Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

RE: [Indo-Eurasia] oldest stash of weed

Expand Messages
  • Trudy Kawami
    There was also cannabis found in at least one of the Pazyryk frozen tombs in Siberia. These tombs are now dated late 4th - early 3rd cent BCE. It was
    Message 1 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
    • 0 Attachment
      There was also cannabis found in at least one of the Pazyryk "frozen
      tombs" in Siberia. These tombs are now dated late 4th - early 3rd cent
      BCE. It was accompanied by a little brazier, long thin bronze rods, &
      remnants of a hide, very useful for containing the smoke.

      I wonder how they can tell the eye color. The human eye ball is very
      aqueous & when dried shrinks a great deal.

      Trudy Kawami

      ________________________________

      Benjamin Fleming wrote:

      Dear List,

      This item out a couple of days ago in the Toronto Star. A report on
      suposedly the world's oldest stash of weed (cannabis), found in an
      ancient Chinese tomb in Xinjiang province: "buried alongside a
      light-haired, blue-eyed Caucasian man, likely a shaman of the Gushi
      culture"

      Link to the article:
      http://www.thestar.com/sciencetech/article/544684
    • Benjamin Fleming
      Dear Trudy, Do you know to what extent the cannabis in Siberia was tested? Part of the suggestion in the new study, quite overblown in the news article, is
      Message 2 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
      • 0 Attachment
        Dear Trudy,

        Do you know to what extent the cannabis in Siberia was tested? Part
        of the suggestion in the new study, quite overblown in the news
        article, is that the Xinjiang cannabis was likely used for either
        medicinal or psychoactive purposes. There are other purposes that
        cannabis can be used for, like fabric, for example. So they were not
        claiming this to be the oldest example, but the oldest testable
        sample that suggests that specific use (medicinal or psychoactive
        purposes). As per the abstract from Journal of Experimental Botany:

        > To our knowledge, these investigations provide the oldest
        > documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent, and
        > contribute to the medical and archaeological record of this pre-Silk
        > Road culture.

        see my previous post for the details of the article:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Indo-Eurasian_research/message/11674

        Cheers,

        Benjy

        ___________________
        Trudy Kawami wrote:
        >
        > There was also cannabis found in at least one of the Pazyryk "frozen
        > tombs" in Siberia. These tombs are now dated late 4th - early 3rd cent
        > BCE. It was accompanied by a little brazier, long thin bronze rods, &
        > remnants of a hide, very useful for containing the smoke.
        >
        > I wonder how they can tell the eye color. The human eye ball is very
        > aqueous & when dried shrinks a great deal.
        >
        > Trudy Kawami
        >
        > ________________________________
        >
        > Benjamin Fleming wrote:
        >
        > Link to the news article:
        > http://www.thestar.com/sciencetech/article/544684
      • John C. Huntington
        I am a little concerned that this discussion is missing the point. There is ample evidence, as early the Rig Veda, that psycho-active drugs of one sort or
        Message 3 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
        • 0 Attachment
          I am a little concerned that this discussion is missing the point.
          There is ample evidence, as early the Rig Veda, that psycho-active
          drugs of one sort or another were part of the Shaman/priest's tool
          kit. In the Arzhan II excavations there was vessel that was used for
          some narcotic and I have watched something being used in both
          Pakistan and Burma by shamans. Indeed in Pakistan the shaman was so
          whacked that during his dance he kicked a tent stake and split his
          foot in two almost to the ankle but he did not even notice it until
          about two hours latter! By then they had gotten medical attention for
          him.

          The presence of narcotics to produce an altered state of mind it a
          given in Eurasian Shamanism and probably has been for millennia.

          John
        • Benjamin Fleming
          Dear John, The point of Ethan Russo s study was to test an available source of archaeological cannabis, which he claims in his study was subjected to tests
          Message 4 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
          • 0 Attachment
            Dear John,

            The point of Ethan Russo's study was to test an available source of
            archaeological cannabis, which he claims in his study was subjected
            to tests that have not previously been done on other data to date. I
            assume that this is the important point. I am not sure what you are
            suggesting is the point being missed?

