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Indigenous Peoples of Central Asia

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  • ghwelker3@comcast.net
    Indigenous Peoples of Central Asia http://www.youtube.com/profile?user=HistoryGirl08&view=videos ========= A Celebration of Altaic Cultures
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 1, 2009
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      Indigenous Peoples of Central Asia

      http://www.youtube.com/profile?user=HistoryGirl08&view=videos
      =========
      A Celebration of Altaic Cultures

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MuE3ERUY5Hc&feature=channel_page
      =========
      Altaic minorities of China

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edmc0KKBVDY&feature=channel_page

      http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/China_ethnolinguistic_83.jpg
      =========
      Yugur

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XH6T_jgnq-Q&feature=channel

      The Yugurs (simplified Chinese: 裕固族; traditional Chinese: 裕固族; pinyin: Yùgù Zú), or Yellow Uyghurs as they are traditionally known, are one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census. The Yugur live primarily in Sunan Yugur Autonomous County in Gānsù Province.

      About 4,600 of the Yugurs speak a Turkic language and about 2,800 a Mongolic language; the remaining Yugurs of the Autonomous County lost their respective Yugur language and speak Chinese. A very small number of the Yugur reportedly speak Tibetan. They use Chinese for intercommunication. Both Yugur languages are now unwritten, although vertical Uyghur script was in use in some Yugur communities till end of 18th century.

      The Turkic speaking Yugurs are considered to be the descendants of a group of Uyghurs who fled from Mongolia southwards to Gānsù, after the collapse of the Uyghur Empire in 840 A.D., and soon established there a prosperous Ganzhou Kingdom (870-1036 A.D.) with capital near present Zhangye city on the foots of Nan Shan Mountains in the valley of the Ejin River (Black River). Population of this Kingdom, that was estimated at 300,000 in Song Dynasty chronicles, worshipped Manichaeism and Buddhism in numerous temples flourished throughout the country and had forcibly been incorporated into Tangut Kingdom, despite of fierce resistance, after bloody war of 1028-1036 A.D.( Mahmut Kashgari who lived at the time in Kashgar stated that "uyghur blood was pouring like a murmuring stream" during this war). The Mongolic speaking Yugurs are probably the descendants of one of the Mongolic speaking groups invading northern China during the Mongol conquests in the thirteenth century. The Yugurs were eventually incorporated in the Chinese Qing empire in 1696, during the reign of the second Manchu emperor Kangxi (1662-1723).

      The nationality's current, official name, Yugur, derived from the Yugur's autonym: the Turkic speaking Yugur designate themselves as Yogïr or Sarïg Yogïr ((Yellow) Yugur), and the Mongolic speaking Yugur likewise use either Yogor or Šera Yogor ((Yellow) Yugur). Chinese historical documents have recorded these ethnonyms as Sālǐ Wèiwù'ěr or Xīlǎgǔ'ěr. During the Qing dynasty, the Yugur were also called Huángfān ('Yellow Barbarian'). In order to distinguish both groups and their languages, Chinese linguists coined the terms Xībù Yùgù (Western Yugur) and Dōngbù Yùgù (Eastern Yugur), based on their geographical distribution.

      The Turkic speaking Yugur mainly live in the western part of the County in Mínghuā District, in the Townships of Liánhuā and Mínghǎi, and in Dàhé District, in the centre of the County. The Mongolic speaking Yugur mainly live in the County's eastern part, in Huángchéng District, and in Dàhé and Kānglè Districts, in the centre of the County.

      The traditional religion of the Yugur is Tibetan Buddhism, which used to be practiced alongside shamanism.

      The Yugur people are predominantly employed in animal husbandry.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yugur

      Site all about Yugurs:

      http://home.arcor.de/marcmarti/yugur/

      Music from Gewaldro's channel. Thank you Gewaldro. Check out his channel to see videos about Yugurs.

      http://www.youtube.com/user/Gewaldro
      =========
      Dongxiang

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TNCe4jZckvk&feature=channel_page

      The Dongxiang are closely related to the Mongolians. Scholars speculate that their identity as an independent ethnic group arose through contact with Central Asians, due to whom the Dongxiang converted to Sunni Islam in the 13th century.

