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Ayanamsa and adhimas relationship

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  • jyotirved .
    Shri Hari Malla ji, Jai Shri Ram! Re your # 29104, I see! Your history of festivals and astrology starts from Munjal and ends with Ganesh Daivagya. It has no
    Message 1 of 3 , Aug 30, 2010
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      Shri Hari Malla ji,
      Jai Shri Ram!
      Re your # 29104, "I see! Your history of festivals and astrology starts from Munjal and ends with Ganesh Daivagya. It has no place before or after that.Great point!" your memory is proverbially shorter than the shortest since I had apprised you of the facts several times through my following post in Hinducalendar ad other forums!  But then I must not forget that you have a "mandate" to thrust your "coordinated" calendar on every Hindu of Bharatavarsha even if your own Hindu brethren in Nepal have discarded that "coordinated" one with the disdain it deserves! 
      Just to put the records straight that the real Hindu calendar needs no Mesha etc.curses, whether sayana or nirayana, I am repeating below what I had written in a post to Shri Narayan Prasad ji several years back.
      I know, however, that you will come back with some other plea now, just to keep the discussion alive! After all,  paapi pet ka saval jo hai!
      Jai Shri Ram!
      A K Kaul
      ***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

       

       

      Shri Narayan Prasad ji,

      Namaste!

      I am indeed thankful to you for prodding me to make my thoughts about Vedic luni-solar months etc. articulate and cohesive. I, therefore, request you to please go through this post carefully so that we take some constructive steps in the right direction for streamlining our calendars at the earliest.

       

      The shlokas quoted by Diksit are from recent works:

      The two sholkas that you have quoted from “Bahratiya Jyotish Shastra” of S. B. Dikshit in support of Rashi based lunar months, are actually from “Kala Madhava” of thirteenth century and “Kala Tattva Vivechan” of sixteenth century AD.  As such, both these works are quite recent ones and it is not surprising at all that they have advocated to calculate lunar months vis-à-vis astrological Rashis like Aries, Taurus etc.

       

      Vedic calendars were framed without astrological Rashis:

      However, the task we have at our hands is to streamline our calendars in accordance with the Vedic lore that should be applicable to whole of India and not as per Narada etc. Purana, that is based on the Surya Sidhanta of Maya the mlechha, or some so called Jyotisha shastra etc.

      Let us, therefore, see the relevant references for that purpose i.e., the real fundamentals of the calendar as it existed during the Vedic and post-Vedic period.     

       

      1. 4000 BCE: The earliest reference---at least of around 4000 BCE----we have to an intercalary month (adhika-masa) is in the Rigveda 1/25/8.  An adhika-masa can take place only when lunar synodic months are calculated vis-à-vis solar sankrantis. Since in the Vedic period only Madhu, Madhava etc. solar months and not Aries etc. astrological rashis were in vogue, it means that even the earliest references to lunar months in the Vedas are without Mesha etc. Rashis but in relation to Madhu, Madhava etc. solar/lunar months.
      2. 3000 BCE: Taittiriya Samhita 1/4/14 says: “Madhushcha madhavashcha shukrashcha shuchishcha nabhashcha nabhasyashcha ishashcha  oorjashcha sahashcha sahasyashcha tapashcha tapasyashchai up yam griheeto asi samsarpo asi amhaspatyay tva”

      Here Madhu, Madhava etc. twelve months have been named and then samsarpa is the thirteenth (intercalary/adhika) month and amhaspati a decayed (kshyaya) month.  THERE ARE NO RASHIS HERE AND LUNAR MONTHS, INCLUDING ADHIKA/KSHAYA-MASA, WERE RELATED TO MADHU, MADHAVA ETC. SOLAR MONTHS AND EVEN NAMED AS (LUNAR, APART FROM SOLAR) MADHU, MADHAVA ETC. WITHOUT ANY DOUBT.

      3.    Again the same Taitiriya Samhita 5/6/7 says “shadratrir deekshitah syat shadva ritavah samvatsarah…dwadasha ratreer deekshitah syat dwadasha masah samvatsarah… trayodasha ratreer deekshitah syat, trayodasha masah samvatsarah”

      i.e. “One should get consecrated for six days as the year comprises six seasons.  One should get consecrated for 12 days as the year comprises 12 months.  One should get consecrated for 13 days as the year comprises 13 months (including an adhika masa)”. There are no rashis involved here but the solar months Madhu, Madhava etc. are implied because of references to six seasons, and thereby the lunar months are related to those very solar months.

      4.    3000 BCE: Vajasaneya Samhita 22/31 says:

      “Madhave svaha, madhavay svaha, shukray svaha shuchaye svaha, nabhase svaha, nabhasyaya svaha, ishay svaha, oorjay svaha, sahase svaha, sahasyay svaha, tapase svaha, tapasyaya svaha, amhaspataye svaha”                

      Here all the twelve solar months of Madhu, Madhava etc. have been named consecutively and the thirteenth month has been named as amhaspati.  Obviously, the thirteenth is an adhika lunar month.  Thus as per this proof also, lunar months were known by the names of solar months of Madhu, Madhva etc. in early Vedic days!

      .

      1. 3000 BCE and 100 BCE: In Shatapatha Brahmana 4/5/14 we find “Upayama griheeto asi Madhave tu etyeva advaryur-grihnati upyama griheeto asi madhavay tveti pratiprastha taitaveva vasantikav sayad vasante  aushadhayo jayante vanaspatayah pachyante tena haitav madhushcha madhavshcha”

      Translation “Since in the Vasnata (spring season) grains in the fields start sprouting that is why the two months of that season are known as Madhu and Madhvava”.

      The commentary on this mantra by Shri Hari-Swamin says, “Madhu Madhavaviti chaitra vaishakhav ritu grahanam chaitradayo masah devatah.  Chaitra vaishakhayor madhu madhava namdheya praptim darshayati. Etav uktav masav vasantikav”

      Translation “Madhu and Madhava are Chaitra and Vaishakha as they are the two months of Spring season.  As such the shruti has shown the names of Chaitra and Vaishakha as Madhu and  Madhava”

      Shri Hari-Swamin is said to be a scholar of around first century BCE.  It means that the tradition of calling solar months Madhu, Madhava by lunar names like Caitra, Vaishakha etc. and vice-versa was prevailing then.

       

      1. 1400 BCE: Acharya Lagadha’s Vedanga Jyotisha says:

      “Svarakramete somarkav yada sakam savasavav, syat tadadi yugam maghastapah shuklo ayanam hyudak”

      As per Dikshit’s translation, it means ”When the sun and the moon while moving in the sky, come to Vasava (Dhanishtha i.e. Beta Delphini) star together, then the yuga, the Magha (month), the tapas (seasonal month), the light half of the month, and the Winter Solstice, all commence together”.

      1. Sixth mantra of the same VJ says

      “Prapadyate shavishthadav surya chandramasav udak, sarpardhe dkshinarkastu, magha shravanayoh sada”

      Dikshit’s translation: “The sun and the moon turn towards North in the beginning of Dhanishtha and towards South in the middle of Ashlesha.  The sun always does this in the month of Magha and Shravana”

      THIS IS THE VERY FIRST INDIGENOUS ASTRONOMICAL WORK OF 14TH CENTURY BCE AND HAS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO DO WITH SO CALLED ARIES ETC. RASHIS, WHETHER SAYANA OR NIRAYANA, BUT TELLS US THE METHODLOGY OF CALCULATING ALL THE TWELVE MONTHS, BOTH SOLAR AND LUNAR, LIKE TAPAH AND MAGHA, APART FROM WINTER SOLSTICE AND SUMMER SOLSTICE ETC.  IF ACHARYA LAGADHA COULD DO IT IN EARLY 14TH CENTURY BCE, WITHOUT INVOLVING ANY ARIES ETC. ASTROLOGICAL RASHIS, WHY CAN’T WE DO IT TODAY?