            Russo has no particular interest in China per se and has done
            studies, so far as I can tell from a brief survey of his work, on a
            wide variety of similar finds throughout the world in addition to
            studies of the effects of the drug on human subjects. He is a
            neural-scientist, I believe, and not an archaeologist or textual
            historian (as noted by Dan). The psycho-active drugs in the Rig Veda
            are not necessarily cannabis, and we certainly can't subject that
            textual evidence to chemical and other testing that was done in this
            case. Again, see the details for Russo's study here:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Indo-Eurasian_research/message/11674

            The point here is that the Xinjiang was the best sample yet
            available, according to the study, and that this is specific to a
            specific drug and not to the general category of mind altering
            substances. If someone wants to deconstruct the chemical analysis in
            the Russo study, that is another issue. I am not sure that we want
            to take this discussion to the general category of mind-altering,
            soma-like substances, as that is a much more general and different
            discussion, in my view at least.

            Anyway, this is likely my fault for putting a provocative subject
            heading in the spirit of weekend amusment!

            Best,

            Benjy

            ____________
            John Huntington wrote:

            > I am a little concerned that this discussion is missing the point.
            > There is ample evidence, as early the Rig Veda, that psycho-active
            > drugs of one sort or another were part of the Shaman/priest's tool
            > kit. In the Arzhan II excavations there was vessel that was used for
            > some narcotic and I have watched something being used in both
            > Pakistan and Burma by shamans. Indeed in Pakistan the shaman was so
            > whacked that during his dance he kicked a tent stake and split his
            > foot in two almost to the ankle but he did not even notice it until
            > about two hours latter! By then they had gotten medical attention
            > for him.
            >
            > The presence of narcotics to produce an altered state of mind it a
            > given in Eurasian Shamanism and probably has been for millennia.
            >
            > John
          • Benjamin Fleming
            Dear Trudy and List, For the sake of this conversation, could you provide the reference to the study that you mention below? The dates you cite below appear to
            Message 5 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
            • 0 Attachment
              Dear Trudy and List,

              For the sake of this conversation, could you provide the reference
              to the study that you mention below? The dates you cite below appear
              to be a significant update from the most recent study about the
              Pazyryk tombs that Russo mentions in his recent study and claims a
              date of 2400-2500 BP (i.e., ca. 5th century BCE). Russo cites a 1998
              study:

              Brooks EB. 1998. Textual evidence for 04c Sino-Bactrian contact. In:
              Mair VH, ed. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples of Eastern
              Central Asia, Vol. II. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of
              Man, 716-726.

              I have not yet looked at this study myself though.

              For the sake of facilitating anyone interested, I have, for a short
              period, uploaded the Russo article to my server. He does, at least,
              take into account many of the studies that have to date been offered
              up on this topic. This includes a reference to a study of the BMAC
              evidence that Naga Ganesan has pointed out to me. He claims to
              refute that evidence in the Discussion portion of a 2007 study that
              I have not yet read:

              Russo EB. 2007. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga,
              science and sobriquet. Chemistry and Biodiversity 4, 2624-2648.

              The temporary link to the 2008 Russo, et al. study can be found here:

              http://www.benjaminfleming.com/cannabis_central_asia.pdf

              I am certainly not trying to defend Russo's claims, but think it at
              least behooves anyone who wants to take this thread any further, to
              look at the study, which takes many previous studies into account.
              Dan has noted some flaws in the 2006 study, some of the authors of
              whom are also a part of this 2008 study. And, like Dan hope that the
              researchers have not "tested" (the non-scientific kind) the sample
              data themselves during their research!

              Cheers,

              Benjy

              _________________________
              Trudy Kawami wrote:
              >
              > There was also cannabis found in at least one of the Pazyryk "frozen
              > tombs" in Siberia. These tombs are now dated late 4th - early 3rd cent
              > BCE. It was accompanied by a little brazier, long thin bronze rods, &
              > remnants of a hide, very useful for containing the smoke.
              >
              > I wonder how they can tell the eye color. The human eye ball is very
              > aqueous & when dried shrinks a great deal.
              >
              > Trudy Kawami
              >
              > ________________________________
              >
              > Benjamin Fleming wrote:
              >
              > Dear List,
              >
              > This item out a couple of days ago in the Toronto Star. A report on
              > suposedly the world's oldest stash of weed (cannabis), found in an
              > ancient Chinese tomb in Xinjiang province: "buried alongside a
              > light-haired, blue-eyed Caucasian man, likely a shaman of the Gushi
              > culture"
              >
              > Link to the article:
              > http://www.thestar.com/sciencetech/article/544684
            • naga_ganesan
              [Mod. Note: message edited for clarity - BF] ... Here is what Russo (2007) writes on Viktor Sarianidi s BMAC finds. ... N. Ganesan
              Message 6 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
              • 0 Attachment
                [Mod. Note: message edited for clarity - BF]

