore, families might be
      broken up. Husbands and wives could be sold to different masters, and
      parents not infrequently were forced to sell their children. The latter
      could be bound out for longer terms of service than adults, even though they
      were shipped at half fare. Girls, ostensibly bound out for trades or
      housework, were at times exploited for immoral purposes.
      ----------
      Durkin, Michael. "Lesson 5: How the Irish Fled" Suite University. Irish
      Emigration to America. http://www.suite101.com/lesson.cfm/18819/2329/3 (30
      Aug 2005)

      Redemptioners was a name recognised in Pennsylvania for servants who
      had signed as bond servants for a period of 5 years. Slavery itself would
      have been more acceptable than the prevailing conditions in Ireland. Ship's
      Masters also were in a position to show smaller numbers of passengers on
      their manifests than were actually carried which has proved to be another
      reason for hopelessly inadequate information on the numbers who fled the
      country. They could also profit from the supply of food which they were
      obliged to offer their passengers. This often was of the worst available
      sort and even more frequently portions were inaccurately weighed out.
      ----------
      Stratford Hall Plantation. "Indentured Servants and Transported Convicts."
      Indentured Servants and Transported Convicts.
      http://www.stratfordhall.org/ed-servants.html?EDUCATION (30 Aug 2005)

      White indentured servants came from all over Great Britain. Men, women,
      and sometimes children signed a contract with a master to serve a term of 4
      to 7 years. In exchange for their service, the indentured servants received
      their passage paid from England, as well as food, clothing, and shelter once
      they arrived in the colonies. Some were even paid a salary. When the
      contract had expired, the servant was paid freedom dues of corn, tools, and
      clothing, and was allowed to leave the plantation. During the time of his
      indenture, however, the servant was considered his master's personal
      property and his contract could be inherited or sold. Prices paid for
      indentured servants varied depending on skills.
      While under contract a person could not marry or have children. A
      master's permission was needed to leave the plantation, to perform work for
      anyone else, or to keep money for personal use. An unruly indentured servant
      was whipped or punished for improper behavior. Due to poor living
      conditions, hard labor, and difficulties adjusting to new climates and
      native diseases, many servants did not live to see their freedom. Often
      servants ran away from their masters. Since they often spoke English and
      were white, runaway servants were more difficult to recapture than black
      slaves. If runaway servants were captured, they were punished by increasing
      their time of service.
      ----------
      O'Malley, Mike. "Runaway from Freedom?" Runaway from Freedom.
      http://historymatters.gmu.edu/blackboard/OMalley/runaway.html (30 Aug 2005)

      Benjamin Franklin estimated that at the time of the American Revolution,
      roughly one half of Pennsylvania's labor force was legally unfree-bound to
      someone else as property, for many years or for a lifetime.
      ----------
      Examples of Ads for Servants from Ireland - 1751. Sounds like they were sold
      as a commodity!

      June 27, 1751
      The Pennsylvania Gazette

      Just imported from Ireland, in the ship Sally, lying off
      Market street wharff, and to be sold by JOHN ERWIN, In
      Strawberry Alley, A Parcel of likely servants, men and women.

      August 8, 1751
      The Pennsylvania Gazette

      JUST imported from Ireland, in the ship Cumberland, capt.
      Macilvaine, a parcel of likely men and women servants, whose
      times are to be disposed of by CONYNGHAM and GARDNER. Amongst
      which, are the following tradesmen, viz. coopers, joiners,
      house carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, taylors, weavers,
      woolcombers, sawyers, peruke makers, butchers, skinners,
      breeches makers, stay makers, masons, bakers, coppersmiths and
      painters, and a number of very good labourers.


      Cathy Joynt Labath
      Ireland Old News
      http://www.IrelandOldNews.com/
    • Susan Patterson
      Dear Cathy, Could you remove from your list please? I have really enjoyed your Irish postings but am now on to other areas. Well done: it s a great service,
      Message 2 of 2 , Sep 2, 2005
        Dear Cathy, Could you remove from your list please?
        I have really enjoyed your Irish postings but am now on to other areas.
        Well done: it's a great service,
        Susan Patterson
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: "Cathy Joynt Labath" <labaths@...>
        To: <ireland-l@...>; <irelandoldnews@yahoogroups.com>
        Sent: Saturday, September 03, 2005 6:29 AM
        Subject: [IrelandOldNews] History Scrapbooks - Runaway Indentured Servants
        or Redemptioners


