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RE: [IRAQHistory] Not about July 14, 1958

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  • Rita C-S
    Ramadhan Mubarek to all. Dear Richard: Thank you so much for the information you ve provided about what has happened in IRAQ during the decade of the
    Message 1 of 33 , Sep 11 2:44 PM
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      Ramadhan Mubarek to all.
       
      Dear Richard:
       
      Thank you so much for the information you've provided about what has happened in IRAQ during the
      decade of the international embargo.  So much of it is sadly unknown and I am not sure if subscribers on this
      list are forwarding some of the valuable information we are exchanging here to their lists!
       
      I had to change the subject title of your email because it had nothing to do with July 14, 1958. 
       
      If you have time to re-write it in an article form and make few corrections, I would appreciate receiving
      it to forward to my list.
       
      I appreciate receiving comments and/or information from knowledgeable Iraqis and eyewitnesses.
       
      You were precise about your evaluation of Wafaa.
       
      Thanks again,
      Rita Cohen-Sharaf




      To: IRAQHistory@yahoogroups.com
      From: richardsullivan1942@...
      Date: Thu, 28 Aug 2008 10:44:50 -0700
      Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958





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    • Richard Sullivan
      Dear Rita:   Thank you for your compliments and encouraging remarks.   Your comment,  If you have time to re-write it in an article form and make few
      Message 33 of 33 , Sep 23 11:32 AM
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      • Dear Wafaa':
         
        You were precise in evaluating IRAQ's status during the Iran-Iraq war.
        It was neither brought to its knees during the Iran-Iraq war nor even during the sanctions.
        This should not be interpreted as I am undermining the grave human losses and the devastating destruction that befalls IRAQ during the international blockade, which has been softly referred to as economic sanctions, but despite all of that destruction and blockade of the 1990s, IRAQ was still able to sustain itself and stand on its feet, talk about determination! !
         
        I'd like to remind those who have the tendency to continuously criticize Saddam Hussein and blame him for all the atrocities that occurred in IRAQ, that actually during his time Iraq was able to:
         
        1. restore/repair its electricity and communications for more than 60% of Iraq within three months from the 1991's ceasefire.
         
        2. crush revolts in the north and south that would have ended Iraq's peace and sovereignty the way we have been witnessing it shamefully done by northerners and southerners since 2003.
         
        3. sustain its agricultural needs by working hard on a social level to be self-sufficient; people and farmers began to plant their own crops.  I will not forget one of Wafaa's reports on IRAQ from her visit to Baghdad in 1999 in which she indicated how vegatables and fruits tasted far better than they tasted here in the USA despite the criminal blockade.
         
        4. restore security at all levels
         
        5. Continue their cultural activities inside and outside of IRAQ as if nothing has happened.
         
        6. import fiber optics from China and fulfill IRAQ's technological needs.
         
        7. pass laws that protect the health sector from outside exploitation; i.e. receiving expired donations or imports of food and medicine.  These laws protected all Iraqis exiting and entering IRAQ as well.
         
        8. the education, although was not as good as before 1991, it was FAR BETTER THAN NOW under occupation, and continued to be so based on merit and self improvement rather than on favoritcism and sectarianism as it happened after 2003.
         
        I am sure there are more points that can be provided by those who lived in Iraq during the blockade and were effectively participating in the building and the rebuilding of Iraqi infrastructure, not the ones who kept complaining about the establishment, left it behind, were only interested in personal gains, and/or sacrificed all of the above for "democracy"
        and wet their finger in purple ink foolishly thinking that they were electing someone. 
         
        Due to all of the above and Iraqis' refusal to follow Europe's and especially the USA's degrading, unreasonable and oppressive demands and laws, and most importantly for
        Saddam's decision to adopt the Euro in 2000 instead of the dollar in addition to, of course, OIL, the 2003 war was imperative for IRAQ's enemies to kill it.  Because of the courageous Iraqi resistance, IRAQIS were still able to devastate their enemies and continued to shine in the arts and sports.  We can argue that IRAQ has only been dead since the Lebanon war and crises in summer 2006.  Only since 2007 one can notice how IRAQIS inside and outside have been exhausted and almost giving up, and I don't blame them.  They have faced horrors like no other country in the world.
         
        But I applaud you, Wafaa, as one of those very few who have continued to produce for the good of people in general and Iraqis in particular as if nothing happened.  Kodus!
         
        You are a great leader!
         
        Thank you,
        Richard
         


        --- On Tue, 7/15/08, Wafaa' Al-Natheema <aboutfromiraq@ yahoo.com> wrote:
        From: Wafaa' Al-Natheema <aboutfromiraq@ yahoo.com>
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958
        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Date: Tuesday, July 15, 2008, 12:46 PM

        Thank you, Walaa', Osama and George for your recent information and discussion.
         
        I was hoping that someone would pick on the email about IRAQ's history in the Olympics
        in an effort to diversify our discussed topics and not just focus on politics. 
         
        As I read my article again, which was provided by George, I felt I should do few changes in its content including removing some of the links that no longer work and editing the following paragraph;
         
        "In the 20th century politics of the Middle East, two excellent examples shine firmly in contradiction with that notion, Mohammed Mosaddeq of Iran and Abdel Kareem Qassim of IRAQ."
         
        The above paragraph maybe confusing to some readers.  I should insert the
        word "western" before the word "notion" or simply write, " ...in contradiction with that "western perception"
         
        So in case anyone wishes to share the article with or forward it to others, please wait until I edit it and email you the link.
         
        As for your comment, George, regarding the 1950s and 1960s, I agree with you on most points you presented, but want to elaborate on your comment that the Iran-Iraq war brought Iraq economically to its knees.  While the war put IRAQ in very high debts (I don't have the exact figures), it didn't bring it to its knees.  Some interesting phenomenon happened during the Iran-Iraq war, which was that the private industry boomed regardless of the war, especially between 1981-1987.  The middle class was still thriving despite the war, which ended on August 8, 1988. 
         
