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Greece: Generalized denial of justice for Roma

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    GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM) Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760 e-mail: office@greekhelsinki.gr
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 1, 2008
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      GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM)
      Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera
      Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760
      e-mail: office@... website: http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr

      PRESS RELEASE

      1 September 2008

      Greece: Generalized denial of justice for Roma

      Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM) releases today two
      letters updated in English it sent to competent
      authorities extensively documenting that, in
      Greece, there is generalized denial of justice
      for Roma. GHM calls on all competent UN Special
      Procedures, Council of Europe and EU
      institutions, as well as international NGOs to
      urge Greek authorities to take effective action
      to investigate these claims and guarantee that
      Roma in Greece can expect fair trials or other (quasi-)judicial procedures.

      On 13 August 2008, GHM wrote to the Prosecutor
      and the President of the Supreme Court (with a
      copy to the Minister of Justice) listing 39
      recent litigation cases on behalf of or against
      Roma. They indicate that cases against Roma
      (often resulting from abusive actions of
      prosecutors) are investigated promptly (and
      usually end with archival or acquittal), while
      the investigation of cases concerning serious
      violations of Roma rights may last for several
      years and rarely lead to indictments let alone
      convictions. In some of the latter cases, it was
      the European Court of Human Rights or the UN
      Human Rights Committee that ruled for the Roma.
      GHM, on behalf of the Roma it represents,
      requested that Greece's chief Prosecutor takes
      away the case files from those in charge now and
      assigns them to one or more top level prosecutors
      who would have no prior involvement with similar
      cases so that there is a prompt and effective
      investigation or trial. GHM also asked for
      judicial officials responsible for this denial of
      justice to be sanctioned. The reaction to this
      letter will be known in the fall, but GHM notes
      that perhaps coincidentally- the Prosecutor
      issued two weeks later a circular on the handling
      by prosecutors of police brutality (see below).

      On 30 April 2008, GHM and Minority Rights
      Group-Greece submitted to the Economic and Social
      Committee of Greece (OKE) a report indicating
      that GHM complaints to the Ombudsman as Equal
      Treatment Authority concerning Roma were not at
      all or properly investigated. OKE has a mandate
      to engage into dialogue with NGOs and all others
      involved, on the application of Law 3304/2005
      that implements the EU's Race Directives, and
      publish an annual report. OKE never reacted to
      the GHM/MRG-G submission and in its subsequent
      report listed only and totally uncritically the
      Ombudsman's alleged and largely inaccurate- handling of Roma issues.

      Police brutality under scrutiny
      http://www.ekathimerini.com/4dcgi/_w_articles_politics_100010_27/08/2008_99867

      Greece's top prosecutor instructed his
      subordinates yesterday to urgently investigate
      any allegations made to them involving police
      misbehavior and brutality. In a memo that was
      sent to all of the country's prosecutors, Giorgos
      Sanidas said that following complaints by Greek
      and foreign human rights organizations about the
      treatment of some people at the hands of certain
      officers, he wants a thorough investigation into
      any complaints that have recently been lodged with judicial authorities.
      Although there have not been any specific cases
      reported in recent weeks, allegations have
      regularly been made in the past about police
      mistreating suspects, particularly migrants.
      Sanidas said that if prosecutors receive notice
      of complaints, they should immediately arrange
      for a forensic doctor to examine the complainant
      and take steps to ensure that anyone who is in
      any way involved in the incident is questioned as quickly as possible.
      GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM)
      Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera
      Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760
      e-mail: office@... website: http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr

      Mr. George Sanidas, Prosecutor of the Supreme Court
      Mr. Vasilis Nikopoulos, President of the Supreme Court
      Copy to: Mr. Sotiris Hatzigakis, Minister of Justice

      [prot. nos.: ProsSC 6985/13-8-08  PresSC
      243/13-8-08  MinJus 4016/19-8-08] 13 August 2008

      TOPIC: GENERALIZED DENIAL OF JUSTICE AND
      DISCRIMINATORY ATTITUDE BY PROSECUTORS AGAINST ROMA IN GREECE

      Mr. Prosecutor, Mr. President

      As it may be known to you, Greek Helsinki Monitor
      (GHM) for some ten years has been defending Roma
      rights also through litigation. Below you may
      find a summary of this litigation which,
      unfortunately, includes vindication of Roma
      mainly from international courts or other jurisdictions.

      One reason is that there is no possibility for
      (or on behalf of) Roma to seek an effective
      remedy in the Greek courts, where the judicial
      investigation of related cases drag on, while
      cases against Roma are investigated promptly. We
      include below a list of 38 criminal cases and one
      case of interim procedure that have been
      litigated by GHM and were either concluded in the
      past two-and-a-half years or at still pending for months or years.