      1. 1400 BCE to 400 BCE: The Mahabharata contains quite a few “finishing touches” of a post Vedanga Jyotisha Era since it follows the VJ methodology for calculating adhika-masa etc. This “itihasa” could therefore be of a period of 1400 BCE to 400 BCE, since the latter was the period when Graecho-Chaldean rashis had started gaining a foothold in India. Mangal, Shani etc. planets, had, however been propagated in India prior to 400 BCE, as is evident from the Atharva Jyotisha of about 500 BCE. That is why there is no mention of Aries etc. astrological rashis in the MBh either but there are references to nakshatras times without number.  We also find reference to Magha, Kaumudi etc. months at several places. In the Gita, which is a part of the MBh, Lord Krishna has identified Himself with Margasheersha. 

      Besides, it is also common knowledge that Bhishma waited for Uttarayana to shed off his mortal coil but we do not find even by mistake anywhere in the entire MBh any mention of Makara Rashi/sankranti, which is supposed to be the synonym of Utarayana by “Sayana Vedic jyotishis”. Similarly, Bhishma is said to have shed off his mortal coil on Magha Shukla ashtami in Rohini nakshatra as per Shanti Parva 47/3 which reads as:

      “shuklapakshyasyashtamyam maghamasasya parthiva, prajapatye cha nakshatre madyam prapte divakare….”

      Here Magha Shukla ashtami and Rohini nakshatra have been mentioned clearly without any reference to any Makara etc. rashi/sankranti.   Same is the case with several other references in the MBh, which proves it beyond any doubt that Magha, Phalguna etc. solar/lunar months besides Uttarayana etc. phenomena were calculated during those days also without any “assistance from” Aries etc. astrological Rashis!

       

      1. 875 AD: Vateshwara Sidhanta and Gola, a work of 9th century AD, says in Chapter 3, verse 29  “The months Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. are called, according to the Vedas, Madhu, Madhava, Shukra, Shuchih, Nabhas, Nabhasya, Isha, Urja, Sahas, Sahasya, Tapas and Tapasya respectively.  The names of the seasons have come down to us since the time of the Vedas”.

      On page 423 of the same work (translated by K. S. Shukla, published by INSA, Delhi) there is a table listing Chaitra etc. 12 months vis-à-vis Madhu etc. Vedic months which have been clubbed with the respective seasons!  IF VATESHWARA COULD CALCULATE SOLAR AND LUNAR MONTHS WITHOUT THE “ASSISTANCE OF” ARIES ETC. ASTROLOGICAL RASHIS, WHY CAN’T WE DO IT TODAY?

      10.   1375 AD: A mantra in  the Samaveda Samhita 4/6/4/2 reads:

      “Vasanto innur antyo greeshmo innur antyah  varshani anu sharado hemanta shishir innurantyah”

      As per this mantra six seasons of Vasanta, Grishma etc. have been discussed.  And this is how Acharya Sayana of 14th century AD has commented on it:

      “Vasantah innu – vasant eva chaitra vaishakharupi vasanta ritureva rantyah – ramaneeyah bhavati.  Greeshma innu jyeshtha ashadarupo greeshm ritureva rantyah ramaneeyah.  Varshani varsha shravan bhadrapad rupen avayavi bhuta pravrit ritur eva rantyah ramaneeyah.  Tanyanu sharadah ashvina kartika rupena avayaveebhoot rituh rantyah ramaneeyah.  Hemanta margasheersha pausha roop eve rantya ramneeyah shishir innu magha phalguna roop eva rantyah ramneeyah”

           

      A simple and running English translation of this commentary of Sayana is “Vasanta comprises two months of Chaitra and Vaishakha.  Vasanta is a pleasant season.  Greeshma comprises two months of Jyeshtha and Ashada.  It is a pleasant season.  Varsha comprises two limbs of Shravana and Bhadra.  Varsha is a pleasant season.  Ashvina and Kartika are the two months of Sharad ritu.  Sharad ritu is a pleasant season.  Margashersha and Pausha are the two months of Hemanta.  Hemanta is a pleasant season.  Magha and Phalguna are the two months of Shishira Ritu.  Shishira Ritu is a pleasant season”.

       

      We have thus seen above that right from the earliest Veda i.e. the Rigveda (about 4000 BCE) till the end of the fourteenth century AD, there is an unbroken stream of clubbing Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. lunar months with the solar months of similar names and also Madhu and Madhava etc. solar months with the lunar months of similar names without any assistance from any Aries etc. astrological Rashis.  Thus these very names serve the purpose of solar as well as lunar months.  We have seen that Acharya Sayana also has subsumed Chaitra etc. months into Vasanta etc. seasons.  It means that Chaitra etc. were the names of solar months even according to him.  Since these are also the names of lunar months, obviously, lunar Chaitra would follow a solar Chaitra, lunar Vaishakha a solar Vaishakha and so on. 

       

      Vedic months Madhu, Madhava are synonymns of Chaitra, Vaishakha etc.

      That completely accounts for the following pattern of the Vedic calendar, as summarized by Dr. A. K. Bag, in (“History of Astronomy in India”, published by INSA, Delhi) in his article “Astronomy in Indus Civilization and during Vedic Times”.  In fact, this is the summary given by him as per the Taittiriya Samhita 4/4/11

      a)  Vasanta  Ritu  comprising two solar months of Madhu and Madhava which are also known as (solar) Chaitra and Vaishakha, with  lunar Chaitra and Vaishakha following the solar months of similar names.

      b)  Grishma Ritu comprising two solar months of Shukrah and Shuchih, also known as (solar) Jyeshtha and Ashada, with lunar Jyeshtha and Ashada following the respective solar months.

      c)  Varsha Ritu comprising two solar months of Nabhas and Nabhasya also known as (solar) Shravana and Bhadra, with the lunar Shravana and Bhadra following the respective solar months.

      d)  Sharad Ritu comprsing the two solar months of Isha and Urja, also known as (solar) months of Ashvina and Kartika, with lunar Ashvina and Kartika following their respective solar months.

      e)  Hemanta Ritu comprising the two solar months of Sahas and Sahasya, also known as (solar) months of  Margasheersha and Pausha, with lunar Margasheersha  and Pausha following their respective solar names.

      f)  Shishira Ritu comprising the two solar months of Tapas and Tapasya, also known as (solar) months of  Magha and Phalguna, with lunar  Magha and Phalguna following their respective solar months.

       

      THAT IS THUS THE REAL VEDIC CALENDAR, AS ADVOCATED BY THE VEDAS, BRAHMANAS, THE VEDANGA JYOTISHA, THE MAHABHARATA AND OUR ACHARYAS LIKE HARISWAMIN, VATESHWARA AND SAYANA.

       

      Early Vedic lunar months were not necessarily as per Chitra etc. nakshatra Full Moons:

      Regarding the names of lunar months as per the Full Moon nakshatra, this is the system being followed at present for Lahiri festivals.  As we have seen above, if we want to adopt the real Vedic calendar, we do not have to run after a Full Moon conjoining a particular lunar nakshatra for the name of that lunar month. 

       

      S. B. Dikshit has also clarified it at several places that the Full Moon conjoining the relevant nakshatra for the names of lunar months is a much later phenomenon.  This is what he has said on page 30 of his work (English translation of Part I):

      “In short the terms Chaitra etc. were not in vogue in the Samhita and Brahmana period. Thus it can be proved from the historical point of view that these terms came into use after a very long period of time after the terms Madhu, etc. became current” 

       

      But by the time of Vedanga Jyotisha (14th century BCE), Chaitra etc. nomenclature for solar as well as lunar months, without reference to either nakshatra based Purnimas or any Aries etc. astrological Rashis, had got fully established.

