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PROPHET OF ISLAM; THE JUST LEADER (pbuh)

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  • Adam Mohomed Sait
    PROPHET OF ISLAM; THE JUST LEADER (pbuh) Narrated Amr bin Al-Harith, the brother of the wife of Allah s Messenger (SallAllahu alaihi wasallam) Juwairiya bint
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 24, 2012
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    PROPHET OF ISLAM; THE JUST LEADER (pbuh)

    Narrated Amr bin Al-Harith, the brother of the wife of Allah's Messenger (SallAllahu alaihi wasallam) Juwairiya bint Al-Harith:
     
    When Allah's Messenger (SallAllahu alaihi wasallam) left this world, he did not leave any Dirham or Dinar (i.e. money), or a slave or a slave-woman or anything else except his white mule, his arms and a piece of land which he had given in charity.
     
    Sahih Al-Bukhari 4:2


    Assalam alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu all my friends

    Eid Al-Adha is around the corner, and I take this opportunity to wish Eid Mubarak to all of you. Some countries will be celebrating Eid on Friday, while others, like here in India, will be doing so on Saturday. Some of you are participating in the Hajj, and to them I wish them Hajj Mabroor. May Allah Grant our every good wish and our aspirations, and we may have many. And we need to remember that Allah will only give us what is good for us, so if something we pray for is not granted, we should take it that in Allah's opinion the thing/s that we asked for is/are not good for us. And we should be content with the decision/s of Allah, whichever way it goes.

    Taqabbal Allahu minna wa minkum. May Allah accept this from us and from you. Ameen.

    Wassalam. Adam.
    Chennai, India.


     

    PROPHET OF ISLAM; THE JUST

    LEADER (pbuh)
     


    How Did Prophet Muhammad Treat His Enemies? P.1

    By Raya Shokatfard
    Freelance Writer - USA


    Some historical background of the inhabitants of the Arabian desert may shed some light on who lived there and why.

    It is obvious that most of the Arabian Peninsula was inhabited by the original Arabs from various kingdoms and clans – yet they had many things in common in regards to customs, culture and religious beliefs.

    The original Arabs of the time of Abraham and Ishmael were monotheists while the two Prophets of God lived among them and preached the one God.

    It was centuries after their demise that some idols were brought to Makkah and their promoters started the movement of idol worshipping, which lasted till the advent of Islam.

    Advent of Islam

             The Prophet and Non-Muslims

     - The Prophet with Non-Muslims

     - Prophet Muhammad: Master of Tolerance

     The Wisdom of God's Messenger

     - The Prophet’s Kindness Towards People of the Book

     - The Prophet's Tolerance Towards Other Religions

    When Prophet Muhammad started preaching monotheism, it upset the Arabs whose commerce of buying and selling idols as well as centuries old false beliefs began to be threatened. This caused a severe resistance to the new message as well as harsh reaction to Muhammad and his followers in forms of persecutions, murder, torture, isolation and exile.

    After tolerating such harsh environment, Prophet Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia and later on was commanded by God to migrate to Madinah with those who were able to make the move.

    Inhabitants of Madinah

    Besides the original Arabs, Madinah also was the home to others including many Jews who had migrated there two centuries before Muhammad’s birth due to severe persecutions in various lands they lived. So, Madinah had become their home. They adapted to cultures, language and way of dress just like the Arabs. They even took Arabic names to themselves, but they maintained their fundamental belief in the Torah.

    Although the influential Jews did not rule the oasis, they were clients of two large Arab tribes there, the Khazraj and the Aws, who protected them in return for feudal loyalty. According to some records, there were over twenty Jewish tribes but three were prominent: the Banu Nadir, the Banu Qaynuqa’, and the Banu Qurayza.

    Prophet Muhammad Arrives in Madinah

     
    Prophet Muhammad arrived in Madinah in 622 A.D assuming the Jewish tribes would welcome him like the rest of the inhabitants. Contrary to expectations, they were not so keen about receiving someone who claimed to be a prophet, as they still expected the promised Messiah to arrive. Their forefathers had not accepted Jesus as the Messiah when he was among them centuries earlier. Thus, Muhammad also was not accepted as the Prophet of God.