        > The next series of articles I will run for "History Scrapbooks" will be
        > articles on runaway Irish indentured servants or redemptioners who came to
        > America before 1800.
        >
        > Before I start running the ads - first a little background on
        redemptioners
        > or indentured servants as taken from a variety of sources.
        >
        > ----------
        > Definition: Redemptioner
        > From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
        > A redemptioner is an immigrant, generally from the 18th or 19th century,
        > that gained passage to America by selling themselves as an indentured
        > servant.
        >
        > Indentured servant
        > From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
        > An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a
        > specified amount of time) for another person or a company/corporation,
        often
        > without any monetary pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other
        > essentials, training, or passage to a new country. After working for the
        > term of the contract (traditionally seven years) the servant was then free
        > to farm or take up trade of his own. The term comes from the medieval
        > English "indenture of retainer" - a contract written in duplicate on the
        > same sheet, with the copies separated by cutting along a jagged (toothed,
        > hence the term "indenture) line so that the teeth of the two parts could
        > later be refitted to confirm authenticity.
        >
        > ----------
        > Roe, Melissa. "Differential Tolerances and Accepted Punishments for
        > Disobedient Indentured Servants and Their Masters in Colonial Courts."
        > Indentured Servants. http://www.eh.net/Clio/Publications/indentured.shtml
        > (30 Aug 2005)
        >
        > Indentured servitude first appeared in America a little over a decade
        > after the settlement of Jamestown in 1607. Labor was scarce; land was
        > abundant and transportation costs to America were high compared to wages
        in
        > England. An early economist noted that ...industry is limited by capital;
        > but, through lack of labor, its limit is not always reached in older
        > communities and seldom if ever in newer countries. Capital is an
        > accumulation of labor and, like land, yields most when quickened by human
        > toil. So dependent is capital upon labor that what is taken to new
        > settlements often wastes away through lack of a labor supply. One obstacle
        > to migration was the high cost of transportation. The Virginia Company,
        > attempting to overcome high transportation costs, developed various
        schemes
        > to increase migration; these schemes resulted in indentured servitude. The
        > indenture system allowed for labor mobility from England to
        America...which
        > made available the cultivation of vast amounts of new land that would
        > satisfy the demands of the large English market resulting in a marginal
        > productivity of labor in agriculture exceeding that in England. The
        Virginia
        > Company eventually sold the labor of the servants to individual planters,
        > forcing the planters to incur all costs of supervision and enforcement of
        > contracts, including risks of escape or death of the servant. The
        indenture
        > system, although initiated by the Virginia Company, was quickly utilized
        by
        > private planters and merchants. Because this system worked so well in
        > attracting labor to America, it remained in use long after the Virginia
        > Company went out of business in 1624. Market efficiency occurs when the
        > marginal revenue product of labor is equal to the wage. In other words,
        the
        > price paid for the servant equals the value of the servant contract
        length.
        > Although the typical servant contract in England was for a period of one
        to
        > two years, those in America were considerably longer. This was because the
        > transportation costs were high, and the lender needed to recover his
        > investment, forcing servants to enter into longer contracts. Contracts
        were
        > usually four to seven years long depending on the details. If a servant
        > contracted to be taught a specific trade or skill or an education, the
        > contract length would increase. Economists such as Farley Grubb and David
        > Galenson have examined indentured servitude in colonial America and
        > suggested that the system was efficient and, thus, fair. Historians,
        > however, have looked at various practices of physical coercion and abuse,
        as
        > well as punishments prescribed by law for criminal and runaway servants,
        and
        > have claimed the system to be exploitive and cruel.
        > ----------
        > Novak, George. "Negro Slavery in North America." Negro Slavery in North
        > America. http://www.marxists.org/archive/novack/works/1939/oct/x01.htm (30
        > Aug 2005)
        >
        > At first the landed proprietors relied upon the importation of white
        > bondsmen from the mother country. England and the continent were combed
        for
        > servants to be sent to America.
        > Some of these indentured servants came of their own accord,
        voluntarily
        > agreeing to serve their masters for a certain term of years, usually four