      A practical demonstration of this point is that the VJ says that Dakshinayana-cum-solar (Nabhasya)-cum-Shravana always starts when the New Moon (Amanta) falls in the middle of Ashlesha and Uttarayana-cum-Tapah-cum-Magha always starts when the New Moon is in Dhanishtha.  Neither of these two conditions gets always fulfilled either for Dakshinayana or Uttarayana whether we take Lahiri nakshata division or the so called sayana nakshatra division, the simple reason being that according to the VJ, the nakshatras start from Krittika instead of from Ashvini, and the year started from Uttarayana!

       

      THAT IS WHY WE HAVE TO DO A RE-THNK ABOUT THE NAKSHATRA DIVISION AS TO WHETHER IT SHOULD START FROM ASHVINI OR KRITTIKA AND WHETHER IT SHOULD BE AN EQUAL DIVISION OF 27 NAKSHATRAS OR AN UNEQUAL DIVISION OF 28 NAKSHATRAS AS SUGGESTED BY BHASKARA-I AND OTHER EALIER ACHARYAS. THAT IS APART FROM THE FACT AS TO WHETHERE THE NAKHATRAS SHOULD BE SO CALLED SAYANA OR SO CALLED NIRAYANA!

      (Pl. se my post “When was the real Onam”).

       

      “Sayana Vedic astrology” falls on its face by dint of the “crutches” of Sayana nakshatras!

      WHILE TALKING ABOUT NAKSHATRAS, I MUST PUT ON RECORD THAT THE GREATEST DRAW-BACK WITH NAKSHATRAS VIS-À-VIS THE SO CALLED SAYANA RASHIS IS THAT ALL THE PROMINENT STARS, KNOWN AS “MILE POSTS”, ARE AWAY BY AT LEAST TWENTY DEGREES FROM THE RELEVANT NAKSHATRA! E.g. The Star Ashvini (Beta Arietis) had an ecliptic longitude of about 34 degrees as on January 1, 2000 whereas the nakshatra division of that (Ashvini) name of the so called Sayana Rashichakra would range from 0 to 13-20’ i.e. the Ashvini Star is out of the range by at least 20 degrees from the outermost limit of the nakshatra division of that very name. Equally, Bharni Star (41 Arietis) had a longitude of 48 degrees in 2000 AD whereas that division ranges from 13-20 to 26-40. Thus Bharni star is out of range by at least 21 degrees from the outermost limit of that very Bharani nakshatra division.  Same is the case with all the other nakshatras!

       

      THOSE “JYOTISHIS” CLAMOURING FOR A SO CALLED SAYANA RASHICHKARA FOR PREDICTIVE GIMMICKS DO NOT SEE THE IRONY THAT THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO CALCULATE ANY OF THE DASHA-BHUKTIS CORRECTLY SINCE NO NAKSHATRA WILL FALL IN THE RELEVANT DIVISION NOR WILL THE RELEVANT STAR HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH THE NAME-SAKE OF THAT VERY NAKSHATRA DIVISION!

      BUT THEN “SAYANA VEDIC JYOTSHIS” ARE HARDLY BETTER THAN “NIRAYANA VEDIC JYOTISHIS” SINCE BOTH ARE BLIND TO THE WRITING ON THE WALL!

       

       “First Point of Aries” in the Kritika nakshatra

      How useless the so called Sayana rashis are vis-à-vis the actual Vedic nakshatras will be clear from the following example:

      Shatapatha Brahmana 2/1/2/2 says “Krittikasu agnim adadheeta…eta ha vai prachyai disho na chyavante…”.  It means, “One should get consecrated in Krittika nakshatra.  They do not deviate from the East”.  Krittikas did not “deviate from the East” since the “First Point of Aries” was in that nakshatra then i.e. about 3000 BCE.  This nakshatra division ranges from 26-10’ to 40-00 degrees.  However, the longitude of the Krittika star (Eta Tauri a.k.a. Alcyone)  as on January 1, 2000 AD was about 60 degrees.  Thus we will only be making a laughing stock of ourselves if we try to link the so called sayana rashichakra to krittika nakshatra since it is away by about 20 degrees from the extreme limit of that very nakshatra division!  Therefore it could hardly be such a non-existent krittika nakshatra which our Vedic Rishis were talking about!

       

      Nakshatras in the Mahabharata:

      In the Shalya Parva 5/6, we find the following reference

      “Chatvarimshad ahanyadya dve me nissritasya vai, pushyena samprayatoasmi, shravane punaragatah”

      Translation “I (Balarama) have been away for forty-two days.  I left this place on Pushya nakshatra and am back in Shravna nakshatra”

      Obviously, these could not be imaginary so called sayana nakshatras but the actual nakshatras or prominent stars of those names, with which the moon had been conjunct during the period of forty-two days when Balarama was away.  Pushya to Punarvasu means 27 nakshatras/days (excluding Abhijit) and then again Pushya to Shravana means 15 days.  Thus it becomes 42 days (if we include both Pushya the day of departure and Shravana the day of coming back) but if we include Abhijit also, it will be 28 days from Pushya to Punarvasu and then 14 days from Pushya to Utarashadha – excluding Shravana. But since in the VJ, there are only 27 nakshatras, it appears the MBH also has been calculating the lunar nakshatra days in multiples of 27 only. Besides, Abhijita is a nakshatra of very short duration  -- hardly a few degrees, thus the lunar conjunction with that nakshatra could not be that long to be taken as one day.  It could have been subsumed in other nakshatras.

      In any case, it goes to prove that instead of artificial nakshatra divisions of the so called “Sayana Vedic Jyotishis” the MBh also was taking into account the actual nakshatras.

       

      Duplicate Chaitra etc. names

      Coming to your next point,

      <If at all duplicate nomenclature is to be used for the solar months, let it be on the name of Rashis, as used in South India.>

       

      We have just seen in the commentary of Acharya Sayana as to how he clubbed Chaitra etc. solar and lunar months with Vasanta etc. seasons.

       

       Acharya Sayana was a minister of Viajayanagar empire  of South India besides being the younger  brother of Madhvacharya a.k.a. Vidyaranya Muni of the “Panchadashi” fame.   Acharya Sayana was a scholar of extraordinary calibre and I have not seen yet any commentator of his stature who has explained all the four Vedas in such an exhaustive and lucid manner.  There is hardly any scholar, whether from East or West, who does not acknowledge the authority of Sayana about the Vedic interpretations.  Aries etc. Rashis were very much prevalent at Acharya Sayana’s time in India – 14th century AD--since the Surya Sidhanta by Maya the mlechha had got entrenched in our cultural ethos by then completely.  THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION THAT ARISES HERE IS AS TO WHY DID ACHARYA SAYANA SPURN THE SO CALLED MESHA ETC. RASHIS AND TALK ABOUT CHAITRA, VIAISHAKHA ETC. MONTHS  VIS-À-VIS VEDIC SEASONS?

      Obviously, these Aries etc. signs being a creation of astrologers, did not suit him (Acharya Sayana) at all, and  he just ignored them with the disdain and contempt these astrological rashis deserve.  SCHOLARS THROUGHOUT INDIA SHOULD EMULATE ACHARYA SAYANA IN THIS RESPECT i.e. they must spurn rashi based calendar! But on the other hand, for the last about a hundred years, maximum support of these good for nothing astrological rashis is being provided/mustered by ”Vedic astrologers” through their astrological magazines and “Vedic jyotisha” monthlies and so on and so forth!  These “scholars” also preside over several “panchanga standardization committees” and are always back at square one by opting for the same “almighty” Lahiri Rashichakra that was being already used sine 1950, thanks to N. C. Lahiri’s jugglery!