    Now, many challenges faced both sides. How would they co-exist peacefully?

    To begin with, Prophet Muhammad arbitrated and ended a bloody civil war between the Khazraj and the Aws tribes in which the Jewish clans, being their clients, were embroiled.

    Further, in order to establish an Islamic state, there had to be peace and security in the region. Thus, Prophet Muhammad arranged for a pact between Madinah's pagan, Muslim and Jewish clans which was to protect each other, but achieving this new social order was difficult. Certain individual pagans and so called “new Muslim hypocrites” tried to thwart the new arrangement in various ways, and some of the Jewish clans were uneasy with the change of the old alliances.

    At least three times in five years, Jewish leaders, uncomfortable with political situation in Madinah, went against Muhammad, hoping to restore the balance of power among the tribes.

    According to well-documented sources, individuals from among these clans plotted to take the Prophet’s life at least twice. Two of the tribes - the Banu Nadir and the Banu Qaynuqa - were eventually exiled for falling short on their agreed upon commitments and for the consequent danger they posed to the new Muslim community.

    Meanwhile Makkans were actively plotting to attack Muslims of Madinah and their military.

    Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, was nearly killed in the first battle, on the plains of Uhud just outside Madinah. In their second and final military assault against Madinah, known as the Battle of the Trench, the Makkans recruited allies from northwestern Arabia to join the fight, including the assistance of the two exiled Jewish tribes, which were dealt with by the Prophet in later time. In addition, they sent envoys to the largest Jewish tribe still in Madinah, the Banu Qurayza, hoping to win their support.

    The Banu Qurayza's strategic location on the south side of Madinah would allow the Makkans to attack Muhammad from two sides.

    The Banu Qurayza’s hesitation to cooperate soon turned into excitement and cooperation once the Makkan army arrived. They were certain that with their help, the huge Makkan army would soon overpower the small army of Muslims – causing their total annihilation forever.

    God turned the table around and gave victory to the Muslim army. Next, the Prophet, peace be upon him, ordered a siege around the fortress of the traitors.

    At this stage, one must note that the Prophet of God gave full protection to all the Jewish tribes of Madinah from the onset of his arrival. Yet, it was them who constantly broke the pact which was to protect them as well as others involved. Unless one knows the full events surrounding the fate of these three tribes and what caused them, one may consider Prophet Muhammad to be the enemy of the Jews. Yet, only a clear understanding would shed proper light on how well they were treated and how they returned the favor with enmity which left no other choice but consequences they faced.

    A siege began around the well-built fortress of Banu Qurayza as they nervously awaited their fate. All their plots to free themselves from the wrath of their consequences did not avail then but aught.

     

    They recalled how they themselves were deceived by the Makkans. As they had laid siege against the Muslims, they had requested from the Makkans to send them a hostage to insure that they would comply with their pact of protection they had with them, but upon refusal, the relationship between the two sides fell apart. The Makkans, exhausted and confronted by heavy rain and cold retreated and left Banu Qurayza abandoned, humiliated and defeated.

    Finally after a 25 day siege, both sides agreed to arbitration. Bani Qurayza chose a former ally, an Arab chief named Sa'd ibn Muadh, now a Muslim, hoping that he would judge favorably for them as if the earlier tribal relations had been in force.  Sa'd, one of the few casualties of battle, would soon die of his wounds.

    Sa’d’s fellow chiefs urged him to pardon these former allies, but he refused. In his view, the Banu Qurayza had failed to honor their agreement to protect the town and additionally rose to attack the Muslims. He ruled that all the men should be killed. Prophet Muhammad accepted his judgment, and the next day, according to Muslim sources, 700 men of the Banu Qurayza were executed while their women and children as well as animals were spared and taken as war booty. God confirmed this decision to be correct and Prophet Muhammad was pleased.

