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gold funerary masks

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  • Trudy Kawami
    Gold funerary masks are well known from the Hellenistic & later periods in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. Sometime they were abbreviated into gold eye
    Message 1 of 29 , Feb 2, 2007
      Gold funerary masks are well known from the Hellenistic & later periods
      in the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean. Sometime they were abbreviated
      into gold eye "covers" oval or diamond-shaped pieces of foil. The
      Bulgarian piece that was illustrated is clearly Hellenistic (or post-H.)
      in its plasticity and naturalism. A lot of wealth poured into the
      regions north of the Pelleponesos & Attica in the Hellenistic period and
      it shows in the lavish funerary practices, quite unlike what we are
      accustomed to in Attica, the region around Athens, in the earlier
      Classical period.
      Trudy Kawami

      ________________________________

      From: Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Steve
      Farmer
      Sent: Friday, February 02, 2007 9:31 AM
      To: Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com
      Cc: Steve Farmer
      Subject: Re: [Indo-Eurasia] Agamemnon's handle-bar mustache



      Please note that the link I provided is only to the abstract to the
      feature article that showed up on the Balkan finds in the March/April
      2005 issue of Archaeology. I don't believe that the full article is
      available online:

      http://www.archaeology.org/0503/abstracts/kitov.html
      <http://www.archaeology.org/0503/abstracts/kitov.html>

      More on the article and Kitov in an editorial from the McDonald
      Institute for Archaeological Research (U. of Cambridge):

      http://tinyurl.com/yq9d3s <http://tinyurl.com/yq9d3s>

      More photos of the mask: http://www.kroraina.com/thracia/sv/
      <http://www.kroraina.com/thracia/sv/>

      Steve

      On Friday, February 2, 2007, at 04:41 AM, matrix_blues wrote:

      > [Mod. note. Thanks, Cameron. I'm not sure how much scholarly data are
      > available on the Bulgarian masks yet. Unfortunately, Georgi [or
      > Georgy] Kitov is another Schliemann type -- and that is no cynical
      > exaggeration -- with a checkered reputation in the archaeological
      > community. There is a little piece on him in _Archaeology_ from a few
      > years ago worth looking at:
      > http://www.archaeology.org/0503/abstracts/kitov.html
      <http://www.archaeology.org/0503/abstracts/kitov.html>
      > Also look at the following Wikipedia article on him:
      > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgi_Kitov
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georgi_Kitov>
      > I have a friend with colleagues in Bulgarian archaeology who has added

      > other cautions. - Steve.]
      >
      > Steve wrote :
      >
      >> Looking at those Gandharan pieces, despite the big gap in dates,
      >> makes this seductive argument much less attractive to me now, so
      >> I've dropped the whole reference in the article underway.
      >> Interesting issues raised, nonetheless.
      >
      > Other golden masks,Bulgaria :
      > http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/09/24/1095961855479.html?
      <http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2004/09/24/1095961855479.html?>
      > from=storyrhs
      > from http://www.iianthropology.org/ <http://www.iianthropology.org/>
      > at http://www.iianthropology.org/goldmaskkazanluk.jpg
      <http://www.iianthropology.org/goldmaskkazanluk.jpg>
      >
      > And from Mycenae gold masks that most people know :
      > http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/myctom10.html
      <http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanhtml/myctom10.html>
      > http://www.grisel.net/images/greece/GoldMask.JPG
      <http://www.grisel.net/images/greece/GoldMask.JPG>
      > http://www.greeklandscapes.com/greece/athens_museum_mycenae.html
      <http://www.greeklandscapes.com/greece/athens_museum_mycenae.html>
      >
      > Thanks for the thread, it was very interesting.
      >
      > Cameron