      Thus these “Vedic scholars/astrologers” are decimating those very Vedas that they pretend to defendand they are doing so just for the sake of sinful crumbs which they earn by dint of “Vedic astrology”---i.e. “correct predictions from incorrect data”!

       

      I, therefore, do not see any valid reason against naming Madhu, Madhava etc. Vedic months as solar Chaitra and Vaishakha etc. as was done by every Seer from Lagadha of the VJ to Acharya Syana of Samaveda Bhashya.  These very names can be used for lunar months.

       

      Even alternative names of solar momths can be without astrological rashis:

      If, however, you are still of the opinion that the use of Chaitra etc. names for solar as well as lunar months will create some confusion, we can think over the thirteen names of solar/lunar months as given in Taittiriya Brahmana 3/10/1.  These are:

      1) Arunah; 2)Arunarajah; 3) Pundareekah; 4) Vishvajit; 5) Abhijit; 6) Ardrah 7) Pinvaman; 8) Unnavan; 9) Rasavan; 10) Iravan; 11) Sarvaushadhah; 12) Sambharah; 13) Mahaswan

       

      (Please see page 27 of Dikshit’s “Bharatiya Jyotisha”--English translation—Vol. I)

       

      This will obviate the necessity of duplicating Chaitra etc. names for solar as well lunar months without our having to fall back upon Aries etc. astrological rashis.

       

      Amanta and Purnimanta  systems -- both can and should continue:

      Regarding your earlier suggestion that there should be one pattern of lunar months throughout India i.e. they should be either Amanta (New Moon to New Moon) or Purnimanta (Full Moon to Full Moon), I am of the opinion that we must continue with both the systems since both of them are Vedic, as explained by me in one of my earlier posts to you about the same.  I do not want to make any changes in any pattern arbitrarily unless and until they are warranted by the Vedas and are unavoidable.  We are almost divided in the middle  --- half of India celebrating Amanta and half Purnimanta – and it will create further confusion when we change the system from Makara to Tapah and then ask Northern India to make Krishna Paksha follow Shukla paksha or South and Central India etc. etc. to put Krishna Paksha before Shukla Paksha.  It will take them a considerable time to get to grips with that double confusion, without any advantage or plus points.  It is also not necessary that they will agree with this suggestion of ours, since it is not an easy job to change the settled pattern

       

      Sayana versus Nirayana is the worst conflict:

      Thus, in any case, once we shun Aries etc. Rashis completely for the real Vedic Calendar, we shall then not have to enter into an endless discussion and conflict with either “Vedic” or “anti-Vedic” or “non-Vedic” jyotishis, since we will not be using rashis at all for Vedic calendar, which means there will be no confusion whether the rashis are sayana or nirayana. Let the jyotishis continue to wallow in the mud of those sayana and Lahiri and Ramana and Fagan Rashis and give a full demonstration of their charlatanism but at least our “Vedic calendar” will steer clear of the same since we will not refer to Aries etc. astrological Rashsi as our Vedic Rishis never referred to them, at least in respect of deciding the calendar.

      AND THAT IS NO MEAN ACHIEVEMENT.

      Sayana versus Nirayana was the main reason of the failure of “Calendar Reform”

      Before closing this note, I must put on record my views as to why the earlier efforts of streamlining the calendar failed:

      As we know through “Bharatiya Jyotisha Shastra” of Dikshit and other works, real scholars of Vedic lore were feeling highly perturbed with the anachronism of celebrating Uttarayana etc. phenomena after at least a fortnight or so of the actual phenomenon over the last about couple of hundred years.  They also tried to put it back on rails and quite a few seminars were held; quite a few “calendar reform committees” established, but it had just become a zero sums game!  Almost every “Committee” had recommended the so called Sayana Rashis for celebrating festivals etc. but the efforts were never successful in spite of even the Jagadguru Shankarachrya of Dwarka, on a representation by V. R. Lele, issuing an Adesha-Patra more than a 100 years back (in Shaka 1814)that only (so called) Sayana rashis must be used for deciding fairs and festivals (Pl. see “Bharatiya Jyotish Shastra”). But now the same Dwarka Peetha, including the current Jagadguru Shankaracharya of that Peetha, is celebrating all its festivals and muhurtas not as per the Vedas or other shastras, but as “dictated” by “almighty” Lahiri!  WHY?   Only because all these “reformists” were talking of (so called) Sayana rashis, which is an anathema to “Vedic Jyotishis”!  They just do not want to lose their sinful crumbs, however hard we may try to instil God’s fear into them!  Money for them is more powerful and intoxicating than Jeevan Mukti!

      THEREFORE, IT IS BETTER TO SHELVE THE RASHIS COMPLETELY  -- WHETEHR THE SO CALLED SAYANA OR THE SO CALLED NIRAYANA – FOR THE PURPOSE OF STREAMLINING OUR CALENDAR!  LET US PREPARE A “TITHI-PATRAK’ WHICH DOES NOT CARRY THE NAMES OF ANY RASHIS, SO THAT WE CELEBRATE OUR FESTIVALS ON CORRECT DAYS AND LET THE “SAYANA VEDIC ASTROLOGERS” AS WELL AS THE “NIRAYANA VEDIC ASTROLOGERS” CONTINUE TO “MAKE CORRECT PREDEICTIONS FROM INCORRECT DATA”.

      We must, therefore, select the seasonal year with Madhu, Madhava etc. months with Aruna et. synonyms  and Vasanta etc. seasons plus Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. solar/lunar months coupled with Krittika etc. actual 28 nakshatras (including Abhijit) instead of the so called sayana or nirayana nakshatra division of 27 equal nakshatras.

      With regards,

      Avtar Krishen Kaul

      President

      All India Calendar Reform Committee

      New Delhi

       

      From: HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Narayan Prasad
      Sent: Wednesday, September 13, 2006 12:16 AM
      To:
      HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: RE: [HinduCalendar] Re: First Point of Aries -- Definition as per Modern Astronomy

       

      Dear Shri Avtar ji,

       

          Namaste !

       

      You wrote:

       

      <<I have never seen any lunar month ever being named as per any rashi in any part of the country!  >>

       

      My reply:

       

      I thought you have fully read Pt S B Dixit’s book “bhAratiiya jyotiSa-shAstrAchA itihaas”.  On pp.390-391 he writes:

       

      <QUOTE>

       

      “meSAdisthe savitari yo yo mAsaH prapUryate chAndraH |

      chaitrAdyaH sa j~neyaH pUrti-dvittve’dhimAso’ntyaH  ||”

       

        &

       

      “miinAdisthe raviryeSAm-Arambha-prathame kSaNe |

      bhavet te’bde cAndra-mAsAsh-chaitrAdyA dvAdasha smRtAH ||”

       

      <UNQUOTE>

       

      Kindly translate into English these two Sanskrit shlokas yourself  to explain other members also what they mean.

       

      You wrote:

      << also known as solar Ashvina as per the Vedanga Jyotisha …… that was the start of the Lunar Ashvina….. also known as solar Kartika as per the Vedanga Jyotisha….

       

      lunar months are always supposed to be named as per nakshatra division where the Full Moon falls! For example,
      Chaitra month is given that name because the Purnima of that month is supposed to fall in Chitra nakshatra, Vaishakha has that name because the full Moon is in Vishakha nakshatra, Jyeshtha is Jyeshtha as the full moon is in Jyeshtha nakshatra and so on! It may be mentioned here that even nirayana lunar months fail on this count!
      >>

       

      My reply:

       

       As I expressed my view earlier, I do not like the use of the same nomenclature for solar months and lunar months, because in general they will start on different dates. We must not force lunar months’ nomenclature to solar ones, if we want to be scientific.