                "Benjamin Fleming" <dontread13@...> wrote:
                > Russo EB. 2007. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga,
                > science and sobriquet. Chemistry and Biodiversity 4, 2624-2648.

                Here is what Russo (2007) writes on Viktor Sarianidi's BMAC finds.

                > The reference to Bactria is key, as actual physical remnants of
                > cannabis flowers and seeds, along with opium poppies and ephedra,
                > dating to the late third or early second millennium b.c. have been
                > excavated in Margiana (in present-day Turkmenistan), one component
                > of what has been labeled the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex
                > (BMAC). Excavation has yielded artifacts supporting usage of these
                > plants ritually as haoma-soma hallucinogens [145] [146]. This
                > apparent mixture was one of the key sacraments of the developing
                > Zoroastrian religion of Persia, as noted in the use of banga in the
                > Zend-Avesta [147], dated to the 7th -10th centuries b.c., or
                > earlier. Again, controversy has dogged the discovery. Bakels
                > examined residual seed impressions in gypsum and suggested these as
                > too small to be cannabis, rather suggesting broomcorn millet as
                > having been present [148]. The original description of a higher
                > layer, however, referred to cannabis flowers and seeds [149], and,
                > as noted by Sarianidi, Bakels' examination took place after several
                > years of exposure of the material to the elements [150].
                > Additionally, examination of contemporary feral cannabis seeds from
                > Kashmir (Fig. 1) indicates that these average 2.2 mm in length (dime
                > is 18 mm, and Chinese culinary seeds are 7.2 mm), while broomcorn
                > millet, Panicum miliaceum, seems to average 2.8 mm in diameter.
                >
                > The use of cannabis in Ancient India was claimed in the Atharva Veda
                > (passage 11,6,15) ca. 1600 b.c., wherein cannabis or bhanga, is one
                > of five herbs employed to 'release us from anxiety'. [151] (Appendix
                > 3, p. 286) [14]. The latter word is frequently translated as
                > @griefA, nicely echoing the Assyrian citations. Cannabis was said to
                > be well established in Ayurvedic medicine by 300-400 b.c. [55], and
                > subsequent cannabis indications in that discipline and Unani (Arabic
                > medicine) parallel almost all the putative coherent Assyrian claims.
                > Cannabis has over 50 synonyms in India, and has been discussed in
                > detail [14], along with its attendant controversy. Some authorities
                > have questioned whether bhang was a psychoactive at all [152], and
                > others have questioned whether references to cannabis in Indian
                > literature are reliable prior to the 11th century c.e. [153] [154].
                > Other authorities have argued linguistic links between the bhang of
                > the Arya peoples and those of India from ancient times [155], and
                > linguistic relationships to other cannabis root words sana, cana,
                > etc. linking Saka and Harappan/ Indus Valley cultures [156]. Nyberg
                > [157] noted that the word bang, while still signifying cannabis in
                > contemporary Iran, has also been applied to other plants throughout
                > history. Ultimately, he opined that (p. 387), 'We have to conclude
                > that hemp is certainly not identical with soma/haoma, although it
                > might have been an ingredient in some preparation derived from the
                > use of the original soma/haoma'. This is consistent with Sarianidi's
                > claims.

                N. Ganesan
              • rodo pfister
                [Mod. note. Long URL (which would break in transit) changed for a tinyurl. Please make these conversions if possible before posting. Cheers, Steve.] Dear list
                Message 7 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  [Mod. note. Long URL (which would break in transit) changed for a tinyurl.
                  Please make these conversions if possible before posting. Cheers, Steve.]