      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Allen W Thrasher
      I wonder how quickly fashions in facial hair as well as other fashions could change in Mycenaean times. It is an issue that has puzzled me in other contexts.
      Message 2 of 29 , Feb 5, 2007
        I wonder how quickly fashions in facial hair as well as other fashions could change in Mycenaean times. It is an issue that has puzzled me in other contexts. There is, I think, a tacit assumption that cultures other than the modern West usually have changed such things very slowly. (Can this be connected to a similar presupposition in anthropology, where one anthropologist whose name I've forgotten felt obliged to warn that not every event in the cultures the profession studies is the carrying out of a rule?) I got thinking about it in my second visit to Maharashtra in 1973. In my first visit, 1969-70, while most Hindu farmers and the lest westernized workers wore white jamas and kamiz, while a sizeable minority wore salmon pink kamiz. In the second visit the salmon had mostly disappeared, being replaced by ultramarine. (Or maybe it was the reverse.) Now, it is most unlikely that this happened because of some advertising campaign; I suspect it just happened (chaos effect?). Now if this sort of change can happen with people with little spare cash, surely it could happen more quickly in urban or palace elites, with loads of spare cash, competing in display, and with merchants and craftsmen who would profit by planned obsolescence.

        We know the Japanese were much given to fashion in the Edo period. The Dutch East Indian Company factors told management never to send the same sort of cloth twice, the customers insisted on constant novelty. But then, Edo was a huge city with large rich elites both military aristocracy and bourgeoisie.

        So would wearing mustaches rather than being bearded or clean shaven necessarily be some enduring tradition and status and identity marker in the Mycenaean world? Why couldn't fashions have changed every generation, or even every ten years? Especially among those at the top, who if there is fashion are those who make the fashion.

        This would weaken the argument from the grooming represented on other masks that the "Agamemnon" mask is a forgery.

        I think fashions in men's hairstyles, whether of the head or the face, have changed more quickly in my lifetime than those in men's clothing, perhaps because to change costs much less. A different trim generally costs a lot less than a new piece of clothing, let alone an entire new wardrobe. It may even cost nothing.

        Have there been studies that attempted to measure the rate of change in dress and grooming in various cultures, working from datable artifacts or texts?

        Allen


        Allen W. Thrasher, Ph.D., Senior Reference Librarian
        South Asia Team, Asian Division
        Library of Congress, Jefferson Building 150
        101 Independence Ave., S.E.
        Washington, DC 20540-4810
        tel. 202-707-3732; fax 202-707-1724; athr@...
        The opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the Library of Congress.
      • matrix_blues
        ... All along Homeric epics Achean princes are called the long-haired, the bearded . Menelas, Agamemnon s brother, is even pictured as the most hairy of all
        Message 3 of 29 , Feb 5, 2007
          --- In Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com, "Allen W Thrasher"
          <athr@...> wrote:

          > So would wearing mustaches rather than being bearded or clean
          > shaven necessarily be some enduring tradition and status and
          > identity marker in the Mycenaean world? Why couldn't fashions have
          > changed every generation, or even every ten years? Especially
          > among those at the top, who if there is fashion are those who make
          > the fashion.

          All along Homeric epics Achean princes are called "the long-haired,
          the bearded". Menelas, Agamemnon's brother, is even pictured as "the
          most hairy" of all Achean princes.

          > This would weaken the argument from the grooming represented on
          > other masks that the "Agamemnon" mask is a forgery.

          For those that have read Homeric epics, the "Agamemnon" mask is as
          the mask of an ancient Greek king is expected to be. Unfortunately,
          the fact does not give evidence in favour or against a forgery.