        This is why pro-USA Gulf States such as Saudi Arabia and especially Kuwait were encouraged secretly by the USA to tamper with Iraq; whether with Saddam personally, by
        creating problems on Iraqi borders, asking for their loans back PLUS interest in a short time, or illegally taking Iraqi oil by digging Kuwaiti pipes in Iraqi soil.  This is also why Saddam was given the wrong signal to go ahead and invade Kuwait because IRAQ was not brought to its knees as they hoped during the Iran-Iraq war, and so it was necessary for them to start a bigger scale of killing and destruction; the 1991-desert storm, during which they unleashed bombs on Iraqis for nearly two months triple the amount of bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagazaki, not to mention the thirteen-year blokade.
         
        IRAQ enjoyed economic independence with prosperity and stability for only seven
        years; from the oil nationalization in October 1973 followed by the signing of the important agreement with Kurds in 1974 ensuring them autonomy, to the beginning of the Iran-Iraq war in 1980. 
         
        All Iraqis born in 1975 or later, spent most of their childhood and teenage years in sanctions and devastating wars, especially beginning in 1991.
         
        I hope that knowledgeable subscribers will provide us with objective articles to share with our group about events on July 17 and 30.
         
         
        Best Regards,
        Wafaa' Al-Natheema
         
         

        --- On Mon, 7/14/08, George Michael <georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com> wrote:
        From: George Michael <georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com>
        Subject: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958
        To: iraqhistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Date: Monday, July 14, 2008, 10:14 PM

        To: iraqhistory@ yahoogroups. com
        From: georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com
        Date: Mon, 14 Jul 2008 22:10:04 -0400
        Subject: RE: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930


        Dear Osama:
         
        Iraq gained only a marginal independence in the 1921 and again in 1932.  Bringing a puppet King (Faisal I), who was not even an Iraqi born and raised to rule IRAQ under British
        supervision is far from independence.
         
        Economically speaking, IRAQ never gained its full independence until 1975 when the government fully nationalized its oil.  That is when troubles began to escalate in the region including the Lebanese civil war, which was shortly followed by the Iran-IRAQ war.  Knowing politics and the economy are intertwined, then we can state that even politically speaking IRAQ was beginning in that year to gain its full independence.  That is why the industrial west planned the IRAQ-Iran war. Look then what happened shortly?  The French &
        west installed Khomeini in Iran four years later in February 1979.  That same year in July, Saddam Hussein became the president of IRAQ, what a coincidence!  Then the IRAN-IRAQ war brought Iraq (and Iran) to its knees economically.
         
        Of course before that, Qassim's law # 80 (which is mentioned in Wafaa's article below) was a big step toward real independence, without it the oil nationalization of the 1970s perhaps
        wouldn't have been accomplished with such ease.
         
        I don't see how can the July 14 revolution of 1958 be blamed for all the atrocities that had fallen on IRAQ since then.  Don't you think you should first and foremost blame it on Turkish and especially British and the USA colonialists?  Why put the blame on the victimized and/or
        defeated; in this case the Iraqi people and governments.  Indeed they bare some responsibility, but to place all the blame on one event, the July 14, 1958 is not realistic in my opinion.
         
        Speaking about July 14, 1958 and the brutal elimination of Faisal II's family, I found this very interesting article written by Wafaa', which was posted on our group blog.  Those who did not have a chance to read it and those who joined this group after it was published on the blog will find it informative.  See the article below.
         
        Whether people think the revolution was a mistake, a happy or sad event, I think these events should be commemorated in order to reflect on the past, learn from them and work for a better future.
         
        Regards,
        George Michael
        //////////// ////////
         
        http://historyofira q.blogspot. com/2006_ 02_01_archive. html
         
        1. IRAQ’s Kings & Leaders - Part II

        In part one of this series, King Faisal I (1885-1933) was featured
        in a short article, that can be accessed at http://historyofira q.blogspot. com/2006/ 01/kings- presidents- last-jews- in-baghdad. html

        An interesting debate began following the article's publication and emailing of part I to the IRAQ History group list, which focused on the way King Faisal I had died. One of the previous subscribers to the list indicated that the death of the king was not due to a strange heart attack shortly after drinking a cup of tea, but it was due to an appendectomy surgery in Switzerland in 1933. However a couple of sources indicated that the appendectomy surgery took place in the early 1920s in Iraq by a British doctor.

        The following links provide more information about King Faisal I and mention the way he died. Some offer more details about his death than others. However, none of the links provide sources:

        http://i-cias. com/e.o/faisal_ 1.htm
        http://www.greatwar .nl/bagdad/ faisal.html
        http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Faisal_I_ of_Iraq
        http://www.4dw. net/royalark/ Iraq/iraq2. htm
        http://www.referenc e.com/browse/ wiki/Faisal_ I_of_Iraq


        King Faisal I in a rare picture http://www7. nationalgeograph ic.com/ngm/ flashback/ 0306/

        King Faisal's First Speech http://www.maldives royalfamily. com/iraq_ king.shtml


        Because Prime Minister, Abdul Qareem Qassim, was executed on February 9th, 1963, this February e-newsletter is dedicated in his memory.


        Introduction

        In this occasion of writing in memory of a man (Abdel Kareem Qassim) who was accused (of many things he was not) and killed by few Iraqis following the orders and support of the CIA, I will question and even modify certain inaccuracies. If history continues to be written by males, it is long overdue for women to modify and correct it.

        Politics to western males can be summarized by the notion presented in Uriel Dann’s words in his book “Iraq Under Qassim – A Political History, 1958-1963,” page 377:

        It is sad that the last achievement is the most irrelevant. Qassim never lost the faith of the poor. They accepted his solicitude for their fate as genuine, as it undoubtedly was. When drawing up the balance sheet, this item should not be overlooked. It was of no political value.”

        These words were written as part of a list of successes achieved by Qassim. My concern about Dann's quote was in the conclusion, “it was of no political value.” Women in general beg to differ with this notion. The actions of EASTERNERS beginning with the first laws written in human history by Gilgamish and Hammurabi (until the 20th century when they began to be influenced by and/or mimic western politics) proved that this notion is null. Caring for the poor and fairly distributing the wealth and rights between citizens were important achievements in evaluating leaders’ success and should be so at all times.

        In the 20th century politics of the Middle East, two excellent examples shine firmly in contradiction with that notion, Mohammed Mosaddeq of Iran and Abdel Kareem Qassim of IRAQ.

