Chaturmasya jnAnArjane saraNi - Madhwa Vijaya (a Gist in English) by Eminent scholars - Sarga 12
- || Sri Rama Krishna VedavyAsAya namaha |||| Sri Hanuma Bheema Madhwa MunibhyO namaha ||namaste all,We are in the last month of Chaturmasya with the dwidhaLa vratha starting from today.Please find sarga #12 on this auspicious day.You can refer to previous sarga at:Here comes the Twelfth installment in this series.
|| shrI hari vAyu gurubhyO namaH ||
Madhwa Vijaya (a Gist in English) by sixteen Eminent scholars
Sarga 12, by Sri K. T. Pandurangi
Book edited by Srimushnam V Nagaraja Rao
SRI MADHVA, THE INVISIBLE
“None can veil the sun Sri Madhva, supported by the sky Sriman Narayana”. In these words, the poet Sri Narayana Panditacharya beautifully sums up the theme of this chapter. In these words, Sri Narayana Panditacharya beautifully sums up the theme of this chapter. We find an account of the debates with contemporary scholars & their anguish & the rising popularity of the Tatva Vada of Sri Madhva. Sri Madhva’s mastery over the recitation of Vedic hymns & his deep scholarship in the interpretation of those hymns & clear exposition of the truth of Vedanta in a realistic manner were his strong points which were unassailable by the pundits of the rival schools. There is also a reference to the theft of Sri Madhva’s library & its recovery & a decided turn of public opinion & royal patronage in favor of Sri Madhva & his Theism.
After completing his second glorious trip to Badarikashrama & extensive tour of North India, Sri Madhva settled down at Udupi for some time & conducted his discourses on Dvaita Siddhantha. Convinced by his effective, logical & higly intellectual exposition, great scholars like Sobhana Bhatta & Shyama Sastri became devout disciples of Sri Madhva. This philosophical revolution caused considerable alarm among those who were not able to resist the Tatva vAda of Sri Madhva. (verse 1). A few people particularly from the Chola & Keral regions gathered round Sri Pundarika Puri & Sri Padma Teertha who were the leading figures among their scholars & discussed the difficult situation facing them (verse 2). The first speaker in the group said (verse 3)
“According to Brahma Atma Aikya vaada, there is only one reality (ekaM tatvaM) that is Brahma, who cannot be described in words (vAkyaiH avAchyaM) & the rest of the world is illusory (mAyAmayI), & even though it consists of mortals, Gods, demons, etc., the difference among these is not real (SI 4-5). As oon as Brahma Gnyana is acquired, the world is rendered like a piece of burnt cloth (dagdhavastra pratIpaM) in the Paroksha stage. And in the Aparoksha stage, the world completely vanishes like water drops sprinkled on red hot iron (tapta lohApta vArivat.h)’ (verse 6). This spearker continued:- “Our theories of Agnyana, Mithya vAda etc… are complements to us in view of Vyavaharika & Paramarthika aspects of reality (satyaM satyaM vyAvaharyaM vidhatte) (verse 6). It is a bold stand. We have rejected Bheda. Our Maaya vAda is basically opposed to the Tatva vAda of Sri Madhva. No doubt, those who meet Sri Madhva feel that he is perforce an embodiment of Sri Vedavyasa & Veda: -
वेदव्यासोन्वेष वेदो नु मूर्तौ दिव्यामूर्तिर्यस्य सा सुस्मितस्य
vedavyAsonveSha vedo nu mUrtau divyAmUrtiryasya sA susmitasya
But we cannot help opposing him to uphold & substantiate the principles of Maaya vAda,” he concluded.
