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Dholavira: gateway to Meluhha, gateway to Bronze Age Sarasvati civilization

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  • S. Kalyanaraman
    http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/dholavira-gateway-to-meluhha-gateway-to.html AUG 7
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 7, 2013
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      This is a tribute to Michel Danino for a brilliant, insightful exposition of the linear units of measurement of Sindhu-Sarasvati civilization, the Dholavira site in particular. This provides the backdrop to a lapidary-smithy revolution in process, in Meluhha, resulting in the making of polished stone pillars, socketed stone slabs, stone-cut reservoirs and alloying tin with copper to create tin-bronzes of the Bronze Age, ca. 4th millennium BCE. This was matched by another revolution: Indus writing system to encode Meluhha (Mleccha) speech to create stone-ware, metal-ware catalogs of the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization.
      This is the huge hoarding on the northern gateway of Dholavira fortification. I call this the Bronze Age Meluhha Standard. The Standard exemplified the gateway to Bronze Age Sarasvati civilization. The Sheffield of the Ancient Near East, Chanhu-daro (River Sarasvati right-bank), is about 150 kms. to the north if a seafaring-riverine merchant from Sumer, Mesopotamia, Dilmun, or Magan moved on the navigable River Sarasvati beyond the port town of Dholavira. 
      Map showing the bird's foot palaeo-delta complex representing the mouths of three rivers identified as Shatadru (Hakra), Saraswati and Drishadvati (after ali et al.; after Fig. 3 in: Roy, AB & SR Jakhar, Late quaternary drainage disorganization, and migrtion and extinction of the Vedic Saraswati in Current Science, Vol. 81, No. 9, 10 November 2001, pp. 1188-1195 Source: http://tejas.serc.iisc.ernet.in/~currsci/nov102001/1188.pdf

      Bronze Age Meluhha, smithy/lapidary documents, takṣat vāk, incised speech

      Dholavira (Kotda) on Kadir island, Kutch, Gujarat; 10 signs inscription found near the western chamber of the northern gate of the citadel high mound (Bisht, 1991: 81, Pl. IX); each sign is 37 cm. high and 25 to 27 cm. wide and made of pieces of white crystalline rock; the signs were apparently inlaid in a wooden plank ca. 3 m. long; maybe, the plank was mounted on the facade of the gate to command the view of the entire cityscape. Ten signs are read from left to right. The 'spoked circle' sign seems to be the divider of the three-part message. (Bisht, R.S., 1991, Dholavira: a new horizon of the Indus Civilization. Puratattva, Bulletin of Indian Archaeological Society, 20: 81; now also Parpola 1994: 113). 

      The signboard connotes in Meluhha language: Meluhha copper metalworking and lapidary (engraving, bead-making) complex of Bronze Age:

      1. dhatu dul eraka  'mineral, cast (metal), molten cast copper
      2.khāṇḍā ‘tools, pots and pans, metal-ware’. aduru ‘native metal’ kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe' (engraving)  eraka 'molten cast copper'
      3. loh ‘(copper) metal’ kamaṭa = portable furnace for melting precious metals (Te.); kampaṭṭam = mint (Ta.) eraka'molten cast copper'

      This first sign board of the world verily constitutes the Bronze Age Standard of Eurasia -- not merely a Meluhha Standard.Ancient Near East Bronze Age Meluhha, smithy/lapidary documents, takṣat vāk, incised speech [Evidence from sites surrounding Bhuj in Kutch: Kanmer, Dholavira, Gola Dhoro (Bagasra), Shikarpur, Khirsara, Surkotada, Desalpur, Konda Bhadli, Juni Kuran, Narapa] 

      See video clip: Indus Computer Graphics The civilization of the Indus Valley thrived on trade with the Persian Gulf and Mesopotamia. The city of Dholavira on the estuary of the Ghaggar-Hakra River was its gateway to the sea some 4,500 years ago. http://www.nhkint.or.jp/footage/index.php?cat=Special%20Effects F013

      Dholavira. gateway. A designer's impressions (reconstruction) of the world's first signboard on the gateway of fortification or citadel.

      http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.in/2013/08/ancient-near-east-bronze-age-heralded.html  Ancient Near East Bronze Age -- heralded by Meluhha writing

      Dholavira City layout (seen from the southwest and west). Source:  http://www.iisc.ernet.in/prasthu/pages/PP_data/dholavira.pdf

      Sindhu-Sarasvati measuring scale. Lothal

      Correlations with Vedic concepts
      Addition of a fraction to the unit: 1 + 1/4 = 5/4
      1+1+1/4 = 9/4
      Repetition of a motif -- 5/4, 9/4 as in classical architecture.