        Abdul Kareem Qassim (1914-1963)

        Qassim, the first Prime Minister of the Iraqi Republic, was born in the Mahdiya part of the city of Baghdad. His siblings, in order of birth, are:
        1. Hamid Qassim Mohammed al-Bakr (1905-1986), worked in commerce.
        2. Abdul~Lateef Qassim (1907-1977), worked in the army as deputy officer who retired in 1959.
        3. Ameena Qassim (1909-1983), housewife.
        4. Najiyya Qassim (1916-1986), housewife whose husband was the general Abdul Jabbar Jawad (brother of the colonel pilot Mohammed Ali Jawad).


        Qassim’s parents, according to an official document published while he was in office, were of pure Arab descent: His mother’s originated from the Adnan clan and his father’s from the Qahtan clan. However, many reliable sources indicate that his mother was a Faily Kurd. Qassim never married.

        When he was six years of age, the family moved to Suwayra, a small town near the Tigris. Then moved to Baghdad in 1926. Qassim was an excellent student; he entered secondary school on a government scholarship. After his graduation in 1931, he taught at the Shamiyya Elementary School. He began his teaching on October 22, 1931 and resigned on September 3, 1932. His resignation was due to the fact that he was accepted into the Military College. In 1934, he graduated as a second lieutenant. Then, he attended al-Arkan (Iraqi Staff) College and graduated with honor (grade A) in December 1941. In 1951, he completed a senior officers’ course in Britain.

        Militarily, he participated in the suppression of the tribal disturbances in the Middle Euphrates region in 1935, in the one-month war against Britain in May 1941 and in the Kurdistan war in 1945. Qassim also served during the Iraqi military involvement in Palestine from May 1948 to June 1949. Toward the latter part of the Palestinian mission, he commanded a battalion of the First Brigade, which was situated in the Kafr Qasem area south of Qilqilya. He left Kafr Qasem with the reputation of a disciplinarian, meticulous and honest. In 1956-57, he served with his brigade at Mafraq in Jordan in the wake of Israel’s Sinai campaign against Egypt.


        The End of the Monarchy (July 14, 1958)

        Prince Abdul Ilah objected to any resistance to the forces that besieged the Royal Rihab Palace. His hope was to gain permission to leave the country. Therefore, the commander of the Royal Guards battalion on duty, Col. Taha Bamirni, ordered the palace guards to cease-fire.

        It was a little after 7 AM when all the royal family descended: King Faisal II; the Crown Prince Abdul Ilah; Princess Hiyam, Abdul Ilah's wife; Princess Nafeesa, Abdul Ilah’s mother, with the Qur'an in her hand; Princess Abadiya, the king’s aunt; and several servants. When all of them arrived in the courtyard they were told to turn towards the palace wall, and were all shot down by Captain Abdus~Sattar As~Sab’ with a submachine gun.

        King Faisal II
        and Princess Hiyam were injured
        . The King died later before reaching hospital. Princess Hiyam was treated at the hospital and luckily no one recognized her. Later she left for Saudi Arabia where her family lived and then moved to Egypt until her death.

        The coup was discussed and planned by the Free Officers, but was mainly executed by Qassim and Col. Abdes~Salam Aref. By 1956, the committee of Free Officers included; Qassim, Naji Talib, Abdul Wahab Ameen, Muhiddeen Abdel Hameed, Abdes~Salam Aref, Abdul Wahab Ash~Shawwaf, Abdul Kareem Farhan, Rifat al-Hajj Sirri, Col. Tahir Yihya, Rijab Abdul Majeed, Wasfi Tahir, Col. Sabeeh Ali Ghalib and Mohammed As~Sab’.

        The killing of the entire royal family was a gloomy start in Qassim’s era. His enemies accuse him of giving orders to kill the royal family. However, this was untrue. Qassim did not give orders to kill the King, never mind the entire family. It was a spontaneous decision made by Abdus~Sattar As~Sab’ and two others (I could not find their names). As~Sab' committed suicide later in Basrah. Despite that Qassim did not give orders to kill the king, not condemning the aggression against the royal family in his early speeches was a mistake.


        Qassim’s Accomplishments

        Qassim’s accomplishments are too many to include here in memory of his death. His accomplishments did not only include those in relation to politics and economy, but they covered a large range of improvements with regard to social services, legal system, agriculture, health and education, construction and the arts. Considering the short term of his leadership (four and a half years) and the youngest experience in the life of the Iraqi Republic, Qassim’s era brought the highest number of accomplishments and positive changes to Iraq compared with eras that preceded and followed him.

        Some of these achievements were the passing of law No. 80 which took back the right of owning 98% of Iraqi land from the British-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, distributing fairly the farms owned by the few amongst the farmers, and, as a result of the two achievements, increasing in middle class percentage and privileges, the building of 35,000 residential units to house the poor and low middle class, rewriting the constitution for the benefit of all Iraq’s minorities and women, effectively encouraging and implementing laws with regard to women’s participation in the society, and giving birth to many other improvements, laws and projects pertaining literacy, education and the arts.

        His accomplishments and successes in the Arab world’s scene can be summarized by his continuous moral and financial support to Algerians and Palestinians in their struggle for self-determination. In addition, Qassim succeded in the struggle against Abdul Nasser of Egypt. “No doubt the fact that he had incurred Abdul Nasser’s displeasure weighed against Qassim’s position. But in the direct contest Abdul Nasser was thwarted; he grudgingly acknowledged his defeat, just as he has since acknowledged defeat against other opponents in the Middle East arena.”1


        Qassim’s Last Moments:

        The coup to overthrow Qassim by the Baathists was successful on February 8, 1963. Abdul Kareem Qassim was brought to the Broadcast Building on February 9 by his opponents. He was not awarded a fair trial in the same manner it was exercised when he took power in 1958. Qassim was executed at noon on February 9th, 1963.

        The names and fate of the Iraqi collaborators who ruthlessly murdered Abdul Kareem Qassim are as follows:

        1. Abdus~Sattar Abdullateef, died in early 2005 in Spain.

        2. Abdus~Salam Aref, president of Iraq after the assassination of Qassim, died in 1966 in an airplane crash believed to be orchestrated on purpose.