          C. Saint-Giles

          ------------------------------------------------------------------
          > I think fashions in men's hairstyles, whether of the head or the
          face, have changed more quickly in my lifetime than those in men's
          clothing, perhaps because to change costs much less. A different
          trim generally costs a lot less than a new piece of clothing, let
          alone an entire new wardrobe. It may even cost nothing.
          >
          > Have there been studies that attempted to measure the rate of
          change in dress and grooming in various cultures, working from
          datable artifacts or texts?
          >
          > Allen
          >
          >
          > Allen W. Thrasher, Ph.D., Senior Reference Librarian
          > South Asia Team, Asian Division
          > Library of Congress, Jefferson Building 150
          > 101 Independence Ave., S.E.
          > Washington, DC 20540-4810
          > tel. 202-707-3732; fax 202-707-1724; athr@...
          > The opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect those of the
          > Library of Congress.
        • Dan Lusthaus
          Allen, I don t know about hair studies directly concerned with Mycenaean times in the Mediterranean region, but there is a three volume dissertation,
          Message 4 of 29 , Feb 6, 2007
            Allen,

            I don't know about "hair" studies directly concerned with Mycenaean times in
            the Mediterranean region, but there is a three volume dissertation,
            _Bodhisattva headdresses and hairstyles in the Buddhist art of Gandhara and
            related regions of Swat and Afghanistan. (Volumes I-III)_ by Carolyn Schmidt
            (directed by our own John Huntington), Ohio State, 1990, 1121 pp.

            The abstract reads:

            Flourishing during the centuries that surround the turn of the Christian
            era, the Buddhist artistic tradition of Bactro-Gandhara, a region now part
            of modern Pakistan and Afghanistan, holds a unique and distinguished place
            in the history of South Asian religions and culture. While a number of
            theoretical approaches to the study of this tradition have been undertaken,
            increased definition is required to fully understand and appreciate the
            merits of the Buddhist school and the complex interchange of influences from
            which the art evolved.

            Relying primarily on the sculptures and archaeological evidence from
            recently excavated sites, this work is principally composed of detailed
            typological studies of Bodhisattva headdresses and hair styles. The study is
            offered in three parts: a section of contextual and historical information,
            a section of analytical studies of Bodhisattva headdresses and hair styles,
            and a section of appendices that include several hundred Bodhisattva images
            and additional support materials.

            Delineated in Chapter I are the issues related to geographical, political,
            historical, and religious considerations. The history of scholarship and the
            relationship of the Buddhist tradition in Bactro-Gandhara to Western and
            other Asiatic traditions are the foci of Chapter II. Chapter III introduces
            the lines of development and evolution of Bodhisattva types as attested by
            the art. Chapter IV is primarily concerned with the exploration and analysis
            of artistic evidence for the development of the turban-wearing Bodhisattva
            type while Chapter V deals with similar issues for the jatamukuta-wearing
            Bodhisattva type.
            The study demonstrates the general tendencies in the evolution of
            Bodhisattva images and provides significant new definition to the school's
            foundations in Indic culture. It also offers insight into the assimilation
            of characteristics emanating from the Mediterranean and western Asiatic
            cultural spheres. The organization and analysis of the artistic evidence
            present overwhelming support for a continuous, relative chronological
            pattern of development and reveal the advanced state of the Mahayana
            iconographic vocabulary in the Bactro-Gandharan region by the second or
            third century A.D.
            ----

            It discusses such things as moustachio-ed bodhisattvas, the transformation
            of Buddhas from long-haired top-knots to the snail-like helmets we are all
            familiar with today, etc. Perhaps John can fill us in on some relevant
            details.

            Dan Lusthaus
          • Irene Good
            Dear Allen; Generally speaking; it is tacitly understood by textile and costume historians that before the mid-eighteenth century, fashion as we know it to
            Message 5 of 29 , Feb 6, 2007
              Dear Allen;

              Generally speaking; it is tacitly understood by textile and costume
              historians that before the mid-eighteenth century, 'fashion' as we know
              it to be simply didn't exist (except perhaps outside of royal courts).
              This is certainly not to say that changes didn't take place; but cloth
              and clothing, as with other aspects of material culture, defined the
              wearer/bearer socially and ethnically and was, relatively speaking,
              stable. This tends to be more true with rural or lower status
              individuals, and less true in urban, cosmopolitan settings. That
              stated, there have been certain distinct periods in history, such as in
              second century BC Rome, or in medieval Europe when the development of
              craft guilds allowed for a more 'genteel' class to form which was
              socially free enough to transform conventions; these are specific cases
              in documented history where the 'rules' were broken. Once the
              fly-shuttle came into use, handweaving and industrial textile 'design'
              and production became distinct on a scale beyond what is observed from
              any other area or time period, including Inka Peru and Han and later
              periods in China. See Broudy 1993. Of course new feminist approaches
              to textiles are re-examining these ideas; see, for example, Elizabeth
              Wilson's 'Adorned in Dreams- Fashion and Modernity' 1985.