       From the twelve cases against Roma, one
      concerned interim measures and three in flagrante
      cases, with consequent (near) zero investigation
      time. From the remaining ones, three were
      investigated within the 4-month period prescribed
      by law for preliminary examinations, three more
      were investigated in 5-8 months and two more in
      9-12 months. Overall, the length of the
      investigation of these cases is consistent with
      the provisions of the law and the ECHR.

       From the twenty seven cases where Roma (or GHM
      on their behalf and as their authorized
      representative) are plaintiffs and usually also
      civil claimants, the preliminary examination has
      been concluded in eight of them, one within 5-8
      months, one within 13-16 months, five within 2-3
      years, and one within 4 years. For the remaining
      nineteen, the conclusion of the preliminary
      examination is pending in one case for less than
      4 months, in another for 5-8 months, in four
      cases for 9-12 months, in another four cases for
      13-16 months, in one case for 17-20 months, in
      two for 21-24 months, in four for 2-3 years, and
      in two for 4 years or more. It is estimated that
      for the cases whose investigations are going on
      for only a few months, they will not be concluded
      before at least twelve months will have passed.
      It is obvious that for all these cases there is a
      violation of both the law and the ECHR,
      concerning the principle of an investigation and
      possible hearing within reasonable time.

      At the same time, when the Roma and GHM ascertain
      that the cases against Roma are handled very
      quickly while the cases related to the defense of
      their rights, sometimes for the same facts as in
      cases against them, drag on, they are entitled to
      claim that there is discrimination and eventually
      denial of justice against Roma. This impression
      is reinforced by the fact that in none of the
      twelve cases against Roma listed below was there
      some conviction, while on the contrary most were
      either archived by prosecutors or led to
      acquittals by court decisions. Moreover, in many
      such cases, Roma and/or their witnesses were not
      even summoned to testify in violation of the ECHR
      and the law. Finally, in some of these cases,
      prosecutors made manifestly racist statements
      against Roma, indicating the absence of
      subjective impartiality: even though there has
      often been a request for their exception, most
      times this request was not even examined.

      We will mention two characteristic examples. On
      19 August 2006, there was an incident between
      Roma and police officers and fire fighters in the
      Argostoli (Cephallonia) settlement. The complaint
      against the Roma was handled with the in
      flagrante procedure, during which the unlawful
      according to the Roma and GHM- use of a weapon by
      a police officer was concealed even from the
      sworn testimonies of eye witness police officers
      and fire fighters, who had thus perjured
      themselves. The request that the two cases be
      tried together was rejected and an adult Rom was
      convicted on 24 August 2006  his appeal is
      pending. Two Roma children were acquitted on 3
      April 2008. On the other hand, the preliminary
      examination for the use of the weapon by a police
      officer and the perjury of police officers and
      fire fighres has not been completed two years after the incident!

      The second example concerns the allegedly illegal
      evictions and attempts of illegal evictions of
      Roma in Patras between 2005-2006. The local
      prosecutor offices engaged in a "prosecution
      pogrom" against Roma and later against GHM,
      opening eight case files against them. After
      swift investigations, usually without any
      testimonies from the Roma, four cases were
      archived by the prosecutors. As mentioned by the
      then Head of the First Instance Prosecutor Office
      of Patras, two of those cases that had even been
      announced publicly were not even completed as
      their aim (that was indeed the aim of all court
      files), that is the (allegedly illegal) eviction
      of Roma had been achieved! For a fifth case,
      charges were quashed by a decision of a judicial
      council, while for two more cases there were
      acquittal court verdicts. As for the eighth case
      that is a shame for justice, two years after an
      emergency mid-August (in the midst of judicial
      holidays) hearing there is still no decision in
      an interim procedure before a prosecutor!

      As for the cases concerning Patras and still
      pending, all following complaints by Roma with
      the help of GHM, we note that most prosecutors
      who are in charge of the today, including the
      Head of the First Instance Prosecutor Office, are
      accused of unlawful or racist actions in one of
      these complaints whose examination is pending for
      two-and-a-half years. Consequently, there is
      obviously a serious problem of objective
      impartiality for their handling of all these complaints.