        3. Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr, president of Iraq from 1968 to 1979, who was, believed to be, killed by orders from Saddam Hussein.

        4. Hardan At~Tikreeti, Minister of Defense who was killed by the Baathist secret intelligence in Kuwait.

        5. Ali Salih As-Saadi, Deputy Prime Minister, died of sickness with rumors of being killed with poison.

        6. Hazim Jawad, lived in the UAE, currently living in London. His memoire is being published at the al-Quds al-Arabi newspaper http://www.alquds. co.uk/.

        7. Talib Hussein Shabeeb, was a Foreign Minister & Iraqi Ambassador, then joined the Iraqi opposition against Saddam Hussein. He died in 2004.

        8. Hani al-Fukaiky, Baath member and worked in commerce, later joined the Iraqi opposition against Saddam. He died of cancer in 2000.

        9. Saleh Mahdi Ammash, Baath member, whose last post was Iraq's ambassador in Finland. He was believed to be poisoned in Finland by orders from Saddam Hussein.

        A radio clip (in Arabic) of the last moments in the life of Qassim can be heard by clicking on http://zennobia. blogspot. com/2006/ 02/abdul- kareem-qassim- last-moments. html It narrates and includes the argument that went on between the ten individuals (listed above) and Abdul Kareem Qassim, which lasted about ten minutes and ended with a violent shower of bullets shot at Qassim, al-Mahdawi and al-Shaikh Ahmed.

        That radio clip features a commentary by the Kuwaiti broadcaster, Najm Abdul Kareem, who aired it on London’s Radio Spectrum, the Arabic Broadcast in 1999. The recording of the argument that went on between Qassim and those (mentioned in the list above) who executed him was unclear. After writing and posting this article and the radio clip on the Internet, I became aware of the fate of the individuals who witnessed and/or participated in the killing of Qassim. Please note that the radio clip does NOT provide accurate details about some of the individuals who were present at Qassim's execution.

        The radio clip;

        1. Does not mention an important person, Saleh Mahdi Ammash, who was present and gave orders to execute Qassim.
        2. It mentions that Tahir Yihya was present, but he was not. The broadcaster even indicated that Tahir Yihya was executed while in prison, which was not true.
        3. Because the clip aired in 1999, the fate of some of the individuals who were present at Qassim's execution has been updated in the list above.

        Abdul Kareem Hani, former minister of labor and social affairs as well as a close friend of Tahir Yihya wrote, "Tahir Yihya, was imprisoned and later freed (unlike what the broadcaster had stated in the radio clip). Tahir Yihya was put under house arrest after being released from prison; he was not indicted nor sentenced. I visited him many times after his release. Then he had a stroke with hemiplegia and loss of speech, which lasted till his death."

        According to Col. Ali Hussein Jassim, London-based member of the Royal United Services Institute, Tahir Yihya and Abdul Ghani Ar-Rawi were not present at the February 9th execution of Qassim. Col. Jassim was a witness (not a collaborator) during the execution. Ali H. Jassim provided the information regarding the presence of Saleh Mahdi Ammash and the fate of both Hani al-Fukaiky and Talib Hussein Shabeeb.


        Main Reasons WHY the CIA Overthrew Qassim

        1. The Passing of Law No. 80, which took back the right of owning 98% of Iraqi land from the British-owned Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) and giving it to the Iraqi National Oil Company (INOC), baring in mind that the British right to the Iraqi land was for life and without relinquishment.

        2. Disclosing interests to include Kuwait back within IRAQ the way it used to be before British colonization, an interest that was also disclosed by King Ghazi (1933-1939) who was killed by the British!
        3. Qassim's political neutrality and popularity among Iraqi people while still allowing political freedom for Iraqis to enjoy, which was something the USA-UK collaborative never wanted to see in an oil-rich country.

        The following was not a reason, but an excuse provided to the public to justify killing him:

        Qassim
        was accused of being a communist. He was not. In fact he belonged to no political party unlike the presidents who succeeded him. Additionally, he made no attempt to form his own political party. He gave freedom to most political parties to exercise their activities. His actions were backed up by some speeches in which he emphasized numerous times that the army must be above all political party affiliations.


        Footnotes:

        1. "Iraq Under Qassem - A Political History 1958-1963" by Uriel Dann, published by Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. USA in 1969 page 377.



        Sources:

        1. "Iraq Under Qassem - A Political History 1958-1963" by Uriel Dann, published by Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. USA in 1969.

        2. Talib Qassim, nephew of Abdul Kareem Qassim, currently living in the UAE

        3. "The Secrets of the July 14, 1958 Revolution", by Ismael al-Aref, published by Al-Majid Publishing Co. in London, 1987. (in Arabic language)


         


        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        CC: WMS_Al@yahoo. com
        From: balsamattarbashi@ yahoo.com
        Date: Mon, 14 Jul 2008 13:13:15 -0700
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930


        Dear Walaa



        AlSalaam Alaikum


        Officially Iraq gained complete independence on 3 October 1932 from British administration which was mandated by the League of Nations when the state of Iraq was established on 1921.

        The 14th. Of July 1958 was the fall of the Kingdom of Iraq and the first of a chain of coups and wars that led to the disastrous collapse not only of Iraqi independence but of Iraq as a state and as a society and of all the aspects of any contemporary country.

        Accept my Salaam.


        Osama AttarBashi



        --- On Mon, 7/14/08, W. A. <WMS_Al@yahoo. com> wrote:
        From: W. A. <WMS_Al@yahoo. com>
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930
        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Received: Monday, July 14, 2008, 2:14 PM

        Indeed, well-argued comment, and thank you, Tareq, for sharing it.
         
        Thank you, Wafaa, for forwarding this informative link.
         
        Congratulations to IRAQIS on the occassion of the establishment of our
        Independence from British colonialists on July 14, 1958.
         
        Best Regards,
        Walaa Ali


        -








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        Dear Rita:
         
        Thank you for your compliments and encouraging remarks.
         
        Your comment, " If you have time to re-write it in an article form and make few corrections, I would appreciate receiving it to forward to my list." made me search for mistakes and I could only find one, which is when I wrote " as I am undermining the grave human losses and the devastating destruction that befalls IRAQ during the international blockade "
        The word should have been 'befell' and not 'befalls'.
         