              As for the mustache, see the one sported by the horseman on the famous
              felt wall hanging from Pazyryk!


              Hope this is of help,



              Irene Good
            • George Thompson
              We also know something about hairy upper lips in the Rgveda, and we do know that such upper lips signified authority in the Rgveda, because the single, most
              Message 6 of 29 , Feb 6, 2007
                We also know something about hairy upper lips in the Rgveda, and we do
                know that such upper lips signified authority in the Rgveda, because
                the single, most important person in the the Rgveda was the god Indra,
                himself very authoritative, and we know that he had a very prominent
                mustache.

                best,

                George Thompson


                Irene Good wrote:

                > Dear Allen;
                >
                > Generally speaking; it is tacitly understood by textile and costume
                > historians that before the mid-eighteenth century, 'fashion' as we know
                > it to be simply didn't exist (except perhaps outside of royal courts).
                > This is certainly not to say that changes didn't take place; but cloth
                > and clothing, as with other aspects of material culture, defined the
                > wearer/bearer socially and ethnically and was, relatively speaking,
                > stable. This tends to be more true with rural or lower status
                > individuals, and less true in urban, cosmopolitan settings. That
                > stated, there have been certain distinct periods in history, such as in
                > second century BC Rome, or in medieval Europe when the development of
                > craft guilds allowed for a more 'genteel' class to form which was
                > socially free enough to transform conventions; these are specific cases
                > in documented history where the 'rules' were broken. Once the
                > fly-shuttle came into use, handweaving and industrial textile 'design'
                > and production became distinct on a scale beyond what is observed from
                > any other area or time period, including Inka Peru and Han and later
                > periods in China. See Broudy 1993. Of course new feminist approaches
                > to textiles are re-examining these ideas; see, for example, Elizabeth
                > Wilson's 'Adorned in Dreams- Fashion and Modernity' 1985.
                >
                > As for the mustache, see the one sported by the horseman on the famous
                > felt wall hanging from Pazyryk!
                >
                > Hope this is of help,
                >
                > Irene Good
                >
                >
              • bhmsympatico
                Steve, Diodorus first mentions the practice of shaving amongst the Celts and notes that the nobles wore mustaches. The handlebar mustache was present but the
                Message 7 of 29 , Feb 16, 2007
                  Steve,
                  Diodorus first mentions the practice of shaving amongst the Celts and
                  notes that the nobles wore mustaches. The handlebar mustache was
                  present but the most common form was the down turn mustache as seem on
                  the bust of a Gallic chieftain, 1st century A.D. and the sculpture of
                  The Dying Gaul They sometimes wore a thin, shaved beard under the lip
                  (Clonycavan Man) like the thin, triangular beard on the Agamemnon
                  Mask. The mask has two shared features with other European cultures:
                  1. shaving and a handlebar mustache and 2. a stylized graphic method
                  of depicting the face.

                  The mask has stylized patterns common to Neolithic and Iron Age
                  European art such as Etruscan and La Tene art:

                  • almond shaped eyes
                  • wide thin lips,
                  • a graphic "Y" pattern formed by nose and brow ridges,
                  • a round heavy forehead tapering into a narrow chin
                  • Clean graphic lines to indicate hair on the head, face or eyebrows

                  Best wishes,
                  Sarah

                  Neolithic Art
                  http://www.ou.edu/finearts/art/ahi4913/aegeanslides/029-4.jpg
                  Note the face shape, almond eyes, thin mouth, and "Y" patterned brow
                  and nose.