      One possible origin is that they are descendants of Mongolian troops posted in the Hezhou area by Genghis Khan (1162-1227 AD) during his journey westward, while another possibility is that they could be a mixture of many peoples including Mongolian, Han, and Tibetan groups.

      Their autonym, sarta, may also provide a contradictory clue to their origin: a similar word Sart was formerly used in Central Asia to refer to Arab traders, later to the local (mostly) Turkic-speaking city dwellers. Their official name of Dōngxiāng meaning "eastern villages" stems from the fact that their settlements are east of the major Han Chinese settlements.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dongxiang_people

      I am sorry I could not find a Dongxiang song. This is a Central Asian/Mongolian song. The song is called "Khosbayar Carvan To Kasachstan".

      http://www.youtube.com/browse?s=mp&t=t&c=24
      ===========
      Uyghur

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4j7m5YU2puM&feature=channel_page

      The Uyghurs are a Turkic people of Central Asia living primarily in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region also known by its other names East Turkistan and Uyghurstan.

      More about Uyghurs:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uyghur_people

      Song is a Uyghur folk song called Hasret Çektim and a free mp3 can be found on this site:

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132

      Thanks Duldul601 for helping me with find pictures.

      To see beautiful Uyghur music and dance please take a look at Duldul601's channel.

      http://www.youtube.com/user/Duldul601

      Also look out for a new slideshow collection "Altaic Wonders" coming soon.

      http://www.youtube.com/browse?s=mp&t=t&c=24
      ==============
      Azerbaijani

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LuCioxlgn9E&feature=channel

      Beauty of the the Azeri culture and people.

      Branch of the Altaic family:

      Turkic

      Song is called Getme and a free mp3 can be found here.

      http://altaiccultureandhistory.blogspot.com/2008/09/free-turkic-folk-music-part-1_580.html
      =========
      Qashqai

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EZOplTZ-8Ic&feature=channel

      Qashqai also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay and Qashqa'i) are a people in Iran speaking a Turkic language. Qashqais mainly live in the provinces of Fars, Khuzestan and southern Isfahan, but especially around the city of Shiraz in Fars.
      The Qashqai were originally nomadic pastoralists and some remain so today. The traditional nomadic Qashqai travelled with their flocks each year from the summer highland pastures north of Shiraz roughly 480 km or 300 mi south to the winter pastures on lower (and warmer) lands near the Persian Gulf, to the southwest of Shiraz. The majority, however, have now settled, or are partially settled. The trend towards settlement has been increasing markedly since the 1960s.
      The Qashqai are made up of a number of tribes and sub-tribes including the Amalaeh, Darreh-Shuri, Kashkuli, Shesh(6) Baluki, Farsimadan, Qaracheh, Rahimi and Safi -Khani.

      The Qashqai are renowned for their magnificent pile carpets and other woven wool products. They are sometimes referred to as "Shiraz" because Shiraz was the major marketplace for them in the past. The wool produced in the mountains and valleys near Shiraz is exceptionally soft and beautiful and takes a deeper color than wool from other parts of Iran.

      "No wool in all Persia takes such a rich and deep colour as the Shiraz wool. The deep blue and the dark ruby red are equally extraordinary, and that is due to the brilliancy of the wool, which is firmer and, so to say, more transparent than silk, and makes one think of translucent enamel."

      Qashqai carpets have been said to be "probably the most famous of all Persian tribal weavings." Qashqai saddlebags, adorned with colorful geometric designs, "which are superior to any others made."

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Learn more here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qashqai

      http://www.qashqai.net/

      http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Qashqais/Qashqais.html

      This map will show you where Qashqai live in Iran. The brown stands for the Qashqai, North Azerbaijani (blue), South Azerbaijani (red), Salchuq (green), Afshari (purple)

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Azerbaijani_languages.PNG

      Note: This song is not Qashqai but a song of the Iranian Azeri people. The name is Atlar, which means horses.

      Free mp3 here:

      http://www.arazelses.com/mp3/atlar.mp3

      Here is a video with a real Qashqai song.

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8i-PE-jRljw
      =========
      Khanty, Nenets, Mansi, Komi, Sami

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ktuPHY80o7c&feature=channel

      The Uralic family is the sister family to Altaic. Like Altaic the Uralic peoples are very diverse. I am sorry I left some out. This video mainly has Uralic peoples from Russia like the Khanty, Nenets, Mansi, Komi, and Sami. This is my first video on Uralic peoples. I thought I would try something new.