      Why give same scienti

      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • jyotirved .
      ... From: jyotirved . Date: Mon, Aug 30, 2010 at 9:32 PM Subject: Ayanamsa and adhimas relationship To: jyotishgroup
      Message 2 of 3 , Aug 30, 2010
      • 0 Attachment


        ---------- Forwarded message ----------
        From: jyotirved . <jyotirved@...>
        Date: Mon, Aug 30, 2010 at 9:32 PM
        Subject: Ayanamsa and adhimas relationship
        To: jyotishgroup <jyotishgroup@yahoogroups.com>

         
        Shri Hari Malla ji,
        Jai Shri Ram!
        Re your # 29104, "I see! Your history of festivals and astrology starts from Munjal and ends with Ganesh Daivagya. It has no place before or after that.Great point!" your memory is proverbially shorter than the shortest since I had apprised you of the facts several times through my following post in Hinducalendar ad other forums!  But then I must not forget that you have a "mandate" to thrust your "coordinated" calendar on every Hindu of Bharatavarsha even if your own Hindu brethren in Nepal have discarded that "coordinated" one with the disdain it deserves! 
        Just to put the records straight that the real Hindu calendar needs no Mesha etc.curses, whether sayana or nirayana, I am repeating below what I had written in a post to Shri Narayan Prasad ji several years back.
        I know, however, that you will come back with some other plea now, just to keep the discussion alive! After all,  paapi pet ka saval jo hai!
        Jai Shri Ram!
        A K Kaul
        ***************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

         

         

        Shri Narayan Prasad ji,

        Namaste!

        I am indeed thankful to you for prodding me to make my thoughts about Vedic luni-solar months etc. articulate and cohesive. I, therefore, request you to please go through this post carefully so that we take some constructive steps in the right direction for streamlining our calendars at the earliest.

         

        The shlokas quoted by Diksit are from recent works:

        The two sholkas that you have quoted from “Bahratiya Jyotish Shastra” of S. B. Dikshit in support of Rashi based lunar months, are actually from “Kala Madhava” of thirteenth century and “Kala Tattva Vivechan” of sixteenth century AD.  As such, both these works are quite recent ones and it is not surprising at all that they have advocated to calculate lunar months vis-à-vis astrological Rashis like Aries, Taurus etc.

         

        Vedic calendars were framed without astrological Rashis:

        However, the task we have at our hands is to streamline our calendars in accordance with the Vedic lore that should be applicable to whole of India and not as per Narada etc. Purana, that is based on the Surya Sidhanta of Maya the mlechha, or some so called Jyotisha shastra etc.

        Let us, therefore, see the relevant references for that purpose i.e., the real fundamentals of the calendar as it existed during the Vedic and post-Vedic period.     

         

        1. 4000 BCE: The earliest reference---at least of around 4000 BCE----we have to an intercalary month (adhika-masa) is in the Rigveda 1/25/8.  An adhika-masa can take place only when lunar synodic months are calculated vis-à-vis solar sankrantis. Since in the Vedic period only Madhu, Madhava etc. solar months and not Aries etc. astrological rashis were in vogue, it means that even the earliest references to lunar months in the Vedas are without Mesha etc. Rashis but in relation to Madhu, Madhava etc. solar/lunar months.
        2. 3000 BCE: Taittiriya Samhita 1/4/14 says: “Madhushcha madhavashcha shukrashcha shuchishcha nabhashcha nabhasyashcha ishashcha  oorjashcha sahashcha sahasyashcha tapashcha tapasyashchai up yam griheeto asi samsarpo asi amhaspatyay tva”

        Here Madhu, Madhava etc. twelve months have been named and then samsarpa is the thirteenth (intercalary/adhika) month and amhaspati a decayed (kshyaya) month.  THERE ARE NO RASHIS HERE AND LUNAR MONTHS, INCLUDING ADHIKA/KSHAYA-MASA, WERE RELATED TO MADHU, MADHAVA ETC. SOLAR MONTHS AND EVEN NAMED AS (LUNAR, APART FROM SOLAR) MADHU, MADHAVA ETC. WITHOUT ANY DOUBT.

        3.    Again the same Taitiriya Samhita 5/6/7 says “shadratrir deekshitah syat shadva ritavah samvatsarah…dwadasha ratreer deekshitah syat dwadasha masah samvatsarah… trayodasha ratreer deekshitah syat, trayodasha masah samvatsarah”

        i.e. “One should get consecrated for six days as the year comprises six seasons.  One should get consecrated for 12 days as the year comprises 12 months.  One should get consecrated for 13 days as the year comprises 13 months (including an adhika masa)”. There are no rashis involved here but the solar months Madhu, Madhava etc. are implied because of references to six seasons, and thereby the lunar months are related to those very solar months.

        4.    3000 BCE: Vajasaneya Samhita 22/31 says:

        “Madhave svaha, madhavay svaha, shukray svaha shuchaye svaha, nabhase svaha, nabhasyaya svaha, ishay svaha, oorjay svaha, sahase svaha, sahasyay svaha, tapase svaha, tapasyaya svaha, amhaspataye svaha”                

        Here all the twelve solar months of Madhu, Madhava etc. have been named consecutively and the thirteenth month has been named as amhaspati.  Obviously, the thirteenth is an adhika lunar month.  Thus as per this proof also, lunar months were known by the names of solar months of Madhu, Madhva etc. in early Vedic days!

        .

        1. 3000 BCE and 100 BCE: In Shatapatha Brahmana 4/5/14 we find “Upayama griheeto asi Madhave tu etyeva advaryur-grihnati upyama griheeto asi madhavay tveti pratiprastha taitaveva vasantikav sayad vasante  aushadhayo jayante vanaspatayah pachyante tena haitav madhushcha madhavshcha”

        Translation “Since in the Vasnata (spring season) grains in the fields start sprouting that is why the two months of that season are known as Madhu and Madhvava”.

        The commentary on this mantra by Shri Hari-Swamin says, “Madhu Madhavaviti chaitra vaishakhav ritu grahanam chaitradayo masah devatah.  Chaitra vaishakhayor madhu madhava namdheya praptim darshayati. Etav uktav masav vasantikav”

        Translation “Madhu and Madhava are Chaitra and Vaishakha as they are the two months of Spring season.  As such the shruti has shown the names of Chaitra and Vaishakha as Madhu and  Madhava”

        Shri Hari-Swamin is said to be a scholar of around first century BCE.  It means that the tradition of calling solar months Madhu, Madhava by lunar names like Caitra, Vaishakha etc. and vice-versa was prevailing then.

         

        1. 1400 BCE: Acharya Lagadha’s Vedanga Jyotisha says:

        “Svarakramete somarkav yada sakam savasavav, syat tadadi yugam maghastapah shuklo ayanam hyudak”

        As per Dikshit’s translation, it means ”When the sun and the moon while moving in the sky, come to Vasava (Dhanishtha i.e. Beta Delphini) star together, then the yuga, the Magha (month), the tapas (seasonal month), the light half of the month, and the Winter Solstice, all commence together”.

        1. Sixth mantra of the same VJ says

        “Prapadyate shavishthadav surya chandramasav udak, sarpardhe dkshinarkastu, magha shravanayoh sada”

        Dikshit’s translation: “The sun and the moon turn towards North in the beginning of Dhanishtha and towards South in the middle of Ashlesha.  The sun always does this in the month of Magha and Shravana”

        THIS IS THE VERY FIRST INDIGENOUS ASTRONOMICAL WORK OF 14TH CENTURY BCE AND HAS ABSOLUTELY NOTHING TO DO WITH SO CALLED ARIES ETC. RASHIS, WHETHER SAYANA OR NIRAYANA, BUT TELLS US THE METHODLOGY OF CALCULATING ALL THE TWELVE MONTHS, BOTH SOLAR AND LUNAR, LIKE TAPAH AND MAGHA, APART FROM WINTER SOLSTICE AND SUMMER SOLSTICE ETC.  IF ACHARYA LAGADHA COULD DO IT IN EARLY 14TH CENTURY BCE, WITHOUT INVOLVING ANY ARIES ETC. ASTROLOGICAL RASHIS, WHY CAN’T WE DO IT TODAY?