                  Hallstatt Art
                  Burial mask.
                  http://www.abhus.com/admin/images/masc_Ceilteach_Hallstatt.JPG

                  La Tene Art
                  Stylized heads
                  http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au/archaeology/images/celtic/GLAUBERG.JPG

                  Stone Head ca.300 BC. ht:23.5cm.Found at Mseke-Zehrovice,
                  Czechoslovakia. NMP.
                  http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/uj/ujk.html
                  http://www.ceramicstudies.me.uk/frame1tu7.html#HC07-Pic.073

                  Small bronze head with a handlebar mustache, Welwyn, England. Late
                  Iron Age http://www.le.ac.uk/archaeology/stj/headb.gif

                  Handle bar mustache heads found in a church yard in Boa
                  http://radiocarbon.pa.qub.ac.uk/local/fermanagh/Boa/

                  Crom Dubh's Head found in a graveyard
                  http://www.irishcelticfest.com/graphics/cromdubhold.JPG

                  Urn from Britain http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/pe/images/PS101335.jpg


                  Romano British
                  Gorgon's Head with a handlebar mustache from Bath
                  http://www.athenapub.com/bath01x.jpg

                  Romano-British bronze head
                  http://www.enfarchsoc.org/photos/celticHead2.jpg

                  Etruscan
                  Compare graphic lines indicating hair, "Y" shaped nose and brow,
                  similar shaping of the nose
                  A cinerary urn with a lid in the form of the dead man's head. from
                  Cetona 550-500 BC MAF
                  http://web.onetel.net.uk/~victorbryant/frame1tu7.html#HC07-Pic.040




                  --- In Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com, Steve Farmer <saf@...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  > Do any of the art historians have any opinions on the handle-bar
                  > mustache of Schliemann's "Mask of Agamemnon", which does indeed have a
                  > stylish look of the 1870s about it?
                  >
                  > http://tinyurl.com/335wfm
                  >
                  > I know the literature (Calder, Traill, and their detractors),
                  > including the debate held in _Archaelogy_ in 1999:
                  >
                  > http://www.archaeology.org/9907/etc/mask.html
                  >
                  > So I'm not asking for bibliographical guidance, but rather the inside
                  > view of art historians who have a feeling for the current consensus on
                  > the object.
                  >
                  > All this for one rather throw-away line in an article underway....
                  >
                  > Stick your necks -- or mustaches -- out, since everyone else (including
                  > me) is swamped with deadlines right now.
                  >
                  > Are there precedents for this mustache style elsewhere in antiquity,
                  > especially in Aegean cultures?
                  >
                  > Thanks in advance,
                  > Steve
                  >
                • Victor H. Mair
                  Thank you, Sarah, for so much detailed information about mustaches among the ancient Celts and excellent illustrations depicting them. With all that shaving
                  Message 8 of 29 , Feb 28, 2007
                    Thank you, Sarah, for so much detailed information about mustaches among
                    the ancient Celts and excellent illustrations depicting them. With all
                    that shaving and shaping of the facial hair going on, I've often
                    wondered how the ancients did it. With the sharpest knife they had
                    around? I think I heard somewhere about scraping with sharp, broken
                    shells, but I may just be imagining that. In any event, I cut myself
                    often enough with safety razors, so the ancients must have bloodied
                    their faces quite a bit while shaving with less evolved instruments.
                    Does anyone know how they actually did it?

                    Incidentally, some of Genghis Khans' early ambassadors were humiliated
                    by the Arabs in Kwarezmia by having their beards removed and faces
                    mutilated. Maybe they just did a particularly bad job of shaving them!