        to
        > seven, in return for their passage. Many others, especially German serfs,
        > were sold by their lords to the slave merchants and ship-owners. In
        addition
        > the overflowing prisons of England were emptied of their inmates and the
        > convicts brought to America to be sold into servitude for terms ranging
        from
        > four to fourteen years.
        > The Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in the middle of the seventeenth
        > century made slaves as well as subjects of the Irish people. Over one
        > hundred thousand men, women, and children were seized by the English
        troops
        > and shipped over to the West Indies where they were sold into slavery upon
        > the tobacco plantations. In The Re-Conquest of Ireland James Connolly
        quotes
        > the following instance of the methods used.
        > "Captain John Vernon was employed by the Commissioners for Ireland to
        > England, and contracted in their behalf with Mr. David Sellick and the
        > Leader under his hand to supply them with two hundred and fifty women of
        the
        > Irish nation, above twelve years and under the age of forty-five, also
        three
        > hundred men above twelve years and under fifty, to be found in the country
        > within twenty miles of Cork, Youghal and Kinsale, Waterford and Wexford,
        to
        > transport them into New England." This British firm alone was responsible
        > for shipping over 6,400 girls and boys. . . .
        > As a result of the insistent demands of the planters for labor, the
        > servant trade took on most of the horrible features of the slave trade.
        > Gangs of kidnappers roamed the streets of English seaports and combed the
        > highways and byways of Britain and Ireland for raw material. In the
        > rapacious search for redemptioners the homes of the poor were invaded.
        Where
        > promises could not persuade, compulsion was brought into play. Husbands
        were
        > torn from their wives, fathers from their families, children from their
        > parents. Boys and girls were sold by parents or guardians; unwanted
        > dependents by their relatives; serfs by their lords-and all this human
        cargo
        > was shipped to America to be sold to the highest bidder.
        > Thus the bulk of the white working population of the English colonies
        > was composed of bondsmen and criminals, who had been cajoled or coerced
        into
        > emigration and had to pass through years of bondage before they could call
        > themselves free. These people and their children became the hunters,
        > trappers, farmers, artisans, mechanics, and even the planters and
        merchants,
        > who were later to form the ranks of the revolutionary forces against the
        > mother country.
        > These white bondsmen however provided neither a sufficient nor a
        > satisfactory supply of labor. They could not be kept in a permanent
        > condition of enslavement. Unless they were marked or branded, if they ran
        > away they could not readily be distinguished from their free fellows or
        > their masters. As production expanded, it became increasingly urgent to
        find
        > new, more abundant, and more dependable sources of labor.
        > ----------
        > Morris, Richard B. "Emergence of American Labor." US Department of Labor.
        > http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm (30 Aug 2005)
        >
        > Regardless of the lures offered to working men and women to emigrate
        to
        > the New World, free labor remained in short supply throughout the colonial
        > period. As a consequence, the English settlers innovated several forms of
        > bound labor for white Europeans and adopted a long-established coercive
        > labor system for black Africans. One form of bound labor, indentured
        > servitude, included all persons bound to labor for periods of years as
        > determined either by a written agreement or by the custom of the
        respective
        > colony. The bulk of indentured servants comprised contract labor. White
        > immigrants, called redemptioners or "freewillers," in return for their
        > passage to America bound themselves as servants for varying periods, four
        > years being the average length of service. This amounted to a system for
        > underwriting the transportation of prospective emigrants.
        > It has been estimated that the redemptioners comprised almost eighty
        > per cent of the total British and continental immigration to America down
        to
        > the coming of the Revolution. Virginia and Maryland planters who assumed
        > transportation charges received a head right or land grant for each
        > immigrant. In the main, though, the business was carried on by merchants
        > specializing in the sale of servants' indentures. Recruiting agents called
        > "Crimps" in England and "Newlanders" on the continent were employed by
        these
        > merchants. They hired drummers to go through inland towns in England or
        > along the war-devastated Rhineland areas crying the voyage to America;
        with
        > the help of a piper to draw crowds, they distributed promotional
        literature
        > at fairs.
        > On the positive side, it should be said that the redemptioner system
        > provided the bulk of the white labor force in the colonies. On the