      Dholavira. A slotted stone for pillar base. Display of the extraordinary stone-working competence of the artisans of Dholavira. Professional architectural stone-working at its best. http://chandrashekharasandprints.wordpress.com/2013/05/04/kutch-and-kathiawar-a-tryst-with-history-part-v/

      Port sites in Gujarat: predictive modelling
      (After Fig. 5.3 and 9.4 in: Mathur, Roy, 2009, Predictiv modeling of Harappan port sites in the Gujarat Univ. of York, Dept of Archaeology, UK. http://roymathur.com/files/rmathuryork.pdf
      This research attempts to develop a predictive model through the use of various software
      tools with a view to identifying locational criteria related to possible Harappan age port
      sites in the Gujarat region of North-West India and thus, assisting in forming a clearer
      picture of maritime interaction network links both within the Gujarat as well as externally.
      Interaction networks (After Kenoyer, harappa.com)

      Dholavira located on the 'Khadir bet' was an excellent strategic location for trade and commerce as well as communication for the entire Indus civilization.
      Excavations - Dholavira - Gallery
      Dholavira. Reservoirs are cut through stones vertically. They are about 7 meters deep and 79 meters long. Reservoirs skirted the city while citadel and bath are centrally located on raised ground.

      Dholavira. Bronze/coper artefacts. Copper mirror. http://akshardhoolstories.blogspot.in/p/amazing-world-of-dholavira.html

      Dholavira2. Seal. 
      kōna corner (Nk.); tu. kōu angle, corner (Tu.); rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) 
      aṭar ‘a splinter’ (Ma.) aṭaruka ‘to burst, crack, sli off,fly open; aṭarcca ’ splitting, a crack’; aṭarttuka ‘to split, tear off, open (an oyster) (Ma.); aḍaruni ‘to crack’ (Tu.) (DEDR 66) Rebus: aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ (Kannada) aduru ‘gan.iyinda tegadu karagade iruva aduru’, that is, ore taken from the mine and not subjected to melting in a furnace (Kannada). Vikalpa: sal ‘splinter’; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) An order of men. Ex. गोसाव्यांचे अठरा अखाडे आहेत.(M.)
      khaḍā ‘circumscribe’ (M.); Rebs: khaḍā ‘nodule (ore), stone’ (M.)

      Thus, the three glyphs together read: khaḍā 'stone ore' + aduru ‘native, unsmelted metal’ +  kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’; that is, stone- and mineral-ore turner.
      Dholavira1 Seal. kōncorner (Nk.); tu. kōu angle, corner (Tu.) Rebus: kõdā ‘to turn in a lathe’ (Bengali) sal ‘splinter’; rebus: sal ‘workshop’ (Santali) Thus, together, 'turner workshop'.
      koa ‘in arithmetic, one’ (Santali); rebusko ‘artisan’s workshop’ (Kuwi)
      loa ‘ficus religiosa’ (Santali) rebus: loh ‘metal’ (Skt.) Rebus: lo ‘copper’. khāṇḍā ‘notch’ Marathi: खांडा [ khāṇḍā ] m  A jag, notch, or indentation (as upon the edge of a tool or weapon). Rebus: khāṇḍā ‘metal tools,  pots and pans’.
      ku‘woman water carrier’ (Te.); kuhi ‘smelter furnace’ (Santali)

      Thus, together, the text message reads: kõdā sal 'turner's workshop' + ko ‘artisan’s workshop’+ loh khāṇḍā 'copper tools, pots and pans' + kuhi 'smelter furnace'  That is, the seal described the metalware repertoire: artisan's turner workshop for copper tools, pots and pans (with)

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