    Although Sa'd judged according to his own views, his ruling is confirmed in Torah:

    "However, if it does not make peace with you, but makes war against you, then you shall besiege it." When the LORD your God gives it into your hand, you shall strike all the men in it with the edge of the sword. "Only the women and the children and the animals and all that is in the city, all its spoil, you shall take as booty for yourself; and you shall use the spoil of your enemies which the LORD your God has given you.” (New International Version, Deuteronomy 20:12-14)

    The present Jews who have written numerous accusations about Prophet Muhammad’s treatment of the Jews failed to look into their own book to realize the consequences of those who fought against them in the stories of Torah. Yet, when treason is added to it, no doubt proper retaliation is the true justice affirmed by God.

    Muslims had faced the threat of total extermination, and needed to send a strong message to all those groups in Madinah that might try to betray their society in the future.

    Yet, Prophet Muhammad did not confuse the treacheries some Jewish tribes committed against him with the message of Judaism. Although passages in the Quran that warn Muslims not to make pacts with the Jews of Arabia which emerge from these specific wartime situations, a spirit of respect for the Torah, acceptance, and comradeship prevailed, as recorded in a late chapter of the Quran:

    {We sent down the Torah, in which there is guidance and light, by which the Prophets who surrendered to God's will provided judgments for the Jewish people. Also, the rabbis and doctors of the Law (did likewise), according to that portion of God's Book with which they were entrusted, and they became witnesses to it as well…. Whoever does not judge by what God has sent down (including the Torah), they are indeed unbelievers.} (Al-Ma’idah 5: 44)

    Some individual Madinan Jews, including at least one rabbi, became Muslims. But generally, the Jews of Madinah remained true to their faith and were given full protection during the life of Prophet Muhammad and centuries which followed.
     

    His Relations With Christians


    Islam Prevails

    Through years of suffering persecution, exile and wars, Muslims finally began to rule the Arabian Peninsula by the year 10 A.H. - a year before the Prophet’s demise.  

    As per the Prophet’s order, letters were written to kings and emperors in faraway lands inviting them to Islam.

    As for all Arabian tribes, the time had come to realize that there was no longer any power in Arabia to challenge the authority of the Islamic state in Madinah headed by Prophet Muhammad.

    Although there were some small skirmishes, the majority realized that it was only to be expected that the Arabian tribes should start to review their position.

            The Prophet's Universal Message

     - Prophet Muhammad and Justice

     - The Universal Message of the Prophet

     - Prophet Muhammad: A Model of Change

     - The Timelessness of the Prophet's Message

     - Prophet Muhammad’s Message Goes Abroad

    Many delegations arrived in Madinah, to ask many questions they had about the essential elements of the faith of Islam or to pledge their loyalty to the Prophet and declare their belief in God’s oneness and the message of Muhammad.

    Among these delegations, which included many of major Arab tribes, some were asking for power, others for friendship with whole tribes declaring their acceptance of Islam.

    The Arrival of Christians

     

    The territory of Najran was located south of Bani Khath’am near Yemen, about 450 miles south of Madinah. In response to a letter sent by Prophet Muhammad inviting them to Islam, they sent a delegation of 60 people to Madinah in order to get first-hand information about the Prophet.

    They were received in the Prophet’s mosque, and he allowed them to pray in the mosque, facing East. This group of Christians followed Byzantine rite, and their clans were supported financially by the Byzantine ruler.

    They had many questions that took many hours. They discussed the nature of God with the Prophet. He answered them by reciting from the Quran:

    {Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begets not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.} (Al Ikhlas 112: 1-4)

    There were disagreements about the nature of Prophet Jesus and his disputed divinity and being the son of God. Prophet Muhammad asked for time to clear their arguments, and by the morning of the next day the following verses were revealed to him, which he recited it to them.