        As for re-writing it: The commentary below took me a good deal of time to remember the details, to check with a couple of sources and write it.  At age 72, this is all I can do, lucky me and you that I am still functioning  So feel free to edit the error above (and other errors you may find) and email it to your list. 
         
        I wish that Iraqis in this group are less passive and not shy away from adding more info. or analyzing a point or something!
         
         
        Richard Sullivan


        --- On Thu, 9/11/08, Rita C-S <cohen_sharaf@...> wrote:
        From: Rita C-S <cohen_sharaf@...>
        Subject: RE: [IRAQHistory] Not about July 14, 1958
        To: iraqhistory@yahoogroups.com
        Date: Thursday, September 11, 2008, 5:44 PM

        Ramadhan Mubarek to all.
         
        Dear Richard:
         
        Thank you so much for the information you've provided about what has happened in IRAQ during the
        decade of the international embargo.  So much of it is sadly unknown and I am not sure if subscribers on this
        list are forwarding some of the valuable information we are exchanging here to their lists!
         
        I had to change the subject title of your email because it had nothing to do with July 14, 1958. 
         
        If you have time to re-write it in an article form and make few corrections, I would appreciate receiving
        it to forward to my list.
         
        I appreciate receiving comments and/or information from knowledgeable Iraqis and eyewitnesses.
         
        You were precise about your evaluation of Wafaa.
         
        Thanks again,
        Rita Cohen-Sharaf




        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        From: richardsullivan1942 @...
        Date: Thu, 28 Aug 2008 10:44:50 -0700
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958





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        Dear Wafaa':
         
        You were precise in evaluating IRAQ's status during the Iran-Iraq war.
        It was neither brought to its knees during the Iran-Iraq war nor even during the sanctions.
        This should not be interpreted as I am undermining the grave human losses and the devastating destruction that befalls IRAQ during the international blockade, which has been softly referred to as economic sanctions, but despite all of that destruction and blockade of the 1990s, IRAQ was still able to sustain itself and stand on its feet, talk about determination! !
         
        I'd like to remind those who have the tendency to continuously criticize Saddam Hussein and blame him for all the atrocities that occurred in IRAQ, that actually during his time Iraq was able to:
         
        1. restore/repair its electricity and communications for more than 60% of Iraq within three months from the 1991's ceasefire.
         
        2. crush revolts in the north and south that would have ended Iraq's peace and sovereignty the way we have been witnessing it shamefully done by northerners and southerners since 2003.
         
        3. sustain its agricultural needs by working hard on a social level to be self-sufficient; people and farmers began to plant their own crops.  I will not forget one of Wafaa's reports on IRAQ from her visit to Baghdad in 1999 in which she indicated how vegatables and fruits tasted far better than they tasted here in the USA despite the criminal blockade.
         
        4. restore security at all levels
         
        5. Continue their cultural activities inside and outside of IRAQ as if nothing has happened.
         
        6. import fiber optics from China and fulfill IRAQ's technological needs.
         
        7. pass laws that protect the health sector from outside exploitation; i.e. receiving expired donations or imports of food and medicine.  These laws protected all Iraqis exiting and entering IRAQ as well.
         
        8. the education, although was not as good as before 1991, it was FAR BETTER THAN NOW under occupation, and continued to be so based on merit and self improvement rather than on favoritcism and sectarianism as it happened after 2003.
         
        I am sure there are more points that can be provided by those who lived in Iraq during the blockade and were effectively participating in the building and the rebuilding of Iraqi infrastructure, not the ones who kept complaining about the establishment, left it behind, were only interested in personal gains, and/or sacrificed all of the above for "democracy"
        and wet their finger in purple ink foolishly thinking that they were electing someone. 
         
        Due to all of the above and Iraqis' refusal to follow Europe's and especially the USA's degrading, unreasonable and oppressive demands and laws, and most importantly for
        Saddam's decision to adopt the Euro in 2000 instead of the dollar in addition to, of course, OIL, the 2003 war was imperative for IRAQ's enemies to kill it.  Because of the courageous Iraqi resistance, IRAQIS were still able to devastate their enemies and continued to shine in the arts and sports.  We can argue that IRAQ has only been dead since the Lebanon war and crises in summer 2006.  Only since 2007 one can notice how IRAQIS inside and outside have been exhausted and almost giving up, and I don't blame them.  They have faced horrors like no other country in the world.
         
        But I applaud you, Wafaa, as one of those very few who have continued to produce for the good of people in general and Iraqis in particular as if nothing happened.  Kodus!
         
        You are a great leader!
         
        Thank you,
        Richard
         


        --- On Tue, 7/15/08, Wafaa' Al-Natheema <aboutfromiraq@ yahoo.com> wrote:
        From: Wafaa' Al-Natheema <aboutfromiraq@ yahoo.com>
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958
        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Date: Tuesday, July 15, 2008, 12:46 PM

        Thank you, Walaa', Osama and George for your recent information and discussion.
         
        I was hoping that someone would pick on the email about IRAQ's history in the Olympics
        in an effort to diversify our discussed topics and not just focus on politics. 
         
        As I read my article again, which was provided by George, I felt I should do few changes in its content including removing some of the links that no longer work and editing the following paragraph;
         
        "In the 20th century politics of the Middle East, two excellent examples shine firmly in contradiction with that notion, Mohammed Mosaddeq of Iran and Abdel Kareem Qassim of IRAQ."
         
        The above paragraph maybe confusing to some readers.  I should insert the
        word "western" before the word "notion" or simply write, " ...in contradiction with that "western perception"
         
        So in case anyone wishes to share the article with or forward it to others, please wait until I edit it and email you the link.
         
        As for your comment, George, regarding the 1950s and 1960s, I agree with you on most points you presented, but want to elaborate on your comment that the Iran-Iraq war brought Iraq economically to its knees.  While the war put IRAQ in very high debts (I don't have the exact figures), it didn't bring it to its knees.  Some interesting phenomenon happened during the Iran-Iraq war, which was that the private industry boomed regardless of the war, especially between 1981-1987.  The middle class was still thriving despite the war, which ended on August 8, 1988. 
         