                  Dear list

                  on the frozen tombs, (which are endangered by climate change:
                  <http://tinyurl.com/63kuyb),

                  Rudenko Sergej Ivanovic(, 1970, /Frozen// tombs of Sibiria: the Pazyryk
                  burials of Iron Age Horseman/. Translated and with a preface by M.W.
                  Thompson. Berkeley: University of California Press.
                  [xxxvi+340p., 33 plates in colour, 147 in b/w and 146 figures in the
                  text. Original title: /Kul?tura naselenija Gornogo Altaja v skifskoe
                  vremja/.]

                  (rodo, not seen)

                  Brooks EB. 1998. Textual evidence for 04c Sino-Bactrian contact. In:
                  Mair VH, ed. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples of Eastern
                  Central Asia, Vol. II. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man,
                  716-726.

                  This is a study by Bruce Brooks (known on our List), but does _not_
                  mention hemp or Cannabis sativa.

                  p. 720 refers to Herododus' VI.67 description of Scythian divination by
                  rods, compares this to "a large quantity of thin sticks" found in
                  Pazyryk tomb 5 (Rudenko 1970: 324), and also mentions "Chinese objects"
                  in the frozen tombs. Options for a "direct-visit hypothesis", "two-way
                  cultural interchange", and transmission of the divination technique to
                  the eastern Chinese states, and thereby influencing divination by stalks
                  in the "yi jing" tradition.

                  Russo et al. 2008, p. 4179
                  (<http://www.benjaminfleming.com/cannabis_central_asia.pdf >) wants to
                  make something of the fact, that no hempen cloth were found in the
                  Yanghai tombs; but say themselves, that hemp textiles were found in
                  Pazyryk, and the Northern China Yangshao culture.

                  Maybe Irene Good can give us an update on the use of hemp cloth?


                  Best
                  rodo
                • Steve Farmer
                  Rodo s last message resent to fix a formatting error that occurred in Yahoo (only shows up in some email programs, demolishing the links). SF ******** Dear
                  Message 8 of 19 , Dec 1, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Rodo's last message resent to fix a formatting error that occurred in
                    Yahoo (only shows up in some email programs, demolishing the links).

                    SF

                    ********
                    Dear list

                    on the frozen tombs, (which are endangered by climate change:

                    <http://tinyurl.com/63kuyb>

                    Rudenko Sergej Ivanovic(, 1970, /Frozen// tombs of Sibiria: the Pazyryk
                    burials of Iron Age Horseman/. Translated and with a preface by M.W.
                    Thompson. Berkeley: University of California Press.
                    [xxxvi+340p., 33 plates in colour, 147 in b/w and 146 figures in the
                    text. Original title: /Kul?tura naselenija Gornogo Altaja v skifskoe
                    vremja/.]

                    (rodo, not seen)

                    Brooks EB. 1998. Textual evidence for 04c Sino-Bactrian contact. In:
                    Mair VH, ed. The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age peoples of Eastern
                    Central Asia, Vol. II. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man,
                    716-726.

                    This is a study by Bruce Brooks (known on our List), but does _not_
                    mention hemp or Cannabis sativa.

                    p. 720 refers to Herododus' VI.67 description of Scythian divination by
                    rods, compares this to "a large quantity of thin sticks" found in
                    Pazyryk tomb 5 (Rudenko 1970: 324), and also mentions "Chinese objects"
                    in the frozen tombs. Options for a "direct-visit hypothesis", "two-way
                    cultural interchange", and transmission of the divination technique to
                    the eastern Chinese states, and thereby influencing divination by stalks
                    in the "yi jing" tradition.

                    Russo et al. 2008, p. 4179
                    (<http://www.benjaminfleming.com/cannabis_central_asia.pdf >) wants to
                    make something of the fact, that no hempen cloth were found in the
                    Yanghai tombs; but say themselves, that hemp textiles were found in
                    Pazyryk, and the Northern China Yangshao culture.

                    Maybe Irene Good can give us an update on the use of hemp cloth?


                    Best
                    rodo
                  • Oliver Perrin
                    This study by Russo does seem to offer the oldest documentation of cannabis as a pharmacologically active agent . In particular the evidence suggesting
                    Message 9 of 19 , Dec 3, 2008
                    • 0 Attachment
                      This study by Russo does seem to offer the oldest documentation of
                      cannabis as a "pharmacologically active agent". In particular the
                      evidence suggesting cultivation, and the absence of male plant parts
                      are both pretty convincing.