                    Victor



                    bhmsympatico wrote:
                    >
                    > Steve,
                    > Diodorus first mentions the practice of shaving amongst the Celts and
                    > notes that the nobles wore mustaches. The handlebar mustache was
                    > present but the most common form was the down turn mustache as seem on
                    > the bust of a Gallic chieftain, 1st century A.D. and the sculpture of
                    > The Dying Gaul They sometimes wore a thin, shaved beard under the lip
                    > (Clonycavan Man) like the thin, triangular beard on the Agamemnon
                    > Mask. The mask has two shared features with other European cultures:
                    > 1. shaving and a handlebar mustache and 2. a stylized graphic method
                    > of depicting the face.
                    >
                  • John C. Huntington
                    Long ago and far away, remember reading that the Romans pulled facial hair (is this true?) John
                    Message 9 of 29 , Feb 28, 2007
                      Long ago and far away, remember reading that the Romans pulled facial
                      hair (is this true?)

                      John


                      On Feb 28, 2007, at 7:51 PM, Victor H. Mair wrote:

                      > Thank you, Sarah, for so much detailed information about mustaches
                      > among
                      > the ancient Celts and excellent illustrations depicting them. With all
                      > that shaving and shaping of the facial hair going on, I've often
                      > wondered how the ancients did it. With the sharpest knife they had
                      > around? I think I heard somewhere about scraping with sharp, broken
                      > shells, but I may just be imagining that. In any event, I cut myself
                      > often enough with safety razors, so the ancients must have bloodied
                      > their faces quite a bit while shaving with less evolved instruments.
                      > Does anyone know how they actually did it?
                      >
                      > Incidentally, some of Genghis Khans' early ambassadors were humiliated
                      > by the Arabs in Kwarezmia by having their beards removed and faces
                      > mutilated. Maybe they just did a particularly bad job of shaving them!
                      >
                      > Victor
                      >
                      > bhmsympatico wrote:
                      > >
                      > > Steve,
                      > > Diodorus first mentions the practice of shaving amongst the Celts
                      > and
                      > > notes that the nobles wore mustaches. The handlebar mustache was
                      > > present but the most common form was the down turn mustache as
                      > seem on
                      > > the bust of a Gallic chieftain, 1st century A.D. and the
                      > sculpture of
                      > > The Dying Gaul They sometimes wore a thin, shaved beard under the
                      > lip
                      > > (Clonycavan Man) like the thin, triangular beard on the Agamemnon
                      > > Mask. The mask has two shared features with other European cultures:
                      > > 1. shaving and a handlebar mustache and 2. a stylized graphic method
                      > > of depicting the face.
                    • Francesco Brighenti
                      Dear John, What a hairy question you have posed! ... Yes, that s true. Plucking the facial hair with the use of a volsella ( a pair of tweezers , from Lat.
                      Message 10 of 29 , Mar 1, 2007
                        Dear John,

                        What a "hairy" question you have posed!

                        --- In Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com, "John C. Huntington"
                        <Huntington.2@...> wrote:

                        > Long ago and far away, remember reading that the Romans pulled
                        > facial hair (is this true?)

                        Yes, that's true. Plucking the facial hair with the use of a
                        volsella ('a pair of tweezers', from Lat. vols-, past participle
                        root of vellere 'to pluck') was one of the shaving methods resorted
                        to in classical Rome. This was, for instance, the method preferred
                        by Caesar.

                        From pp. 196-8 of William Smith's _A Dictionary of Greek and Roman
                        Antiquities_ (London, John Murray, 1875), reproduced online at

                        http://tinyurl.com/yre2za :