        This is why pro-USA Gulf States such as Saudi Arabia and especially Kuwait were encouraged secretly by the USA to tamper with Iraq; whether with Saddam personally, by
        creating problems on Iraqi borders, asking for their loans back PLUS interest in a short time, or illegally taking Iraqi oil by digging Kuwaiti pipes in Iraqi soil.  This is also why Saddam was given the wrong signal to go ahead and invade Kuwait because IRAQ was not brought to its knees as they hoped during the Iran-Iraq war, and so it was necessary for them to start a bigger scale of killing and destruction; the 1991-desert storm, during which they unleashed bombs on Iraqis for nearly two months triple the amount of bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagazaki, not to mention the thirteen-year blokade.
         
        IRAQ enjoyed economic independence with prosperity and stability for only seven
        years; from the oil nationalization in October 1973 followed by the signing of the important agreement with Kurds in 1974 ensuring them autonomy, to the beginning of the Iran-Iraq war in 1980. 
         
        All Iraqis born in 1975 or later, spent most of their childhood and teenage years in sanctions and devastating wars, especially beginning in 1991.
         
        I hope that knowledgeable subscribers will provide us with objective articles to share with our group about events on July 17 and 30.
         
         
        Best Regards,
        Wafaa' Al-Natheema
         
         

        --- On Mon, 7/14/08, George Michael <georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com> wrote:
        From: George Michael <georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com>
        Subject: [IRAQHistory] July 14, 1958
        To: iraqhistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Date: Monday, July 14, 2008, 10:14 PM

        To: iraqhistory@ yahoogroups. com
        From: georgemichael1956@ hotmail.com
        Date: Mon, 14 Jul 2008 22:10:04 -0400
        Subject: RE: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930


        Dear Osama:
         
        Iraq gained only a marginal independence in the 1921 and again in 1932.  Bringing a puppet King (Faisal I), who was not even an Iraqi born and raised to rule IRAQ under British
        supervision is far from independence.
         
        Economically speaking, IRAQ never gained its full independence until 1975 when the government fully nationalized its oil.  That is when troubles began to escalate in the region including the Lebanese civil war, which was shortly followed by the Iran-IRAQ war.  Knowing politics and the economy are intertwined, then we can state that even politically speaking IRAQ was beginning in that year to gain its full independence.  That is why the industrial west planned the IRAQ-Iran war. Look then what happened shortly?  The French &
        west installed Khomeini in Iran four years later in February 1979.  That same year in July, Saddam Hussein became the president of IRAQ, what a coincidence!  Then the IRAN-IRAQ war brought Iraq (and Iran) to its knees economically.
         
        Of course before that, Qassim's law # 80 (which is mentioned in Wafaa's article below) was a big step toward real independence, without it the oil nationalization of the 1970s perhaps
        wouldn't have been accomplished with such ease.
         
        I don't see how can the July 14 revolution of 1958 be blamed for all the atrocities that had fallen on IRAQ since then.  Don't you think you should first and foremost blame it on Turkish and especially British and the USA colonialists?  Why put the blame on the victimized and/or
        defeated; in this case the Iraqi people and governments.  Indeed they bare some responsibility, but to place all the blame on one event, the July 14, 1958 is not realistic in my opinion.
         
        Speaking about July 14, 1958 and the brutal elimination of Faisal II's family, I found this very interesting article written by Wafaa', which was posted on our group blog.  Those who did not have a chance to read it and those who joined this group after it was published on the blog will find it informative.  See the article below.
         
        Whether people think the revolution was a mistake, a happy or sad event, I think these events should be commemorated in order to reflect on the past, learn from them and work for a better future.
         
        Regards,
        George Michael
        //////////// ////////
         
        http://historyofira q.blogspot. com/2006_ 02_01_archive. html
         
        1. IRAQ’s Kings & Leaders - Part II

        In part one of this series, King Faisal I (1885-1933) was featured
        in a short article, that can be accessed at http://historyofira q.blogspot. com/2006/ 01/kings- presidents- last-jews- in-baghdad. html

        An interesting debate began following the article's publication and emailing of part I to the IRAQ History group list, which focused on the way King Faisal I had died. One of the previous subscribers to the list indicated that the death of the king was not due to a strange heart attack shortly after drinking a cup of tea, but it was due to an appendectomy surgery in Switzerland in 1933. However a couple of sources indicated that the appendectomy surgery took place in the early 1920s in Iraq by a British doctor.

        The following links provide more information about King Faisal I and mention the way he died. Some offer more details about his death than others. However, none of the links provide sources:

        http://i-cias. com/e.o/faisal_ 1.htm
        http://www.greatwar .nl/bagdad/ faisal.html
        http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Faisal_I_ of_Iraq
        http://www.4dw. net/royalark/ Iraq/iraq2. htm
        http://www.referenc e.com/browse/ wiki/Faisal_ I_of_Iraq


        King Faisal I in a rare picture http://www7. nationalgeograph ic.com/ngm/ flashback/ 0306/

        King Faisal's First Speech http://www.maldives royalfamily. com/iraq_ king.shtml


        Because Prime Minister, Abdul Qareem Qassim, was executed on February 9th, 1963, this February e-newsletter is dedicated in his memory.


        Introduction

        In this occasion of writing in memory of a man (Abdel Kareem Qassim) who was accused (of many things he was not) and killed by few Iraqis following the orders and support of the CIA, I will question and even modify certain inaccuracies. If history continues to be written by males, it is long overdue for women to modify and correct it.

        Politics to western males can be summarized by the notion presented in Uriel Dann’s words in his book “Iraq Under Qassim – A Political History, 1958-1963,” page 377:

        It is sad that the last achievement is the most irrelevant. Qassim never lost the faith of the poor. They accepted his solicitude for their fate as genuine, as it undoubtedly was. When drawing up the balance sheet, this item should not be overlooked. It was of no political value.”

        These words were written as part of a list of successes achieved by Qassim. My concern about Dann's quote was in the conclusion, “it was of no political value.” Women in general beg to differ with this notion. The actions of EASTERNERS beginning with the first laws written in human history by Gilgamish and Hammurabi (until the 20th century when they began to be influenced by and/or mimic western politics) proved that this notion is null. Caring for the poor and fairly distributing the wealth and rights between citizens were important achievements in evaluating leaders’ success and should be so at all times.