                      The Pazyryk hemp seed finds (and the putative 'smoking sets') appear
                      to be very close to the Yanghai find in age. But the date ranges in
                      the 1970 English translation of Rudenko's study (520 to 260 BC for
                      the first two barrows and between 472 to 212 BC for barrow 5 - xxix,
                      translator's preface) have recently been narrowed yet further (BC
                      350 +/- 5 - BC 240 +/- 5):

                      G. Bonani, I. Hajdas, U. Rouff, M. Seifert, V. Molodin and I.
                      Sljusarenko, "Dendrochronological and Radiocarbon Dating of the
                      Scythen Burial Place in the Pazyryk Valley in the Altai Mountains,
                      South Siberia", in ETH [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
                      Zurich] Ion Beam Physics, Annual Report, 2000

                      This can be found here:

                      http://www.ipp.phys.ethz.ch/research/experiments/tandem/Annual/2000/
                      3.pdf

                      This suggests the Yanghai find is older by approximately four or
                      five hundred years (in addition to being more complete, substantial,
                      and convincing in the context of 'pharmacological' use).

                      I've long been rather skeptical of the supposed 'smoking sets' that
                      Rudenko describes. Based on his report, it appears charred seeds
                      were found. For what it is worth, so far as I've heard, most pot
                      smokers separate the seeds because they are said to taste bad and to
                      cause 'headaches'. Based on (sub-standard?) online sources it seems
                      seeds are not particularly high in THC compared to other parts of
                      the plant, and might even be rather low. Does anyone know more about
                      this? Also, what about the use of the seeds for food which Russo
                      mentions (p4179)? Rudenko mentions that "hart's clover" was also
                      found in barrow 2, and may also have been used for 'smoking'. If
                      this term designates Melilotus Officinalis (yellow sweet-clover),
                      which it appears to, it might be that the presence of these seeds
                      has more to do with the importance of this plant as animal forage
                      and a source of clover honey. This might shed light on the presence
                      of cannabis seeds in the same context.

                      I'm still not convinced that what we are dealing with at Pazyryk are
                      properly 'smoking sets'. They might just as well be small sauna
                      tents for bathing the upper body (mention of the use of hemp in
                      Herodotus is associated with 'vapor baths', though water is not
                      mentioned). Perhaps a few hemp seeds were scattered on the stones
                      while hot, which then had water thrown on them. The seeds could just
                      as likely had a ritual significance because of the importance of the
                      plant for crafting thread, twine and rope. Someone one day needs to
                      test hemp seeds on hot stones to see what happens. Partially burnt
                      seeds probably didn't give off much smoke, and if they were properly
                      heated they would very likely explode with (ritually satisfying?)
                      little 'pops'.

                      But the more recent find discussed by Russo and his colleagues looks
                      like clear (or at least less ambiguous) non-textual evidence that
                      cannabis was used in Eurasia for psychoactive purposes. It could
                      well be that the seeds and small tents from Pazyryk had more to do
                      with 'bathing' and would have only a very mild (if any) narcotic
                      effect. We could just as well be dealing with a non-pharmacological
                      practice as with a variant.

                      The possible ritual value of seeds that produce a plant well-suited
                      for producing strong fibers would seem to be worth exploring in the
                      context of peoples for whom horses and herds were important. If
                      anyone can point me to the earliest finds of hemp rope in Eurasia
                      I'd appreciate hearing about it.

                      For those who might be interested, I have transcribed the pertinent
                      material from the Rudenko study below.

                      Best,

                      Oliver Perrin


                      Regarding the Pazyryk finds, Rudenko reports as follows:

                      [p35] "In barrow 2 one censer stood in the south-west corner of the
                      chamber and above it the frame of a tent-like cover with six legs,
                      and another censer, with just the same framed leather cover, and a
                      leather flask containing hemp, stood in the middle of the western
                      half of the tomb. In other barrows neither cover nor censer was
                      found, but the rods of the cover frames did survive."