    {Jesus, in God’s view, is the same as Adam, whom He had created from dust and said to him: ‘Be’, and he was there. This is the truth from your Lord. Be not, therefore, one of the doubters. Should anyone argue with you about him after what has been given to you of true knowledge, say to them: let us call in our children and your children, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves. Let us then all pray God and ask that God’s curse overwhelm the liars.} (Al-Imran 3: 59-61)

    The Najran delegation refused to accept the above revelation about the nature of Jesus. Then Prophet Muhammad challenged them with the Quranic verses quoted above.

    It was a serious challenge, but they agreed to meet, at which time the Prophet took his daughter, Fatima, his son-in-law, Ali, and his two grand children Al-Hasan and Al-Hussein. For the Najran people, this meant that they risked being cursed by God. Such a prospect was not to be taken lightly. So, they declined the challenge.

    However, they asked for a peace treaty, which was offered by Prophet Muhammad the next day.

    Relying on what they knew of the Prophet’s fairness, they promised to accept those terms whatever they were without a question.

    A Treaty Signed

     

    The agreed provisions were as follows:

    “In the name of God, the Merciful, the Beneficent. This is what Muhammad, the Prophet and God’s Messenger, has written down for the people of Najran when he has the authority over all their fruits, gold, silver, crops and slaves. He has benevolently left them all that in return for 2,000 hullas every year, 1,000 to be given in the month of Rajab and 1,000 in the month of Safar. (Each hulla is equal to one ounce, measure equal to 4 dirhams).

    The Najran are also required to provide accommodation and expenses for my messengers, for up to 20 days. None of my messengers shall be kept in Najran more than one month. They are also required to give, as a loan, 30 shields, 30 horses and 30 camels, in case of any disorder and treachery in Yemen. If anything is lost of the shields, horses or camels they loan to my messenger, it will remain owing by my messenger until it is given back. Najran has the protection of God and the pledges of Muhammad, the Prophet, to protect their lives, faith, land, property, those who are absent and those who are present, and their clan and allies.

    The Najrans need not change anything of their past customs. No right of theirs or their religion shall be altered. No bishop, monk or church guard shall be removed from his position.

    Whatever they have is theirs, no matter how big or small. They are not held in suspicion and they shall suffer no vengeance killing. They are not required to be mobilized and no army shall trespass on their land. If any of them requests that any right of his should be given to him, justice shall be administered among them. He who takes usury on past loans is not under my protection. No person in Najran is answerable for an injustice committed by another.” (see Prophet Muhammad Meets Najran Christians)

    The treaty provided religious and administrative autonomy for not only Christians but any non-Muslim citizen of the Islamic state. All sincere Muslim rulers have adhered to the founding principles of this treaty in managing the affairs of non-Muslim subjects for centuries.

    Protection for Saint Catherine Christians in Mount Sinai

    Prophet Muhammad was keen to bring to the attention of his followers and Muslim rulers that non-Islamic religious institutions should not be harmed. Here is a letter addressed to his emissary to the religious leaders of Saint Catherine in Mount Sinai who had sought the protection of the Muslims:

    “This is a message from Muhammad ibn Abdullah, as a covenant to those who adopt Christianity, near and far, we are with them.

    Verily I, the servants, the helpers, and my followers defend them, because Christians are my citizens; and by God I hold out against anything that displeases them. No compulsion is to be on them. Neither are their judges to be removed from their jobs nor their monks from their monasteries.

    No one is to destroy a house of their religion, to damage it, or to carry anything from it to the Muslims’ houses. Should anyone take any of these, he would spoil God’s covenant and disobey His Prophet. Verily, they are my allies and have my secure charter against all that they hate. No one is to force them to travel or to oblige them to fight. The Muslims are to fight for them.

    If a female Christian is married to a Muslim, it is not to take place without her approval.  She is not to be prevented from visiting her church to pray. Their churches are declared to be protected. They are neither to be prevented from repairing them nor the sacredness of their covenants. No one of the nation (Muslims) is to disobey the covenant till the Last Day (end of the world).”

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