                        << The Homeric heroes were bearded men. [...] [T]he Greeks wore the
                        beard till the time of Alexander the Great [...]. Plutarch (Thes.
                        c.5) says that the reason for the shaving was that they might not be
                        pulled by the beard in battle. The custom of shaving the beard
                        continued among the Greeks till the time of Justinian [...]. The
                        Romans in early times wore the beard uncut [...]; and according to
                        Varro (De Re Rust. II.11) and Pliny (VII.59), the Roman beards were
                        not shaven till B.C. 300, when P. Ticinius Maenas brought over a
                        barber from Sicily; and Pliny adds, that the first Roman who was
                        shaved (rasus) every day was Scipio Africanus. His custom, however,
                        was soon followed, and shaving became regular thing. The lower
                        orders, then as now, were not always able to do the same, and hence
                        the jeers of Martial (vii.95, xii.59). In the later times of the
                        republic there were many who shaved the beard only partially, and
                        trimmed it, so as to give it an ornamental form; to them the terms
                        bene barbati (Cic. Catil. ii.10) and barbatuli (Cic. ad Att. I.14,
                        16, Pro Cael. 14) are applied. When in mourning all the higher as
                        well as the lower orders let their beards grow.

                        In the general way in Rome at this time, a long beard barba
                        promissa, (Liv. XXVII.34) was considered a mark of slovenliness and
                        squalor. The censors, L. Veturius and P. Licinius, compelled M.
                        Livius, who had been banished, on his restoration to the city, to be
                        shaved, and to lay aside his dirty appearance (tonderi et squalorem
                        deponere), and then, but not till then, to come into the senate, &c.
                        (Liv. XXVII.34). The first time of shaving was regarded as the
                        beginning of manhood, and the day on which this took place was
                        celebrated as a festival [called Depositio barbae -- FB](Juv. Sat.
                        III.186). There was no particular time fixed for this to be done.
                        Usually, however, it was done when the young Roman assumed the toga
                        virilis (Suet. Calig. 10). Augustus did it in his 24th year;
                        Caligula in his 20th. The hair cut off on such occasions was
                        consecrated to some god. Thus Nero put his up in a gold box, set
                        with pearls, and dedicated it to Jupiter Capitolinus (Suet. Ner.
                        12).

                        With the emperor Hadrian the beard began to revive (Dion Cass.
                        LXVIII.15). Plutarch says that the emperor wore it to hide some
                        scars on his face. The practice afterwards became common, and till
                        the time of Constantine the Great, the emperors appear in busts and
                        coins with beards [...].

                        BARBERS [Lat. tonsores -- FB] -- [...] Men had not often the
                        necessary implements for the various operations of the toilet;
                        combs, mirrors, perfumes, and tools for clipping, cutting, shaving,
                        &c. Accordingly the whole process had to be performed at the
                        barber's, and hence the great concourse of people who daily gossiped
                        at the tonstrina, or barber's shop. [...] The business of the barber
                        was threefold. First there was the cutting of hair [...]. The second
                        part of the business was shaving (radere, rasitare, [...]). This was
                        done with [...] a novacula (Lamprid. Heliog. c31), a razor (as we,
                        retaining the Latin root, call it), which he kept in a case [...].
                        Some who would not submit to the operation of the razor used instead
                        some powerful depilatory ointments, or plasters, as psilothron
                        (Plin. XXXII.10.47;a acida Creta, Martial, vi.93.9; Venetum lutum,
                        iii.74; dropax, iii.74; x.65). Stray hairs which escaped the razor
                        were pulled out with small pincers or tweezers (volsellae [...]).
                        The third part of the barber's work was to pare the nails of the
                        hands [...]. >>

                        Hope this helps,
                        Francesco
                      • Daniel J. Milton
                        The reference Francesco quoted on techniques for removing the beard employed in classical antiquity appears pretty thorough, but there s always something to be
                        Message 11 of 29 , Mar 1, 2007
                          The reference Francesco quoted on techniques for removing the
                          beard employed in classical antiquity appears pretty thorough, but
                          there's always something to be added.
                          The tyrant Dionysius of Syracuse being afraid to trust himself in
                          the barber's hands, made his daughters learn to shave him. When they
                          grew up, he dared not trust even them with a razor, but made them burn
                          off his beard and hair with red-hot nut-shells.
                          I'm pretty sure the source is Cicero in his Tusculan Disputations,
                          but I haven't run the passage down.
                          Dan Milton
                        • Francesco Brighenti
                          ... http://la.wikisource.org/wiki/Tusculan%C3%A6_Disputationes_-_Liber_V Quin etiam ne tonsori collum committeret, tondere filias suas docuit. Ita sordido
                          Message 12 of 29 , Mar 1, 2007
                            --- In Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com, "Daniel J. Milton"
                            <dmilt1896@...> wrote:

                            > The tyrant Dionysius of Syracuse being afraid to trust himself in
                            > the barber's hands, made his daughters learn to shave him. When
                            > they grew up, he dared not trust even them with a razor, but made
                            > them burn off his beard and hair with red-hot nut-shells. I'm
                            > pretty sure the source is Cicero in his Tusculan Disputations, but
                            > I haven't run the passage down.

                            http://la.wikisource.org/wiki/Tusculan%C3%A6_Disputationes_-_Liber_V
                            "Quin etiam ne tonsori collum committeret, tondere filias suas
                            docuit. Ita sordido ancillarique artificio regiae virgines ut
                            tonstriculae tondebant barbam et capillum patris. Et tamen ab is
                            ipsis, cum iam essent adultae, ferrum removit instituitque, ut
                            candentibus iuglandium putaminibus barbam sibi et capillum
                            adurerent" (Marcus Tullius Cicero, _Tusculanae Disputationes_ 5. 58).

                            Regards,
                            Francesco
                          • bhmsympatico
                            You re welcome Victor. I m glad I could be of some help. Yes, those razors look a tad frightening but it s the Roman razors that are really disturbing.
                            Message 13 of 29 , Apr 8, 2007
                              You're welcome Victor. I'm glad I could be of some help. Yes, those
                              razors look a tad frightening but it's the Roman razors that are
                              really disturbing. Thankfully the Romans didn't have bikini-lines to
                              worry about.

                              There were four types of razors used by the British Celts. For some
                              examples of Celtic razors see the following site. It also contains
                              examples of early razors primarily from the European Bronze and Iron Age.
                              http://razorland55.free.fr/lune04.htm

                              Now, the remaining question is what did they use to keep those
                              handlebar moustaches curled? Could it be the same hair gel that the
                              Irish imported from the Gauls?

                              Sarah


                              --- In Indo-Eurasian_research@yahoogroups.com, "Victor H. Mair"
                              <vmair@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Thank you, Sarah, for so much detailed information about mustaches
                              among
                              > the ancient Celts and excellent illustrations depicting them. With all
                              > that shaving and shaping of the facial hair going on, I've often
                              > wondered how the ancients did it. With the sharpest knife they had
                              > around? I think I heard somewhere about scraping with sharp, broken
                              > shells, but I may just be imagining that. In any event, I cut myself
                              > often enough with safety razors, so the ancients must have bloodied
                              > their faces quite a bit while shaving with less evolved instruments.
                              > Does anyone know how they actually did it?
                              >
                              > Incidentally, some of Genghis Khans' early ambassadors were humiliated
                              > by the Arabs in Kwarezmia by having their beards removed and faces
                              > mutilated. Maybe they just did a particularly bad job of shaving them!
                              >
                              > Victor
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > bhmsympatico wrote:
                              > >
                              > > Steve,
                              > > Diodorus first mentions the practice of shaving amongst the Celts and
                              > > notes that the nobles wore mustaches. The handlebar mustache was
                              > > present but the most common form was the down turn mustache as seem on
                              > > the bust of a Gallic chieftain, 1st century A.D. and the sculpture of
                              > > The Dying Gaul They sometimes wore a thin, shaved beard under the lip
                              > > (Clonycavan Man) like the thin, triangular beard on the Agamemnon
                              > > Mask. The mask has two shared features with other European cultures:
                              > > 1. shaving and a handlebar mustache and 2. a stylized graphic method
                              > > of depicting the face.
                              > >
                              >
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