                      [p62] "There remains something to be said about narcotics. It was
                      mentioned above that two sets of apparatus for inhaling hemp smoke
                      were found in barrow 2. We shall discuss this in more detail when
                      dealing with Herodotus' description of purification after burial.
                      Here it will be merely remarked that smoking hemp, like smoking
                      hashish, took place without a doubt not just as a ceremony of
                      purification after burial but in ordinary life; hashish was used as
                      a narcotic. Not without reason Hesychius of Alexandria in his
                      Lexikon, referring to Herodotus, calls hemp 'the Scythian smoking
                      which has such strength that it brings out in a sweat anyone who
                      experiences it. They burn hemp seeds'.

                      "Both men and women probably smoked, since we found two sets of
                      apparatus for smoking and the burial of a man and a woman. They
                      possibly also used the seeds of hart's clover (donnik), found in
                      barrow 2, for smoking."

                      [p284] "In the south-western corner of the burial chamber in barrow
                      2 at Pazyryk there was a cluster of six rods, below which rested a
                      rectangular bronze vessel [in the plates captioned as "copper"]
                      standing on four feet filled with pounded stone (Pl.35). The length
                      of these rods was 122.5 cm, their diameter was about 2 cm and the
                      diameter of the lower, thickened ends about 3 cm. There was a
                      perforation through each 2 cm down from the top through which passed
                      a thong that held them together. All the rods were bound round
                      spirally with strips of birch bark.

                      "Farther north in the western half of the chamber there was a second
                      bronze vessel [in the plates also captioned as "copper"] of the
                      'Scythian cauldron' shape, also filled with stones, under six sticks
                      splayed out in the same way (partly broken and overturned by the
                      looters and covered over by a large leather hanging.

                      "In each vessel besides the stones, as already mentioned above,
                      there was a small quantity of seeds of hemp (Cannabis sativa L. of
                      the variety C. rideralus, Janisch). Mention was also made of the
                      hemp seeds in the leather flask attached to one of the sticks in the
                      hexapod stand over the vessel of the 'Scythian cauldron' shape.
                      Burning hot stones had been placed in the censer and part of the
                      hemp seeds had been charred. Furthermore the handle of the
                      cauldron-censer had been bound round with birch bark, evidently
                      because the heat of the stones was such that its handle had become
                      too hot to hold in the bare hands (Pl. 62b).

                      "Thus in barrow 2 two smoking sets were found: vessels containing
                      stones that had been in the fire and hemp seeds; above them were
                      shelters supported on six rods, in one case covered with a leather
                      hanging and in the other case probably with a felt hanging, large
                      pieces of which were found in the south-west corner of the tomb.
                      Finally, there was a flask containing hemp seeds fixed to one of the
                      legs of a hexapod stand. Consequently we have the full set of
                      articles for carrying out the purification ritual, about which
                      Herodotus wrote in such detail in his description of the Black Sea
                      Scyths. There had been sets for each barrow although the censers and
                      cloth covers had all been stolen except in barrow 2. Hemp smoking
                      was practiced evidently not only for purification but in ordinary
                      life, as remarking in Chapter 4, by both men and women."

                      As regards the use of hemp as a fiber, I've only been able to find
                      this

                      [p197] "Of fibrous vegetable matter only the fibers of hemp and
                      kendyr seem to have been used."

                      and

                      [p199] "Among fibrous vegetable materials, as just mentioned, hemp
                      and kendyr were evidently used. Rough thread was twisted from the
                      fibers, but a finer thread was also spun, using spindle whorls,
                      suitable for spinning yarn."
                    • Benjamin Fleming
                      Dear List, I have now taken the Russo article down from my server to avoid copyright issues that could arise. I note however, that in the first two days of
                      Message 10 of 19 , Dec 7, 2008
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Dear List,

                        I have now taken the Russo article down from my server to avoid
                        copyright issues that could arise. I note however, that in the first
                        two days of uploading the article last week, the article was
                        downloaded more than 33,000 times! I assume that the article has
                        been well read. . . . .

                        If anyone is still interested in receiving a copy of the article, I
                        will gladly send it off-list.