      Other Uralic people not shown in this video are Hungarians and Finnish.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uralic_languages

      http://altaic-wiki.wikispaces.com/

      http://uralic-wiki.wikispaces.com/

      See more photos:

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/ugra/
      =========
      Kazakh

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K6NrJDMv56U&feature=channel

      The Kazakhs are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and Mongolia).Due to their complex history, Kazakhs display phenotypical diversity. Kazakhs tend to exhibit predominantly Mongoloid features; however, many, if not the majority, also have visible caucasoid ancestry. Fair to light-brown skin tends to be the norm. Among physical traits are aquiline noses, epicanthic folds and high cheekbones. Hair colour among Kazakhs varies from prevalent jet black to red and sandy brown. Hazel, green and blue eyes are not uncommon.Kazakh belongs to the Kipchak (Northwestern) group of the Turkic language family. Kazakhs, called Hāsàkè Zú in Chinese are among 56 minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. In Russia, the Kazakh population lives in the regions bordering Kazakhstan. The 2002 Russian census recorded 655,000 Kazakhs. Many Kazakhs live in Bayan-Ölgiy Province of Mongolia. The Kazakh folk music is widely admired and loved in Mongolia. Many are also skilled in the performance of Kazakh traditional songs. One of the most commonly used traditional musical instruments of the Kazakhs is the dombra, a plucked lute with two strings. It is often used to accompany solo or group singing. Another popular instrument is Kobyz, a bow instrument played on the knees. Along with other instruments, these two instruments play a key role in the traditional Kazakh orchestra.

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Songs are Aday and Cildizim

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132

      To learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakh

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kazakhstan
      =========
      Chuvash

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmTMcglZZZQ&feature=channel

      The Chuvash are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. According to the Soviet census of 1989, the Chuvash population numbered 1,843,300 ; 907,000 of these lived in Chuvashia. The remainder lived in Tatarstan's Aqsubay, Bua, Nurlat, Täteş, Çirmeşän, Çüpräle rayons, Bashkortostan, Samara, Ulyanovsk, Tyumen, Kemerovo, Orenburg, Moscow oblasts of Russia, Krasnoyarsk Krai, as well as Kazakhstan and Ukraine.

      They are divided into three groups: Hill Chuvashs in northern and northeastern Chuvashia; Meadow Chuvashs in central and southwestern Chuvashia; and Downer Chuvashs in southern Chuvashia and outside of Chuvashia.

      They speak the Chuvash language and are predominantly Orthodox Christian, with some pre-Christian traditions. In addition to the Chuvash language, many Chuvash people also use the Russian and Tatar languages.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuvash_people

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chuvashia

      The song is called Singir Singir and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://altaiccultureandhistory.blogspot.com/2008/09/free-turkic-folk-music-part-2_14.html
      =========
      Khakass

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dhL2Moewco&feature=channel

      The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. They speak the Khakas language, which belongs to the family of Turkic languages. They have dark skin and eyes and coarse dark hair, and beards. Their face is wide, the cheekbones are not very prominent. The Khakass tend to be short, with the average male height being 162--164 cm. In some Khakass groups characteristics of the fino-ugrian ethnic groups are discernible.

      The origin of the Khakas people is disputed. Some scholars see them as descendants of the Yenisei Kirghiz, while others believe that, at the behest of the medieval Mongol Khans, the Yenisei Kirghiz migrated to Central Asia, where they became known as the Kyrgyz, the core nation of Kyrgyzstan.

      In the 17th century, the Khakas formed Khakassia in the middle of the lands of Yenisei Kirghiz, who at the time were vassals of a Mongolian ruler. The Russians arrived shortly after the Kirghiz left, and an inflow of Russian agragian settlers began. In the 1820s, gold mines started to be developed around Minusinsk, which became a regional industrial center.

      During the 19th century, many Khakas accepted the Russian ways of life and were converted to Russian Orthodox Christianity. Shamanism with Buddhist influences, however, is still common, and many Christians practice Shamanism with Christianity.In Imperial Russia, the Khakas used to be known under other names, used mostly in historic contexts: Minusinsk Tatars, Abakan Tatars, and Yenisei Turks.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khakassia

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khakas_language

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khakas

      Free mp3 from here, the song is called "Khanza Big".