        1. 1400 BCE to 400 BCE: The Mahabharata contains quite a few “finishing touches” of a post Vedanga Jyotisha Era since it follows the VJ methodology for calculating adhika-masa etc. This “itihasa” could therefore be of a period of 1400 BCE to 400 BCE, since the latter was the period when Graecho-Chaldean rashis had started gaining a foothold in India. Mangal, Shani etc. planets, had, however been propagated in India prior to 400 BCE, as is evident from the Atharva Jyotisha of about 500 BCE. That is why there is no mention of Aries etc. astrological rashis in the MBh either but there are references to nakshatras times without number.  We also find reference to Magha, Kaumudi etc. months at several places. In the Gita, which is a part of the MBh, Lord Krishna has identified Himself with Margasheersha. 

        Besides, it is also common knowledge that Bhishma waited for Uttarayana to shed off his mortal coil but we do not find even by mistake anywhere in the entire MBh any mention of Makara Rashi/sankranti, which is supposed to be the synonym of Utarayana by “Sayana Vedic jyotishis”. Similarly, Bhishma is said to have shed off his mortal coil on Magha Shukla ashtami in Rohini nakshatra as per Shanti Parva 47/3 which reads as:

        “shuklapakshyasyashtamyam maghamasasya parthiva, prajapatye cha nakshatre madyam prapte divakare….”

        Here Magha Shukla ashtami and Rohini nakshatra have been mentioned clearly without any reference to any Makara etc. rashi/sankranti.   Same is the case with several other references in the MBh, which proves it beyond any doubt that Magha, Phalguna etc. solar/lunar months besides Uttarayana etc. phenomena were calculated during those days also without any “assistance from” Aries etc. astrological Rashis!

         

        1. 875 AD: Vateshwara Sidhanta and Gola, a work of 9th century AD, says in Chapter 3, verse 29  “The months Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. are called, according to the Vedas, Madhu, Madhava, Shukra, Shuchih, Nabhas, Nabhasya, Isha, Urja, Sahas, Sahasya, Tapas and Tapasya respectively.  The names of the seasons have come down to us since the time of the Vedas”.

        On page 423 of the same work (translated by K. S. Shukla, published by INSA, Delhi) there is a table listing Chaitra etc. 12 months vis-à-vis Madhu etc. Vedic months which have been clubbed with the respective seasons!  IF VATESHWARA COULD CALCULATE SOLAR AND LUNAR MONTHS WITHOUT THE “ASSISTANCE OF” ARIES ETC. ASTROLOGICAL RASHIS, WHY CAN’T WE DO IT TODAY?

        10.   1375 AD: A mantra in  the Samaveda Samhita 4/6/4/2 reads:

        “Vasanto innur antyo greeshmo innur antyah  varshani anu sharado hemanta shishir innurantyah”

        As per this mantra six seasons of Vasanta, Grishma etc. have been discussed.  And this is how Acharya Sayana of 14th century AD has commented on it:

        “Vasantah innu – vasant eva chaitra vaishakharupi vasanta ritureva rantyah – ramaneeyah bhavati.  Greeshma innu jyeshtha ashadarupo greeshm ritureva rantyah ramaneeyah.  Varshani varsha shravan bhadrapad rupen avayavi bhuta pravrit ritur eva rantyah ramaneeyah.  Tanyanu sharadah ashvina kartika rupena avayaveebhoot rituh rantyah ramaneeyah.  Hemanta margasheersha pausha roop eve rantya ramneeyah shishir innu magha phalguna roop eva rantyah ramneeyah”

             

        A simple and running English translation of this commentary of Sayana is “Vasanta comprises two months of Chaitra and Vaishakha.  Vasanta is a pleasant season.  Greeshma comprises two months of Jyeshtha and Ashada.  It is a pleasant season.  Varsha comprises two limbs of Shravana and Bhadra.  Varsha is a pleasant season.  Ashvina and Kartika are the two months of Sharad ritu.  Sharad ritu is a pleasant season.  Margashersha and Pausha are the two months of Hemanta.  Hemanta is a pleasant season.  Magha and Phalguna are the two months of Shishira Ritu.  Shishira Ritu is a pleasant season”.

         

        We have thus seen above that right from the earliest Veda i.e. the Rigveda (about 4000 BCE) till the end of the fourteenth century AD, there is an unbroken stream of clubbing Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. lunar months with the solar months of similar names and also Madhu and Madhava etc. solar months with the lunar months of similar names without any assistance from any Aries etc. astrological Rashis.  Thus these very names serve the purpose of solar as well as lunar months.  We have seen that Acharya Sayana also has subsumed Chaitra etc. months into Vasanta etc. seasons.  It means that Chaitra etc. were the names of solar months even according to him.  Since these are also the names of lunar months, obviously, lunar Chaitra would follow a solar Chaitra, lunar Vaishakha a solar Vaishakha and so on. 

         

        Vedic months Madhu, Madhava are synonymns of Chaitra, Vaishakha etc.

        That completely accounts for the following pattern of the Vedic calendar, as summarized by Dr. A. K. Bag, in (“History of Astronomy in India”, published by INSA, Delhi) in his article “Astronomy in Indus Civilization and during Vedic Times”.  In fact, this is the summary given by him as per the Taittiriya Samhita 4/4/11

        a)  Vasanta  Ritu  comprising two solar months of Madhu and Madhava which are also known as (solar) Chaitra and Vaishakha, with  lunar Chaitra and Vaishakha following the solar months of similar names.

        b)  Grishma Ritu comprising two solar months of Shukrah and Shuchih, also known as (solar) Jyeshtha and Ashada, with lunar Jyeshtha and Ashada following the respective solar months.

        c)  Varsha Ritu comprising two solar months of Nabhas and Nabhasya also known as (solar) Shravana and Bhadra, with the lunar Shravana and Bhadra following the respective solar months.

        d)  Sharad Ritu comprsing the two solar months of Isha and Urja, also known as (solar) months of Ashvina and Kartika, with lunar Ashvina and Kartika following their respective solar months.

        e)  Hemanta Ritu comprising the two solar months of Sahas and Sahasya, also known as (solar) months of  Margasheersha and Pausha, with lunar Margasheersha  and Pausha following their respective solar names.

        f)  Shishira Ritu comprising the two solar months of Tapas and Tapasya, also known as (solar) months of  Magha and Phalguna, with lunar  Magha and Phalguna following their respective solar months.

         

        THAT IS THUS THE REAL VEDIC CALENDAR, AS ADVOCATED BY THE VEDAS, BRAHMANAS, THE VEDANGA JYOTISHA, THE MAHABHARATA AND OUR ACHARYAS LIKE HARISWAMIN, VATESHWARA AND SAYANA.

         

        Early Vedic lunar months were not necessarily as per Chitra etc. nakshatra Full Moons:

        Regarding the names of lunar months as per the Full Moon nakshatra, this is the system being followed at present for Lahiri festivals.  As we have seen above, if we want to adopt the real Vedic calendar, we do not have to run after a Full Moon conjoining a particular lunar nakshatra for the name of that lunar month. 

         

        S. B. Dikshit has also clarified it at several places that the Full Moon conjoining the relevant nakshatra for the names of lunar months is a much later phenomenon.  This is what he has said on page 30 of his work (English translation of Part I):

        “In short the terms Chaitra etc. were not in vogue in the Samhita and Brahmana period. Thus it can be proved from the historical point of view that these terms came into use after a very long period of time after the terms Madhu, etc. became current” 

         

        But by the time of Vedanga Jyotisha (14th century BCE), Chaitra etc. nomenclature for solar as well as lunar months, without reference to either nakshatra based Purnimas or any Aries etc. astrological Rashis, had got fully established.