                        Best,

                        BF

                        ___________________
                        > Journal of Experimental Botany, November 2008; 59: 4171 - 4182.
                        > Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis
                        > from Central Asia
                        >
                        > authors:
                        > Ethan B. Russo1,2,3,*, Hong-En Jiang4,5, Xiao Li5, Alan Sutton2,
                        > Andrea Carboni6, Francesca del Bianco6, Giuseppe Mandolino6, David
                        > J. Potter2, You-Xing Zhao7, Subir Bera8, Yong-Bing Zhang5, En-Guo
                        > Lu¨ 9, David K. Ferguson10, Francis Hueber11, Liang-Cheng Zhao12,
                        > Chang-Jiang Liu4, Yu-Fei Wang4 and Cheng-Sen Li5,13,*
                        >
                        > Abstract
                        > The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region,
                        > China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave
                        > of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of
                        > cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A
                        > multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical
                        > examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic
                        > deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that
                        > this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive
                        > component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product,
                        > cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme,
                        > tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic
                        > variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was
                        > presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive
                        > agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these
                        > investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a
                        > pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and
                        > archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture.
                      • Bruce Duffy
                        Dear Benjamin, they are pretty amazing figures, maybe marketing people should include the words stash and weed in the text of all their Web pages in order
                        Message 11 of 19 , Dec 8, 2008
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Dear Benjamin, they are pretty amazing figures, maybe marketing people
                          should include the words 'stash' and 'weed' in the text of all their
                          Web pages in order to ensure a lot of hits.
                          Bruce


                          On 08/12/2008, at 3:22 PM, Benjamin Fleming wrote:

                          > Dear List,
                          >
                          > I have now taken the Russo article down from my server to avoid
                          > copyright issues that could arise. I note however, that in the first
                          > two days of uploading the article last week, the article was
                          > downloaded more than 33,000 times! I assume that the article has
                          > been well read. . . . .
                          >
                          > If anyone is still interested in receiving a copy of the article, I
                          > will gladly send it off-list.
                          >
                          > Best,
                          >
                          > BF
                          >
                          > ___________________
                          > > Journal of Experimental Botany, November 2008; 59: 4171 - 4182.
                          > > Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis
                          > > from Central Asia
                          > >
                          > > authors:
                          > > Ethan B. Russo1,2,3,*, Hong-En Jiang4,5, Xiao Li5, Alan Sutton2,
                          > > Andrea Carboni6, Francesca del Bianco6, Giuseppe Mandolino6, David
                          > > J. Potter2, You-Xing Zhao7, Subir Bera8, Yong-Bing Zhang5, En-Guo
                          > > Lu¨ 9, David K. Ferguson10, Francis Hueber11, Liang-Cheng Zhao12,
                          > > Chang-Jiang Liu4, Yu-Fei Wang4 and Cheng-Sen Li5,13,*
                          > >
                          > > Abstract
                          > > The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region,
                          > > China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave
                          > > of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of
                          > > cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A
                          > > multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical
                          > > examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic
                          > > deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that
                          > > this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive
                          > > component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product,
                          > > cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme,
                          > > tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic
                          > > variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was
                          > > presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive
                          > > agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these
                          > > investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a
                          > > pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and
                          > > archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture.
                          >
                          >
                          >



                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Benjamin Fleming
                          Excellent advice Bruce. However, as it turns out (i.e., having been brought to my senses by Steve Farmer), the majority of the hits (99.9% to be more
                          Message 12 of 19 , Dec 8, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Excellent advice Bruce. However, as it turns out (i.e., having been
                            brought to my senses by Steve Farmer), the majority of the "hits"
                            (99.9% to be more precise) originated from a single ip address in
                            Japan (the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies). Appears to have
                            been some kind of glitch and my gullible first reading of the stats,
                            though caused by what, I am not sure. In any case, Ethan Russo's
                            article is not in fact, that wildly popular (who could have believed
                            it).