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132.

      Neat links:

      Learn more about the Khakass and their sister people the Shors here:

      http://www.hunmagyar.org/turan/khakass/index.html
      =========
      Karakalpak

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GPUPBvd6xbY&feature=channel

      Please check out thier website:

      http://www.karakalpak.com/index.html

      Thank you so much Berdakh Bayimbetov for letting me use your pictures and music. Also check out his website for Kalakalpak music:

      http://berdakb.narod.ru/

      The Karakalpaks (also Qaraqalpaqs) are a Turkic ethnic group who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. However, small numbers can also be found in Iran, and Turkey, and smaller communities in Kazakstan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Turkmenistan. The name "Karakalpak" comes from two words: "Kara" meaning black, and "Kalpak" meaning hat. The Karakalpaks probably number about 650,000 worldwide, out of which about 500,000 live in the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The Karakalpaks in Turkey are primarily concentrated in the mountains of eastern Turkey near the headwaters of the Murat River. Those in Iran live mainly on the southern shores of Lake Urmia, which is located in the northwestern corner of the country.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karakalpaks

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karakalpakstan

      The song is called Awilimda toy (Wedding in my village) by Bairam To'remuratov and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://berdakb.narod.ru/root/lang/eng/index.htm
      =========
      Bashkir

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QsJFj3yaZHw&feature=channel

      The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. A insignificant number of Bashkirs also live in the republic of Tatarstan, as well as in Perm Krai and Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Kurgan, Sverdlovsk, Samara, and Saratov Oblasts of Russia. Bashkirs are concentrated on the slopes and confines of the southern Ural Mountains and the neighboring plains. They speak the Kypchak-based Bashkir language, a close relative of the Tatar language. Most Bashkirs also speak Russian: some as a second language, and some as their first language, regarding Bashkir as a language spoken by their grandparents.

      Some Bashkirs traditionally practiced agriculture, cattle-rearing and bee-keeping. The nomadic Bashkirs wandered either the mountains or the steppes, herding cattle.

      Bashkir national dishes include a kind of gruel called yûryu, and a cheese named skûrt. Bashkirs had a reputation as a hospitable but suspicious people, apt to plunder and disinclined to hard work.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bashkirs

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bashkortostan

      The song is called Uralým and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://altaiccultureandhistory.blogspot.com/2008/09/free-turkic-folk-music-part-1_580.html
      =========
      Gagauz

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4mDz9dGP6zc&feature=channel_page

      The Gagauz is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Turkic ethnic group in southern Moldova (Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (Budjak) that number around 250,000.

      According to one of the theories the Gagauz descend from the Seljuk Turks that settled in Dobruja (Bulgarian: Dobrudzha (Добруджа); Turkish: Dobruca; Romanian: Dobrogea) alongside the Pechenegs, Uz (Oghuz) and Cuman (Kipchak) people that followed the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus II (1236-1276). More specifically, one clan of Oghuz Turks migrated to the Balkans during the inter-tribal conflicts with other Turks. After settling in the eastern Balkans (Bulgaria) this clan converted from Islam to Orthodox Christianity in the 13th century and became known as "Gagauz Turks".

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gagauz_people

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gagauzia

      The song is called Mari Kýz and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://altaiccultureandhistory.blogspot.com/2008/09/free-turkic-folk-music-part-1_580.html
      =========
      Kalmyk

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rUxuY0ID10Y&feature=channel_page

      Kalmyk alternatively "Kalmuck," "Kalmuk," or "Kalmyki") is the name given to western Mongolian people and later adopted by those Oirats who migrated from Central Asia in the seventeenth century. Today they form a majority in the autonomous Republic of Kalmykia on the western shore of the Caspian Sea.
      The name "Kalmyk" is a word of Turkic origin that means "remnant" or "to remain." Turkish tribes may have used this name as early as the thirteenth century.

      The Kalmyks are the European branch of the Oirats whose ancient grazing lands are now located in Kazakhstan, Russia, Mongolia and the People's Republic of China. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Oirats emerged as a formidable foe against the Eastern Mongols, the Ming Chinese and their successor, the Manchu, in a nearly 400 year military struggle for domination and control over both Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. The struggle ended in 1757 with the extermination of the Oirats in Dzungaria, the last of the Mongolian groups to resist vassalage to China.