After prolonged discussion, it was decided to have an open confrontation with Sri Madhva. Sri Pundarika puri together with his companions went to Udupi & proposed a debate to which Sri Madhva readily agreed. In the first round of the debate, Sri Pundarika puri lost the ground (verse 7-28)
THE METHOD OF VEDA RECITATION
Then Sri Madhva gave a discourse on Veda with admirable recitations of hymns. In that assembly, there were many scholars well versed in Vedic recitations. Sri Madhva produced letters distinctly from their respective places like kaNTha (कण्ठ), tAlu etc… & revealed them in their three stages f pashyantI, madhyamA, & vaikhari reflecting the presiding deities of these stages. Sri Narayana Panditacharya says:
उक्ताङ्गेभ्यः कादिकान् व्यञ्जयन्ति तत्तन् मात्रा व्यञ्जनादौ प्रवीणम्।
त्रिस्रोऽवस्था स्तद्गुणैर्भावयन्ति देवा दृष्ट्वा व्यस्मरन् देवदेवं॥ ३१॥
uktA~NgebhyaH kAdikAn.h vya~njayanti tattan mAtrA vya~njanAdau pravINam.h |
trisro.avasthA stadguNairbhAvayanti devA dR^iShTvA vyasmaran.h devadevaM || 31 ||
The same shloka gives also another beautiful meaning that the devatas who were watching the enchanting recitation by Sri Madhva reflected on Sri Narayana. Ka means Brahmaa. The word ‘Adi’ indicates the other devatas such as Rudra, Chandra etc… They emanated from different parts of the body of Sri Narayana (chandramA manaso jAtaH). The three (avasthA) are the Srishti, sthithi & Samhara & the three gunas are satva etc.. The tanmAtra are shabda, sparsha, rUpa, rasa & gandha. All these were created by Sri Narayana & the devatas were immensely pleased that Sri Madhva’s wonderful recitation reflected those truths (verse 31).
In reciting these Vedic words, Sri Madhva first adopted Vatsanu vritti mode i.e. reciting first letter of the word in Hrasva & adopted pAkavatI & pipIlikA modes. He revealed the purport of the Vedas as determined by the vedangas. (verse 32).
आदौ ह्रस्वत्वेन वत्सानुवृच्या मात्रापादौ वर्तयन् दृश्यमानः।
कुर्वन् अन्याश्चाग्र्य रूपा विवृत्तीः गोविन्दश्रीरास गोविन्दभक्तः॥ ३२॥
Adau hrasvatvena vatsAnuvR^ichyA mAtrApAdau vartayan.h dR^ishyamAnaH |
kurvan.h anyAshchAgrya rUpA vivR^ittIH govindashrIrAsa govindabhaktaH || 32 ||
Another meaning of the above verse (govinda bhakta) Sri Madhvacharya, while reciting the Vedas in a sweet & exhilarating manner, appeared to the onlookers so pleasant & so beautiful as Sri Krishna appeared charming & sweet looking to His another & other Gopikas in His Childhood (govindashrIriva = similarly as Sri Krishna) (Adau hrasvatvena) = In the early days, as a small child, Sri Krishna; vatsAnuvR^ichyA = by accompanying & playing with small calves & pAdau vartayan.h ) = walking beautiful with his charming & tiny feet; He delighted his mother Yashoda & other anyAshcha Gopikas (verse 32).
In the next shloka, the poet describes that the accents Udaatta, Anudaatta & Swarita & Ranga (nasalized letters) shone in his clear pronounciation (verse 33).
माङ्गल्याङ्ग व्यक्तभावा त्रिलोकीं रङ्गारूढा विस्मयं प्रापयन्ती।
कृष्णेवान्या मान्य विन्यास पादा रेजे माध्वी सुस्वरा वेदवाणी॥ ३३॥
mA~NgalyA~Nga vyaktabhAvA trilokIM ra~NgArUDhA vismayaM prApayantI |
kR^iShNevAnyA mAnya vinyAsa pAdA reje mAdhvI susvarA vedavANI || 33 ||
Another meaning of the above verse: (anyA kR^iShNA mA~NgalyA~Nga) Young Draupathi in her bridal attire (vyakta bhAvA) bedecked with all the wedding ornaments, shining & extremely charmful & shlowly walking step by step (mAnya vinyAsapAdA), towards the Swayamvara mantapa (ra~NgArUDhA) appeared in a manner attracting the admiration of the men in the three worlds(trilokIM). Sri Madhva’s Veda Ghosha (mAdhvI susvarA vedavANI) Paancha Raatra (7) sapta vidyAkhya vAhaH) has pervaded the eastern horizon (pUrvAshAM ApUrya) & he is brightening the hearts & minds of the pious men in the world by the rays of his thrilling discourses. None can veil this Sun, Sri Madhva supported by the sky Sri Narayana, the Supreme Being of all the Kalyana Gunas, the supportor of all & who is established in Srutis as Ananta Guna Paripoorna (verse 49 -50).