                            Cheers,

                            Benjy

                            ________________
                            Bruce Duffy wrote:

                            > Dear Benjamin, they are pretty amazing figures, maybe marketing people
                            > should include the words 'stash' and 'weed' in the text of all their
                            > Web pages in order to ensure a lot of hits.
                            > Bruce
                            >
                            >
                            > On 08/12/2008, at 3:22 PM, Benjamin Fleming wrote:
                            >
                            > > Dear List,
                            > >
                            > > I have now taken the Russo article down from my server to avoid
                            > > copyright issues that could arise. I note however, that in the first
                            > > two days of uploading the article last week, the article was
                            > > downloaded more than 33,000 times! I assume that the article has
                            > > been well read. . . . .
                            > >
                            > > If anyone is still interested in receiving a copy of the article, I
                            > > will gladly send it off-list.
                            > >
                            > > Best,
                            > >
                            > > BF
                            > >
                            > > ___________________
                            > > > Journal of Experimental Botany, November 2008; 59: 4171 - 4182.
                            > > > Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient cannabis
                            > > > from Central Asia
                            > > >
                            > > > authors:
                            > > > Ethan B. Russo1,2,3,*, Hong-En Jiang4,5, Xiao Li5, Alan Sutton2,
                            > > > Andrea Carboni6, Francesca del Bianco6, Giuseppe Mandolino6, David
                            > > > J. Potter2, You-Xing Zhao7, Subir Bera8, Yong-Bing Zhang5, En-Guo
                            > > > Lu¨ 9, David K. Ferguson10, Francis Hueber11, Liang-Cheng Zhao12,
                            > > > Chang-Jiang Liu4, Yu-Fei Wang4 and Cheng-Sen Li5,13,*
                            > > >
                            > > > Abstract
                            > > > The Yanghai Tombs near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region,
                            > > > China have recently been excavated to reveal the 2700-year-old grave
                            > > > of a Caucasoid shaman whose accoutrements included a large cache of
                            > > > cannabis, superbly preserved by climatic and burial conditions. A
                            > > > multidisciplinary international team demonstrated through botanical
                            > > > examination, phytochemical investigation, and genetic
                            > > > deoxyribonucleic acid analysis by polymerase chain reaction that
                            > > > this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive
                            > > > component of cannabis, its oxidative degradation product,
                            > > > cannabinol, other metabolites, and its synthetic enzyme,
                            > > > tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase, as well as a novel genetic
                            > > > variant with two single nucleotide polymorphisms. The cannabis was
                            > > > presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive
                            > > > agent, or an aid to divination. To our knowledge, these
                            > > > investigations provide the oldest documentation of cannabis as a
                            > > > pharmacologically active agent, and contribute to the medical and
                            > > > archaeological record of this pre-Silk Road culture.
                            > >
                            > >
                            > >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            >
                          • Bruce Duffy
                            Benjamin, thanks for the update, I will no longer go ahead and make a big career change on the basis of those figures. Bruce
                            Message 13 of 19 , Dec 8, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Benjamin, thanks for the update, I will no longer go ahead and make
                              a big career change on the basis of those figures.

                              Bruce



                              On 09/12/2008, at 12:27 AM, Benjamin Fleming wrote:

                              > Excellent advice Bruce. However, as it turns out (i.e., having been
                              > brought to my senses by Steve Farmer), the majority of the "hits"
                              > (99.9% to be more precise) originated from a single ip address in
                              > Japan (the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies). Appears to have
                              > been some kind of glitch and my gullible first reading of the stats,
                              > though caused by what, I am not sure. In any case, Ethan Russo's
                              > article is not in fact, that wildly popular (who could have believed
                              > it).
                              >
                              > Cheers,
                              >
                              > Benjy
                              >
                              > ________________
                              > Bruce Duffy wrote:
                              >
                              > > Dear Benjamin, they are pretty amazing figures, maybe marketing
                              > people
                              > > should include the words 'stash' and 'weed' in the text of all their
                              > > Web pages in order to ensure a lot of hits.
                              > > Bruce
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > On 08/12/2008, at 3:22 PM, Benjamin Fleming wrote:
                              > >
                              > > > Dear List,
                              > > >
                              > > > I have now taken the Russo article down from my server to avoid
                              > > > copyright issues that could arise. I note however, that in the
                              > first
                              > > > two days of uploading the article last week, the article was
                              > > > downloaded more than 33,000 times! I assume that the article has
                              > > > been well read. . . . .
                              > > >
                              > > > If anyone is still interested in receiving a copy of the
                              > article, I
                              > > > will gladly send it off-list.
                              > > >
                              > > > Best,
                              > > >
                              > > > BF
                            Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.