        In the 20th century politics of the Middle East, two excellent examples shine firmly in contradiction with that notion, Mohammed Mosaddeq of Iran and Abdel Kareem Qassim of IRAQ.

        Abdul Kareem Qassim (1914-1963)

        Qassim, the first Prime Minister of the Iraqi Republic, was born in the Mahdiya part of the city of Baghdad. His siblings, in order of birth, are:
        1. Hamid Qassim Mohammed al-Bakr (1905-1986), worked in commerce.
        2. Abdul~Lateef Qassim (1907-1977), worked in the army as deputy officer who retired in 1959.
        3. Ameena Qassim (1909-1983), housewife.
        4. Najiyya Qassim (1916-1986), housewife whose husband was the general Abdul Jabbar Jawad (brother of the colonel pilot Mohammed Ali Jawad).


        Qassim’s parents, according to an official document published while he was in office, were of pure Arab descent: His mother’s originated from the Adnan clan and his father’s from the Qahtan clan. However, many reliable sources indicate that his mother was a Faily Kurd. Qassim never married.

        When he was six years of age, the family moved to Suwayra, a small town near the Tigris. Then moved to Baghdad in 1926. Qassim was an excellent student; he entered secondary school on a government scholarship. After his graduation in 1931, he taught at the Shamiyya Elementary School. He began his teaching on October 22, 1931 and resigned on September 3, 1932. His resignation was due to the fact that he was accepted into the Military College. In 1934, he graduated as a second lieutenant. Then, he attended al-Arkan (Iraqi Staff) College and graduated with honor (grade A) in December 1941. In 1951, he completed a senior officers’ course in Britain.

        Militarily, he participated in the suppression of the tribal disturbances in the Middle Euphrates region in 1935, in the one-month war against Britain in May 1941 and in the Kurdistan war in 1945. Qassim also served during the Iraqi military involvement in Palestine from May 1948 to June 1949. Toward the latter part of the Palestinian mission, he commanded a battalion of the First Brigade, which was situated in the Kafr Qasem area south of Qilqilya. He left Kafr Qasem with the reputation of a disciplinarian, meticulous and honest. In 1956-57, he served with his brigade at Mafraq in Jordan in the wake of Israel’s Sinai campaign against Egypt.


        The End of the Monarchy (July 14, 1958)

        Prince Abdul Ilah objected to any resistance to the forces that besieged the Royal Rihab Palace. His hope was to gain permission to leave the country. Therefore, the commander of the Royal Guards battalion on duty, Col. Taha Bamirni, ordered the palace guards to cease-fire.

        It was a little after 7 AM when all the royal family descended: King Faisal II; the Crown Prince Abdul Ilah; Princess Hiyam, Abdul Ilah's wife; Princess Nafeesa, Abdul Ilah’s mother, with the Qur'an in her hand; Princess Abadiya, the king’s aunt; and several servants. When all of them arrived in the courtyard they were told to turn towards the palace wall, and were all shot down by Captain Abdus~Sattar As~Sab’ with a submachine gun.

        King Faisal II
        and Princess Hiyam were injured
        . The King died later before reaching hospital. Princess Hiyam was treated at the hospital and luckily no one recognized her. Later she left for Saudi Arabia where her family lived and then moved to Egypt until her death.

        The coup was discussed and planned by the Free Officers, but was mainly executed by Qassim and Col. Abdes~Salam Aref. By 1956, the committee of Free Officers included; Qassim, Naji Talib, Abdul Wahab Ameen, Muhiddeen Abdel Hameed, Abdes~Salam Aref, Abdul Wahab Ash~Shawwaf, Abdul Kareem Farhan, Rifat al-Hajj Sirri, Col. Tahir Yihya, Rijab Abdul Majeed, Wasfi Tahir, Col. Sabeeh Ali Ghalib and Mohammed As~Sab’.

        The killing of the entire royal family was a gloomy start in Qassim’s era. His enemies accuse him of giving orders to kill the royal family. However, this was untrue. Qassim did not give orders to kill the King, never mind the entire family. It was a spontaneous decision made by Abdus~Sattar As~Sab’ and two others (I could not find their names). As~Sab' committed suicide later in Basrah. Despite that Qassim did not give orders to kill the king, not condemning the aggression against the royal family in his early speeches was a mistake.


        Qassim’s Accomplishments

        Qassim’s accomplishments are too many to include here in memory of his death. His accomplishments did not only include those in relation to politics and economy, but they covered a large range of improvements with regard to social services, legal system, agriculture, health and education, construction and the arts. Considering the short term of his leadership (four and a half years) and the youngest experience in the life of the Iraqi Republic, Qassim’s era brought the highest number of accomplishments and positive changes to Iraq compared with eras that preceded and followed him.

        Some of these achievements were the passing of law No. 80 which took back the right of owning 98% of Iraqi land from the British-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, distributing fairly the farms owned by the few amongst the farmers, and, as a result of the two achievements, increasing in middle class percentage and privileges, the building of 35,000 residential units to house the poor and low middle class, rewriting the constitution for the benefit of all Iraq’s minorities and women, effectively encouraging and implementing laws with regard to women’s participation in the society, and giving birth to many other improvements, laws and projects pertaining literacy, education and the arts.

        His accomplishments and successes in the Arab world’s scene can be summarized by his continuous moral and financial support to Algerians and Palestinians in their struggle for self-determination. In addition, Qassim succeded in the struggle against Abdul Nasser of Egypt. “No doubt the fact that he had incurred Abdul Nasser’s displeasure weighed against Qassim’s position. But in the direct contest Abdul Nasser was thwarted; he grudgingly acknowledged his defeat, just as he has since acknowledged defeat against other opponents in the Middle East arena.”1


        Qassim’s Last Moments:

        The coup to overthrow Qassim by the Baathists was successful on February 8, 1963. Abdul Kareem Qassim was brought to the Broadcast Building on February 9 by his opponents. He was not awarded a fair trial in the same manner it was exercised when he took power in 1958. Qassim was executed at noon on February 9th, 1963.