        A practical demonstration of this point is that the VJ says that Dakshinayana-cum-solar (Nabhasya)-cum-Shravana always starts when the New Moon (Amanta) falls in the middle of Ashlesha and Uttarayana-cum-Tapah-cum-Magha always starts when the New Moon is in Dhanishtha.  Neither of these two conditions gets always fulfilled either for Dakshinayana or Uttarayana whether we take Lahiri nakshata division or the so called sayana nakshatra division, the simple reason being that according to the VJ, the nakshatras start from Krittika instead of from Ashvini, and the year started from Uttarayana!

         

        THAT IS WHY WE HAVE TO DO A RE-THNK ABOUT THE NAKSHATRA DIVISION AS TO WHETHER IT SHOULD START FROM ASHVINI OR KRITTIKA AND WHETHER IT SHOULD BE AN EQUAL DIVISION OF 27 NAKSHATRAS OR AN UNEQUAL DIVISION OF 28 NAKSHATRAS AS SUGGESTED BY BHASKARA-I AND OTHER EALIER ACHARYAS. THAT IS APART FROM THE FACT AS TO WHETHERE THE NAKHATRAS SHOULD BE SO CALLED SAYANA OR SO CALLED NIRAYANA!

        (Pl. se my post “When was the real Onam”).

         

        “Sayana Vedic astrology” falls on its face by dint of the “crutches” of Sayana nakshatras!

        WHILE TALKING ABOUT NAKSHATRAS, I MUST PUT ON RECORD THAT THE GREATEST DRAW-BACK WITH NAKSHATRAS VIS-À-VIS THE SO CALLED SAYANA RASHIS IS THAT ALL THE PROMINENT STARS, KNOWN AS “MILE POSTS”, ARE AWAY BY AT LEAST TWENTY DEGREES FROM THE RELEVANT NAKSHATRA! E.g. The Star Ashvini (Beta Arietis) had an ecliptic longitude of about 34 degrees as on January 1, 2000 whereas the nakshatra division of that (Ashvini) name of the so called Sayana Rashichakra would range from 0 to 13-20’ i.e. the Ashvini Star is out of the range by at least 20 degrees from the outermost limit of the nakshatra division of that very name. Equally, Bharni Star (41 Arietis) had a longitude of 48 degrees in 2000 AD whereas that division ranges from 13-20 to 26-40. Thus Bharni star is out of range by at least 21 degrees from the outermost limit of that very Bharani nakshatra division.  Same is the case with all the other nakshatras!

         

        THOSE “JYOTISHIS” CLAMOURING FOR A SO CALLED SAYANA RASHICHKARA FOR PREDICTIVE GIMMICKS DO NOT SEE THE IRONY THAT THEY WILL NOT BE ABLE TO CALCULATE ANY OF THE DASHA-BHUKTIS CORRECTLY SINCE NO NAKSHATRA WILL FALL IN THE RELEVANT DIVISION NOR WILL THE RELEVANT STAR HAVE ANYTHING TO DO WITH THE NAME-SAKE OF THAT VERY NAKSHATRA DIVISION!

        BUT THEN “SAYANA VEDIC JYOTSHIS” ARE HARDLY BETTER THAN “NIRAYANA VEDIC JYOTISHIS” SINCE BOTH ARE BLIND TO THE WRITING ON THE WALL!

         

         “First Point of Aries” in the Kritika nakshatra

        How useless the so called Sayana rashis are vis-à-vis the actual Vedic nakshatras will be clear from the following example:

        Shatapatha Brahmana 2/1/2/2 says “Krittikasu agnim adadheeta…eta ha vai prachyai disho na chyavante…”.  It means, “One should get consecrated in Krittika nakshatra.  They do not deviate from the East”.  Krittikas did not “deviate from the East” since the “First Point of Aries” was in that nakshatra then i.e. about 3000 BCE.  This nakshatra division ranges from 26-10’ to 40-00 degrees.  However, the longitude of the Krittika star (Eta Tauri a.k.a. Alcyone)  as on January 1, 2000 AD was about 60 degrees.  Thus we will only be making a laughing stock of ourselves if we try to link the so called sayana rashichakra to krittika nakshatra since it is away by about 20 degrees from the extreme limit of that very nakshatra division!  Therefore it could hardly be such a non-existent krittika nakshatra which our Vedic Rishis were talking about!

         

        Nakshatras in the Mahabharata:

        In the Shalya Parva 5/6, we find the following reference

        “Chatvarimshad ahanyadya dve me nissritasya vai, pushyena samprayatoasmi, shravane punaragatah”

        Translation “I (Balarama) have been away for forty-two days.  I left this place on Pushya nakshatra and am back in Shravna nakshatra”

        Obviously, these could not be imaginary so called sayana nakshatras but the actual nakshatras or prominent stars of those names, with which the moon had been conjunct during the period of forty-two days when Balarama was away.  Pushya to Punarvasu means 27 nakshatras/days (excluding Abhijit) and then again Pushya to Shravana means 15 days.  Thus it becomes 42 days (if we include both Pushya the day of departure and Shravana the day of coming back) but if we include Abhijit also, it will be 28 days from Pushya to Punarvasu and then 14 days from Pushya to Utarashadha – excluding Shravana. But since in the VJ, there are only 27 nakshatras, it appears the MBH also has been calculating the lunar nakshatra days in multiples of 27 only. Besides, Abhijita is a nakshatra of very short duration  -- hardly a few degrees, thus the lunar conjunction with that nakshatra could not be that long to be taken as one day.  It could have been subsumed in other nakshatras.

        In any case, it goes to prove that instead of artificial nakshatra divisions of the so called “Sayana Vedic Jyotishis” the MBh also was taking into account the actual nakshatras.

         

        Duplicate Chaitra etc. names

        Coming to your next point,

        <If at all duplicate nomenclature is to be used for the solar months, let it be on the name of Rashis, as used in South India.>

         

        We have just seen in the commentary of Acharya Sayana as to how he clubbed Chaitra etc. solar and lunar months with Vasanta etc. seasons.

         

         Acharya Sayana was a minister of Viajayanagar empire  of South India besides being the younger  brother of Madhvacharya a.k.a. Vidyaranya Muni of the “Panchadashi” fame.   Acharya Sayana was a scholar of extraordinary calibre and I have not seen yet any commentator of his stature who has explained all the four Vedas in such an exhaustive and lucid manner.  There is hardly any scholar, whether from East or West, who does not acknowledge the authority of Sayana about the Vedic interpretations.  Aries etc. Rashis were very much prevalent at Acharya Sayana’s time in India – 14th century AD--since the Surya Sidhanta by Maya the mlechha had got entrenched in our cultural ethos by then completely.  THE MILLION DOLLAR QUESTION THAT ARISES HERE IS AS TO WHY DID ACHARYA SAYANA SPURN THE SO CALLED MESHA ETC. RASHIS AND TALK ABOUT CHAITRA, VIAISHAKHA ETC. MONTHS  VIS-À-VIS VEDIC SEASONS?

        Obviously, these Aries etc. signs being a creation of astrologers, did not suit him (Acharya Sayana) at all, and  he just ignored them with the disdain and contempt these astrological rashis deserve.  SCHOLARS THROUGHOUT INDIA SHOULD EMULATE ACHARYA SAYANA IN THIS RESPECT i.e. they must spurn rashi based calendar! But on the other hand, for the last about a hundred years, maximum support of these good for nothing astrological rashis is being provided/mustered by ”Vedic astrologers” through their astrological magazines and “Vedic jyotisha” monthlies and so on and so forth!  These “scholars” also preside over several “panchanga standardization committees” and are always back at square one by opting for the same “almighty” Lahiri Rashichakra that was being already used sine 1950, thanks to N. C. Lahiri’s jugglery!