      The Kalmyks are the only inhabitants of Europe whose national religion is Buddhism. They embraced Buddhism in the early part of the 17th century and belong to the Tibetan Buddhist sect known as the Gelugpa (Virtuous Way). The Gelugpa are commonly referred to as the Yellow Hat sect. The religion is derived from the Indian Mahayana form of Buddhism. In the West, it is commonly referred to as Lamaism, from the name of the Tibetan monks, the lamas ("heavy with wisdom"). Prior to their conversion, the Kalmyks practiced shamanism. According to Robert G. Gordon, Jr., editor of the Ethnologue: Languages of the World, the Kalmyk-Oirat language belongs to the eastern branch of the Mongolian language division. Gordon further classifies Kalmyk-Oirat under the Oirat-Khalkha group, since he contends that Kalmyk-Oirat is related to Khalkha Mongolian -- the national language of Mongolia.

      Other linguists, such as Nicholas N. Poppe, have classified the Kalmyk-Oirat language group as belonging to the western branch of the Mongolian language division, since the language group developed separately and is distinct. Moreover, Poppe contends that, although there is little phonetic and morphological difference, Kalmyk and Oirat are two distinct languages. The major distinction is in their lexicons. The Kalmyk language, for example, has adopted many words of Russian and Tatar origin. Consequently, mainly on lexiconal grounds, Kalmyk is classified as a distinct language (Poppe 1970).

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Learn more from here:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalmyk_people

      http://www.hunmagyar.org/turan/kalmuk/index.html
      ===========
      Karachay

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DU6rby-LfmY&feature=channel_page

      The state of Alania established in the Middle Ages had its capital in Maghas, which some authors locate in Arkhyz, the mountains currently inhabited by the Karachay (others place it in modern Ingushetia or North Ossetia). In the 14th century, Alania was destroyed by Timur and the decimated population dispersed in the mountains. Timur's intervention to the North Caucasus introduced the local nations to Islam. The Karachay dialect of Karachay-Balkar language is of the Northwestern branch of Turkic languages. Karachay people are very independent in their behavior and adherence to their freedom. They have strong historically developed traditions and customs which regulate their lives: the wedding, the funeral, the pronouncement of family decisions, etc. They are fiercely loyal to their immediate family, as well, as their "tukum" or clan. They will never offend a guest. Cowardice is the most serious shame for the male.

      "The Karachay is a neutral nation, which lives at the root of Elbrus, and excelling by its loyalty, goodliness and bravery"'.
      — Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist and philosopher

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      To learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karachays

      Song is Mingitav and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132
      ===========
      Hazara

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpVIjxTZIZ8&feature=channel_page

      The Hazara are a Persian-speaking Asiatic people residing in the central region of Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. The Hazara are predominantly Shia Muslims and are the third largest ethnic group in Afghanistan. Hazaras can also be found in large numbers in neighboring Iran and Pakistan, primarily as refugees, and as diaspora around the world. Their native homeland is referred to as Hazarajat.

      Genetically, the Hazara are primarily a mixture of eastern Eurasian and western Eurasian peoples. The genetic research suggests that they are closely related to the Mongols and the Uygurs of Western China. One theory of the origins of the Hazaras is that they are descended from Mongolians. Other theories are that they are native to the region or are of mixed origin.

      At least partial Mongol descent is difficult to reject, because the Hazaras' physical attributes and parts of their culture and language resemble that of the Mongolians. Thus, it is widely accepted that Hazaras do have Mongolian ancestry, if not being direct male-line descendants of Genghis Khan, as some Hazaras consider themselves to be.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      Learn more from.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hazara_people

      Neat links:

      This site includes news, maps, image gallery, forum and links about Hazara people.

      http://www.hazara.net/
      ===========
      Uzbek

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CaG0B__ldTw&feature=channel_page

      The Uzbeks (Self designation sg. O'zbek, pl. O'zbeklar) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, and large populations can also be found in Afghanistan, Tajikstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Russia and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. Smaller diaspora populations of Uzbeks from Central Asia are also found in Iran, Turkey, Pakistan, North America, and Western Europe.