सर्वाधारं ब्रह्मासंज्ञं विहायो रम्याकारं शारदेन्दीवराभमम्।
सन्निर्णीतं गुण्यलं शब्द भेदैः मद्वादित्यं संश्रितं कोऽपिधत्ते॥
sarvAdhAraM brahmAsaMj~naM vihAyo ramyAkAraM shAradendIvarAbhamam.h |
sannirNItaM guNyalaM shabda bhedaiH madvAdityaM saMshritaM ko.apidhatte ||
SRI MADHVA’S WEAPONS
The poet then comparing Sri Madhva to Sri Narasimha, emphasizes the truth that the Vedas proclaim Guna Poornatva of Brahma, the reality of the world & the differences among the jeevas. In shloka 53, Sri Madhva’s weapons are enumerated in an excellent poetic way. Sri Narayana Panditacharya says that “this Narayana called Madhva” (madhvAkhya nArAyaNaH) had also his own five weapons with which he killed the ignorance in the world. This Narayana’s 1. Chakra was the Vedas, 2. His Shankha was the Brahma Tarka, 3. His Gada was the Puranas, 4. His bow was the pAncharAtra & 5. His Khadga (sword) was the IthihAsa (verse 53).
वेद व्रात सुदर्शनः परिलसत् तर्काख्य शङ्खध्वनिः
विभ्राजिष्णु पुराण संहतिगदः श्लोकौध शार्ङ्गान्वितः।
सत् सूत्रेष्वितिहास नन्दकचणो मध्वाख्य नारायणः
प्राप्तो वो निजिघृक्षया द्रवत हे मायाविदेवद्विषः॥ ५३॥
veda vrAta sudarshanaH parilasat.h tarkAkhya sha~NkhadhvaniH
vibhrAjiShNu purANa saMhatigadaH shlokaudha shAr~NgAnvitaH |
sat.h sUtreShvitihAsa nandakachaNo madhvAkhya nArAyaNaH
prApto vo nijighR^ixayA dravata he mAyAvidevadviShaH || 53 ||
The Sarga closes with a beautiful Maaginee Vrutta depicting the string of victories of Sri Madhva & Subhodaya to his devotees characterized by the metre. In the concluding verse, Sri Narayana Panditacharya says that the Acharya performed his ChaturmAsya sankalpa at Praagrya Vaata & continued his discourses & the worship of Lord Narayana & as usual showered His grace, on all the devotees. (verse 54).
The facts are beyond doubt that in bygone centuries, the discourses & debates on philosophy were the life blood of the ardent scholars of different schools of thought who were ever in search of Truth. The language employed by the poet Sri Narayana Panditacharya is common to poetic diction & similar to that employed by the other schools of thought.
madhwa rAyara naMbirO
nimma manda buddhigaLanella bidirO ||
vEdagaLinda sri hariyE vEdyanenutha
bhEdhisi sarva shAstrava shOdhisutha
vEda asatyaveMbO bheda mathagaLanooki
bhOdhisi tattva Shiri Krishnana,
madhwa rAyara naMbirO
bhAratIramaNa mukhyaprANAntargata shrI kR^iShNArpanamastuPicture Courtesy: SRS Mutt, Chennammanakere Acchukattu (Near TR Nagar)