        Thus these “Vedic scholars/astrologers” are decimating those very Vedas that they pretend to defendand they are doing so just for the sake of sinful crumbs which they earn by dint of “Vedic astrology”---i.e. “correct predictions from incorrect data”!

         

        I, therefore, do not see any valid reason against naming Madhu, Madhava etc. Vedic months as solar Chaitra and Vaishakha etc. as was done by every Seer from Lagadha of the VJ to Acharya Syana of Samaveda Bhashya.  These very names can be used for lunar months.

         

        Even alternative names of solar momths can be without astrological rashis:

        If, however, you are still of the opinion that the use of Chaitra etc. names for solar as well as lunar months will create some confusion, we can think over the thirteen names of solar/lunar months as given in Taittiriya Brahmana 3/10/1.  These are:

        1) Arunah; 2)Arunarajah; 3) Pundareekah; 4) Vishvajit; 5) Abhijit; 6) Ardrah 7) Pinvaman; 8) Unnavan; 9) Rasavan; 10) Iravan; 11) Sarvaushadhah; 12) Sambharah; 13) Mahaswan

         

        (Please see page 27 of Dikshit’s “Bharatiya Jyotisha”--English translation—Vol. I)

         

        This will obviate the necessity of duplicating Chaitra etc. names for solar as well lunar months without our having to fall back upon Aries etc. astrological rashis.

         

        Amanta and Purnimanta  systems -- both can and should continue:

        Regarding your earlier suggestion that there should be one pattern of lunar months throughout India i.e. they should be either Amanta (New Moon to New Moon) or Purnimanta (Full Moon to Full Moon), I am of the opinion that we must continue with both the systems since both of them are Vedic, as explained by me in one of my earlier posts to you about the same.  I do not want to make any changes in any pattern arbitrarily unless and until they are warranted by the Vedas and are unavoidable.  We are almost divided in the middle  --- half of India celebrating Amanta and half Purnimanta – and it will create further confusion when we change the system from Makara to Tapah and then ask Northern India to make Krishna Paksha follow Shukla paksha or South and Central India etc. etc. to put Krishna Paksha before Shukla Paksha.  It will take them a considerable time to get to grips with that double confusion, without any advantage or plus points.  It is also not necessary that they will agree with this suggestion of ours, since it is not an easy job to change the settled pattern

         

        Sayana versus Nirayana is the worst conflict:

        Thus, in any case, once we shun Aries etc. Rashis completely for the real Vedic Calendar, we shall then not have to enter into an endless discussion and conflict with either “Vedic” or “anti-Vedic” or “non-Vedic” jyotishis, since we will not be using rashis at all for Vedic calendar, which means there will be no confusion whether the rashis are sayana or nirayana. Let the jyotishis continue to wallow in the mud of those sayana and Lahiri and Ramana and Fagan Rashis and give a full demonstration of their charlatanism but at least our “Vedic calendar” will steer clear of the same since we will not refer to Aries etc. astrological Rashsi as our Vedic Rishis never referred to them, at least in respect of deciding the calendar.

        AND THAT IS NO MEAN ACHIEVEMENT.

        Sayana versus Nirayana was the main reason of the failure of “Calendar Reform”

        Before closing this note, I must put on record my views as to why the earlier efforts of streamlining the calendar failed:

        As we know through “Bharatiya Jyotisha Shastra” of Dikshit and other works, real scholars of Vedic lore were feeling highly perturbed with the anachronism of celebrating Uttarayana etc. phenomena after at least a fortnight or so of the actual phenomenon over the last about couple of hundred years.  They also tried to put it back on rails and quite a few seminars were held; quite a few “calendar reform committees” established, but it had just become a zero sums game!  Almost every “Committee” had recommended the so called Sayana Rashis for celebrating festivals etc. but the efforts were never successful in spite of even the Jagadguru Shankarachrya of Dwarka, on a representation by V. R. Lele, issuing an Adesha-Patra more than a 100 years back (in Shaka 1814)that only (so called) Sayana rashis must be used for deciding fairs and festivals (Pl. see “Bharatiya Jyotish Shastra”). But now the same Dwarka Peetha, including the current Jagadguru Shankaracharya of that Peetha, is celebrating all its festivals and muhurtas not as per the Vedas or other shastras, but as “dictated” by “almighty” Lahiri!  WHY?   Only because all these “reformists” were talking of (so called) Sayana rashis, which is an anathema to “Vedic Jyotishis”!  They just do not want to lose their sinful crumbs, however hard we may try to instil God’s fear into them!  Money for them is more powerful and intoxicating than Jeevan Mukti!

        THEREFORE, IT IS BETTER TO SHELVE THE RASHIS COMPLETELY  -- WHETEHR THE SO CALLED SAYANA OR THE SO CALLED NIRAYANA – FOR THE PURPOSE OF STREAMLINING OUR CALENDAR!  LET US PREPARE A “TITHI-PATRAK’ WHICH DOES NOT CARRY THE NAMES OF ANY RASHIS, SO THAT WE CELEBRATE OUR FESTIVALS ON CORRECT DAYS AND LET THE “SAYANA VEDIC ASTROLOGERS” AS WELL AS THE “NIRAYANA VEDIC ASTROLOGERS” CONTINUE TO “MAKE CORRECT PREDEICTIONS FROM INCORRECT DATA”.

        We must, therefore, select the seasonal year with Madhu, Madhava etc. months with Aruna et. synonyms  and Vasanta etc. seasons plus Chaitra, Vaishakha etc. solar/lunar months coupled with Krittika etc. actual 28 nakshatras (including Abhijit) instead of the so called sayana or nirayana nakshatra division of 27 equal nakshatras.

        With regards,

        Avtar Krishen Kaul

        President

        All India Calendar Reform Committee

        New Delhi

         

        From: HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com [mailto:HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Narayan Prasad
        Sent: Wednesday, September 13, 2006 12:16 AM
        To:
        HinduCalendar@yahoogroups.com
        Subject: RE: [HinduCalendar] Re: First Point of Aries -- Definition as per Modern Astronomy

         

        Dear Shri Avtar ji,

         

            Namaste !

         

        You wrote:

         

        <<I have never seen any lunar month ever being named as per any rashi in any part of the country!  >>

         

        My reply:

         

        I thought you have fully read Pt S B Dixit’s book “bhAratiiya jyotiSa-shAstrAchA itihaas”.  On pp.390-391 he writes:

         

        <QUOTE>

         

        “meSAdisthe savitari yo yo mAsaH prapUryate chAndraH |

        chaitrAdyaH sa j~neyaH pUrti-dvittve’dhimAso’ntyaH  ||”

         

          &

         

        “miinAdisthe raviryeSAm-Arambha-prathame kSaNe |

        bhavet te’bde cAndra-mAsAsh-chaitrAdyA dvAdasha smRtAH ||”

         

        <UNQUOTE>

         

        Kindly translate into English these two Sanskrit shlokas yourself  to explain other members also what they mean.

         

        You wrote:

        << also known as solar Ashvina as per the Vedanga Jyotisha …… that was the start of the Lunar Ashvina….. also known as solar Kartika as per the Vedanga Jyotisha….

         

        lunar months are always supposed to be named as per nakshatra division where the Full Moon falls! For example,
        Chaitra month is given that name because the Purnima of that month is supposed to fall in Chitra nakshatra, Vaishakha has that name because the full Moon is in Vishakha nakshatra, Jyeshtha is Jyeshtha as the full moon is in Jyeshtha nakshatra and so on! It may be mentioned here that even nirayana lunar months fail on this count!
        >>

         

        My reply:

         

         As I expresse

        (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

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