        The names and fate of the Iraqi collaborators who ruthlessly murdered Abdul Kareem Qassim are as follows:

        1. Abdus~Sattar Abdullateef, died in early 2005 in Spain.

        2. Abdus~Salam Aref, president of Iraq after the assassination of Qassim, died in 1966 in an airplane crash believed to be orchestrated on purpose.

        3. Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr, president of Iraq from 1968 to 1979, who was, believed to be, killed by orders from Saddam Hussein.

        4. Hardan At~Tikreeti, Minister of Defense who was killed by the Baathist secret intelligence in Kuwait.

        5. Ali Salih As-Saadi, Deputy Prime Minister, died of sickness with rumors of being killed with poison.

        6. Hazim Jawad, lived in the UAE, currently living in London. His memoire is being published at the al-Quds al-Arabi newspaper http://www.alquds. co.uk/.

        7. Talib Hussein Shabeeb, was a Foreign Minister & Iraqi Ambassador, then joined the Iraqi opposition against Saddam Hussein. He died in 2004.

        8. Hani al-Fukaiky, Baath member and worked in commerce, later joined the Iraqi opposition against Saddam. He died of cancer in 2000.

        9. Saleh Mahdi Ammash, Baath member, whose last post was Iraq's ambassador in Finland. He was believed to be poisoned in Finland by orders from Saddam Hussein.

        A radio clip (in Arabic) of the last moments in the life of Qassim can be heard by clicking on http://zennobia. blogspot. com/2006/ 02/abdul- kareem-qassim- last-moments. html It narrates and includes the argument that went on between the ten individuals (listed above) and Abdul Kareem Qassim, which lasted about ten minutes and ended with a violent shower of bullets shot at Qassim, al-Mahdawi and al-Shaikh Ahmed.

        That radio clip features a commentary by the Kuwaiti broadcaster, Najm Abdul Kareem, who aired it on London’s Radio Spectrum, the Arabic Broadcast in 1999. The recording of the argument that went on between Qassim and those (mentioned in the list above) who executed him was unclear. After writing and posting this article and the radio clip on the Internet, I became aware of the fate of the individuals who witnessed and/or participated in the killing of Qassim. Please note that the radio clip does NOT provide accurate details about some of the individuals who were present at Qassim's execution.

        The radio clip;

        1. Does not mention an important person, Saleh Mahdi Ammash, who was present and gave orders to execute Qassim.
        2. It mentions that Tahir Yihya was present, but he was not. The broadcaster even indicated that Tahir Yihya was executed while in prison, which was not true.
        3. Because the clip aired in 1999, the fate of some of the individuals who were present at Qassim's execution has been updated in the list above.

        Abdul Kareem Hani, former minister of labor and social affairs as well as a close friend of Tahir Yihya wrote, "Tahir Yihya, was imprisoned and later freed (unlike what the broadcaster had stated in the radio clip). Tahir Yihya was put under house arrest after being released from prison; he was not indicted nor sentenced. I visited him many times after his release. Then he had a stroke with hemiplegia and loss of speech, which lasted till his death."

        According to Col. Ali Hussein Jassim, London-based member of the Royal United Services Institute, Tahir Yihya and Abdul Ghani Ar-Rawi were not present at the February 9th execution of Qassim. Col. Jassim was a witness (not a collaborator) during the execution. Ali H. Jassim provided the information regarding the presence of Saleh Mahdi Ammash and the fate of both Hani al-Fukaiky and Talib Hussein Shabeeb.


        Main Reasons WHY the CIA Overthrew Qassim

        1. The Passing of Law No. 80, which took back the right of owning 98% of Iraqi land from the British-owned Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) and giving it to the Iraqi National Oil Company (INOC), baring in mind that the British right to the Iraqi land was for life and without relinquishment.

        2. Disclosing interests to include Kuwait back within IRAQ the way it used to be before British colonization, an interest that was also disclosed by King Ghazi (1933-1939) who was killed by the British!
        3. Qassim's political neutrality and popularity among Iraqi people while still allowing political freedom for Iraqis to enjoy, which was something the USA-UK collaborative never wanted to see in an oil-rich country.

        The following was not a reason, but an excuse provided to the public to justify killing him:

        Qassim
        was accused of being a communist. He was not. In fact he belonged to no political party unlike the presidents who succeeded him. Additionally, he made no attempt to form his own political party. He gave freedom to most political parties to exercise their activities. His actions were backed up by some speeches in which he emphasized numerous times that the army must be above all political party affiliations.


        Footnotes:

        1. "Iraq Under Qassem - A Political History 1958-1963" by Uriel Dann, published by Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. USA in 1969 page 377.



        Sources:

        1. "Iraq Under Qassem - A Political History 1958-1963" by Uriel Dann, published by Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. USA in 1969.

        2. Talib Qassim, nephew of Abdul Kareem Qassim, currently living in the UAE

        3. "The Secrets of the July 14, 1958 Revolution", by Ismael al-Aref, published by Al-Majid Publishing Co. in London, 1987. (in Arabic language)


         


        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        CC: WMS_Al@yahoo. com
        From: balsamattarbashi@ yahoo.com
        Date: Mon, 14 Jul 2008 13:13:15 -0700
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930


        Dear Walaa



        AlSalaam Alaikum


        Officially Iraq gained complete independence on 3 October 1932 from British administration which was mandated by the League of Nations when the state of Iraq was established on 1921.

        The 14th. Of July 1958 was the fall of the Kingdom of Iraq and the first of a chain of coups and wars that led to the disastrous collapse not only of Iraqi independence but of Iraq as a state and as a society and of all the aspects of any contemporary country.

        Accept my Salaam.


        Osama AttarBashi



        --- On Mon, 7/14/08, W. A. <WMS_Al@yahoo. com> wrote:
        From: W. A. <WMS_Al@yahoo. com>
        Subject: Re: [IRAQHistory] The Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930
        To: IRAQHistory@ yahoogroups. com
        Received: Monday, July 14, 2008, 2:14 PM

        Indeed, well-argued comment, and thank you, Tareq, for sharing it.
         
        Thank you, Wafaa, for forwarding this informative link.
         
        Congratulations to IRAQIS on the occassion of the establishment of our
        Independence from British colonialists on July 14, 1958.
         
        Best Regards,
        Walaa Ali


        -








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