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbeks
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uzbekistan
      ===========
      Ahiska

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fap8TDnDIvI&feature=channel_page

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/boisenoise/sets/

      Meskhetian Turks or Meskhetians are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. They were deported to Central Asia during November 15-25 1944 by Joseph Stalin and settled within Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Of the 120,000 forcibly deported in cattle-trucks a total of 10,000 perished. Today they are dispersed over a number of other countries of the former Soviet Union. A majority (more than 80%) of Meskhetian Turks are ethnic Turks (Yerli (Turkish-speaking agriculturalists) and Terekeme (Azerbaijani-speaking pastoralists)) with Kurds and Hamshenis. A minority(about 20%) are descendants of indigenous Georgians who became Muslim in the 17th-18th centuries. The estimated population of Meskhetian Turks is around 300,000. They are known as Ahıska Türkleri (Akhaltsikhe Turks) in Turkey.

      In May 1989 a pogrom of Meskhetian Turks occurred in the crowded and poor Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan as a result of growing ethnic tensions during the era of Glasnost. This triggered an evacuation of Meskhetian Turks from Uzbekistan.

      In the 1990s, Georgia began to receive Meskhetian settlers, provided that they declared themselves to be of ethnic Georgian origin. One of the human rights campaigners on their behalf was Guram Mamulia. Their resettlement created tension among the Armenian population of Samtskhe-Javakheti province. Azerbaijan accepted a number of Meskhetians, but faced problems with refugees from Nagorno-Karabakh, and the government did not accept larger numbers. Turkey, seen as their homeland by many Meskhetian Turks themselves, started a program of resettling Meskhetian immigrants in the underprivileged, Kurdish majority eastern regions of the country. This program was for fewer than 200 individuals, and fell short of expectations. The government of the Soviet Union encouraged Meskhetians to settle in selected oblasts of the Russian SSR, and most received Russian Federation citizenship in 1992. The legal status of those who moved to Krasnodar Krai, however, remained undetermined, and many were Stateless. Their presence caused tensions with the local Cossack population.To help resolve the situation, the International Organization for Migration implemented a program to resettle Meskhetian Turks from the Krasnodar Krai to the United States between 2004 and 2007. In cooperation with the two governments (Russia and the US), approximately 11,500 individuals departed.

      Learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meskhetian_Turks
      ===========
      Turkmen

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJXBjag1aQY&feature=channel_page

      he Turkmen are a Turkic people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. They speak the Turkmen language which is classified as part of the Western Oghuz branch of Turkic languages family together with Turkish, Azerbaijani, Gagauz and Turkoman spoken in Iraq.

      Quoted from Wikipedia.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkmen_people

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turkmenistan

      All pictures from here.

      http://turkmenistan.karakum.net/

      Check the website out to look at more beautiful pictures of Turkmenistan.

      Turkmen people:

      http://turkmenistan.karakum.net/thumbnails.php?album=2

      Turkmenistan nature:

      http://turkmenistan.karakum.net/thumbnails.php?album=4

      Ashgabat City Of Love:

      http://turkmenistan.karakum.net/thumbnails.php?album=1

      Song is called Küşt Depti and a free mp3 can be found here:

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132
      ===========
      Nogai

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj1qrIZfV_E&feature=channel_page

      The Nogai People (also written as Nogay or Noghai, and sometimes called Caucasian Mongols) are a Turkic people group, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region, who speak the Turkic Nogai language. The Nogai are descendants of Kipchaks who mingled with their Mongol conquerors and formed the Nogai Horde.
      Quoted from here

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nogais

      Thanks TentenThePanda for helping me find the pictures.

      http://www.youtube.com/user/TentenThePanda

      Most pictures from here:

      http://noghayel.info

      In English:

      http://translate.google.com/translate?sourceid=navclient&hl=en&u=http%3a%2f%2fnoghayel%2einfo%2f

      Music:

      http://www.youtube.com/user/TTKTURAN

      Traditional Nogay song and dance here:

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sgiagsd6eCQ
      =========
      Kyrgyz

      Türkiyadan salam bolsun Kırgızstanga,salam bolsun Kırgız Türk tuugandarga,cana salam bolsun bütkül Türkistanga,baarıbız tuuganbız,baarıbız Türkbız

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8PzY61jZa4&feature=channel_page

      The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. There are several etymological theories on the name "Kyrgyz." First, the name Kyrgyz may mean "forty girls" (kyrk + kyz), a reference to the Manas epic. This is symbolized by the yellow sun in the center of the flag of Kyrgyzstan, which has 40 rays referring to forty Kyrgyz tribes. Next, a meaning of "forty tribes" (kyrk + uuz) which makes more direct sense. Finally, a meaning (kyrgys, adj.), meaning "imperishable", "inextinguishable" or "undying". This version has an obvious popular appreciation. Historical evidence for many conflicts with other peoples also supports this theory.