        negative
        > side, it must be acknowledged that it was riddled with fraudulent
        practices
        > and that prospective servants were lured to detention houses to be held
        for
        > shipment overseas through coercive procedures which often gave rise to
        > charges of kidnapping. The redemptioners were packed like herring in
        > unsanitary ships; the mortality rate could run in excess of fifty percent
        > for a typical voyage. The survivors, served inadequate rations, generally
        > arrived in a seriously weakened condition. Once, ashore, families might be
        > broken up. Husbands and wives could be sold to different masters, and
        > parents not infrequently were forced to sell their children. The latter
        > could be bound out for longer terms of service than adults, even though
        they
        > were shipped at half fare. Girls, ostensibly bound out for trades or
        > housework, were at times exploited for immoral purposes.
        > ----------
        > Durkin, Michael. "Lesson 5: How the Irish Fled" Suite University. Irish
        > Emigration to America. http://www.suite101.com/lesson.cfm/18819/2329/3
        (30
        > Aug 2005)
        >
        > Redemptioners was a name recognised in Pennsylvania for servants who
        > had signed as bond servants for a period of 5 years. Slavery itself would
        > have been more acceptable than the prevailing conditions in Ireland.
        Ship's
        > Masters also were in a position to show smaller numbers of passengers on
        > their manifests than were actually carried which has proved to be another
        > reason for hopelessly inadequate information on the numbers who fled the
        > country. They could also profit from the supply of food which they were
        > obliged to offer their passengers. This often was of the worst available
        > sort and even more frequently portions were inaccurately weighed out.
        > ----------
        > Stratford Hall Plantation. "Indentured Servants and Transported Convicts."
        > Indentured Servants and Transported Convicts.
        > http://www.stratfordhall.org/ed-servants.html?EDUCATION (30 Aug 2005)
        >
        > White indentured servants came from all over Great Britain. Men,
        women,
        > and sometimes children signed a contract with a master to serve a term of
        4
        > to 7 years. In exchange for their service, the indentured servants
        received
        > their passage paid from England, as well as food, clothing, and shelter
        once
        > they arrived in the colonies. Some were even paid a salary. When the
        > contract had expired, the servant was paid freedom dues of corn, tools,
        and
        > clothing, and was allowed to leave the plantation. During the time of his
        > indenture, however, the servant was considered his master's personal
        > property and his contract could be inherited or sold. Prices paid for
        > indentured servants varied depending on skills.
        > While under contract a person could not marry or have children. A
        > master's permission was needed to leave the plantation, to perform work
        for
        > anyone else, or to keep money for personal use. An unruly indentured
        servant
        > was whipped or punished for improper behavior. Due to poor living
        > conditions, hard labor, and difficulties adjusting to new climates and
        > native diseases, many servants did not live to see their freedom. Often
        > servants ran away from their masters. Since they often spoke English and
        > were white, runaway servants were more difficult to recapture than black
        > slaves. If runaway servants were captured, they were punished by
        increasing
        > their time of service.
        > ----------
        > O'Malley, Mike. "Runaway from Freedom?" Runaway from Freedom.
        > http://historymatters.gmu.edu/blackboard/OMalley/runaway.html (30 Aug
        2005)
        >
        > Benjamin Franklin estimated that at the time of the American Revolution,
        > roughly one half of Pennsylvania's labor force was legally unfree-bound to
        > someone else as property, for many years or for a lifetime.
        > ----------
        > Examples of Ads for Servants from Ireland - 1751. Sounds like they were
        sold
        > as a commodity!
        >
        > June 27, 1751
        > The Pennsylvania Gazette
        >
        > Just imported from Ireland, in the ship Sally, lying off
        > Market street wharff, and to be sold by JOHN ERWIN, In
        > Strawberry Alley, A Parcel of likely servants, men and women.
        >
        > August 8, 1751
        > The Pennsylvania Gazette
        >
        > JUST imported from Ireland, in the ship Cumberland, capt.
        > Macilvaine, a parcel of likely men and women servants, whose
        > times are to be disposed of by CONYNGHAM and GARDNER. Amongst
        > which, are the following tradesmen, viz. coopers, joiners,
        > house carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, taylors, weavers,
        > woolcombers, sawyers, peruke makers, butchers, skinners,
        > breeches makers, stay makers, masons, bakers, coppersmiths and
        > painters, and a number of very good labourers.
        >
        >
        > Cathy Joynt Labath
        > Ireland Old News
        > http://www.IrelandOldNews.com/
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
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