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Thanks to these Flickr users for letting me use these pictures.

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/bertocchi/

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/globevisions/

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/87039642@N00/

      http://www.flickr.com/photos/kozzak/

      Songs are Kat Cazam and Manas and free mp3 can be found here.

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132

      More about the Kyrgyz:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyrgyz
      =========
      Tungusic

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wCqnPxtW5fg&feature=channel_page

      Beauty of the Tungusic culture and peoples.

      Branch of the Altaic family:

      Manchu Tungus

      The names of the many Tungus people.

      Evenks
      Evens
      Negidals
      Nanai
      Oroch
      Orok
      Oroqen
      Udege
      Ulchs
      Xibe

      Some pictures from YakutiaToday.com

      Song: Tompo an Evenk song

      Lylics

      There's a moon reflected on Tompo's waves,
      just like her face the moon is.
      Her eyes are just like stars I see in the springs.

      http://www.youtube.com/browse?s=mp&t=t&c=24
      =========
      Yakut Sakha

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wFKbQnkfSpw&feature=channel_page

      Beauty of the Yakut (Sakha)culture and people.

      Branch of the Altaic family:

      Turkic

      Most pictures from

      http://www.YakutiaToday.com

      Please check it out.

      http://www.yakutiatoday.com/

      Song is called Kiye Henni

      To learn more about Yakut (Sakha) check out this playlist.

      http://www.youtube.com/view_play_list?p=3F9932899866EF43

      Free mp3 can be found at this website:

      http://www.tika.gov.tr/TR/Icerik.ASP?ID=132
      =========
      Buryat

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_FxAmz4rMo&feature=channel_page

      Buryat people

      Branch of the Altaic family:

      Mongolian

      The Buryats or Buriats, numbering approximately 436,000, are the largest ethnic minority group in Siberia and are mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia. They are the northernmost major Mongol group. Main religions are Tibetan Buddhism and shamanism.

      Buryats share many customs with their Mongolian cousins, including nomadic herding and erecting huts for shelter. Today, the majority of Buryats live in and around Ulan Ude, the capital of the republic, although many live more traditionally in the countryside.

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      To learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buryats

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buryatia
      =========
      Tuvan

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wk7ZeHBTvXE&feature=channel_page

      Tuvans or Tuvinians are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. They are historically known as Uriankhai, from the Mongolian designation.

      Tuvans have historically been cattle-breeding nomads, tending to their herds of goats, sheep, camels, reindeer, cattle and yaks for the past thousands of years. They have traditionally lived in yurts covered by felt or chums covered with birch bark or hide that they relocate seasonally as the move to newer pastures.A noticeable proportion of Tuvans lives in Mongolia. The Dukha live in Khövsgöl Aimag. The largest population of Tuvans in Mongolia are the Tsengel Tuvans. Around 1,500 live in Tsengel Sum of Bayan-Ölgii Aimag. Other Tuvans live in Khovd Aimag and in Ubsunur Hollow. Tuvans in China, who live mostly in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, are included under the Mongol nationality.A unique form of music exists in Tuva commonly known as throat singing. A throat-singer produces multiple tones (a base tone and its overtones).The traditional religion of Tuvans is shamanism, which is still widely practiced alongside Tibetan Buddhism and Orthodox Christianity.Khuresh, the Tuvan form of wrestling, is a very popular sport.

      Quoted from Wikipedia

      Song is called Bejin'den:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_people

      To learn more:

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuvan_people

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuva

      Neat links:

      Read more about Tuva, the place Tuvan people live.

      http://www.hunmagyar.org/turan/tuva/index.html

      Send fun free Tuvan e-cards:

      http://www.scs-intl.com/trader/cards/frameload.htm?/trader/cards/ekii-card.htm
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