      For all these reasons and in our quality of
      representative of the Roma involved as parties in
      the 24 cases whose investigations are pending
      before prosecutors or courts, I request that you
      take away the case files from these prosecutors
      and assign them to one or more top level
      prosecutors who would have no prior involvement
      with similar cases so that there is a prompt and
      effective investigation or trial and that the
      prevailing impression of denial of justice for
      the Roma in Greece changes. In addition, we
      request that an investigation is launched into
      the responsibility of judicial officials in cases
      for which the investigations were completed with
      very long delays and/or without the testimony by
      Roma, their representatives, their witnesses,
      and/or were launched in manifestly abusive ways
      aiming at intimidating the Roma and their defenders.

      I am available to submit detailed evidence on all these cases to justice.

      Yours faithfully

      [original in Greek signed]
      Panayote Dimitras
      GHM Spokesperson



      [GHM notes: in the Greek original letter more
      information is provided for each case;
      in italics are case files against Roma]

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF ATHENS

      1.      ABM È2003/12305 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      26/9/2003 for eviction of Roma in Marousi
      (Greater Athens) in 2002  preliminary examination
      not concluded after almost five years)

      2.      ÁÂÌ ÓÔ2003/10800 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report
      on  26/9/2003 for eviction of Roma in Marousi
      (Greater Athens) in 2002  archived on
      4/10/2007  preliminary examination concluded after more than four years)

      3.      ÁÂÌ Ã2004/846 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      16/2/2004 for unlawful and inhuman resettlement
      of Roma in Spata (Attica) - archived on 1/6/2006
      - preliminary examination concluded after almost two-and-a-half years)

      4.      ÁÂÌ Ä2004/1945 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      21/5/2004 for the disappearance of 502 Albanian
      Roma "street children" from the state institution
      "Aghia Varvara" between 1998-2001  case assigned
      to investigative judge on 1/12/2004  -
      preliminary examination not concluded after more than four years)

      5.      ÁÂÌ Ä2005/538 (opening of court case file
      after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM and two Roma on 8/2/2005 for
      breach of duty, violation of common ministerial
      decision on the settlement of Roma in Spata
      (Attica), exposure to danger and violation of
      equal treatment law - archived on 22/6/2007 -
      preliminary examination concluded after almost twoand-a-half years)

      6.      ÁÂÌ Á2006/4708 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM on 27/9/2006 for racist
      statements and actions, breach of duty,
      aggravated defamation through the medium of the
      press by the Heads of the First Instance and the
      Appeals Prosecutor Offices in Patras against Roma
      in Makrygianni (Patras) êáé GHM - preliminary
      examination not concluded after almost two years)

      7.      ÁÂÌ Ä2007/4097 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM deposition on
      6/3/2007 and merging of two case files (ÁÂÌ
      È2003/12305 êáé ÓÔ2003/10800) opened after a
      complaint report by GHM on Roma in Marousi
      (Greater Athens) - preliminary examination not concluded after ten months)

      8.      ÁÂÌ Ä2007/1159 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM and two Roma on 14/3/2007 for
      racist texts by the Deputy Mayor of Patras
      against Roma in Makrygianni (Patras) -
      preliminary examination not concluded after seventeen months)

      9.      ÁÂÌ Ä2007/1421 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM and two Roma on 2/4/2007 for
      racist article in a newspaper against Roma in
      Crete on 14/7/2006 - preliminary examination not
      concluded after sixteen months)

      10.     ÁÂÌ Ä2007/1422 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM and a Roma on 2/4/2007 for
      racist comments in a Patras newspaper against
      Roma in Makrygianni (Patras), abuse of authority,
      breach of duty, encouragement of subordinates to
      commit and toleration of crime by the Deputy
      Prosecutor of the Supreme Court on 2/2/2007 -
      preliminary examination not concluded after sixteen months)

      11.     ÁÂÌ Ä2007/2427 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  by GHM and Albanian Roma on 1/6/2007
      for evictions and threats of evictions of Roma in
      Votanikos on that days and since then and refusal
      to provide them with alternative housing -
      preliminary examination not concluded after fourteen months)

      12.     ÁÂÌ Ä2007/2540 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      1/6/2007 for the arson of a school annex for
      children of Roma in Aspropyrgos during 2007
      Easter Break - preliminary examination not concluded after fourteen months)

      13.     ÁÂÌ Ã2007/3402 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant by the Mayor of Aspropyrgos on 30/8/2007
      against the President of the Association and two
      other representatives of Roma in Aspropyrgos for
      threat, disturbance of peace, unprovoked insult
      through an act, provoking authority that were
      allegedly committed in a meeting in the City Hall
      on 4/7/2007  defense witnesses proposed by the
      accused with the help of GHM were never
      examined  charges of threat, disturbance of
      public office, and insult pressed on 3/3/2008
      against the Roma who have been referred to trial
      - preliminary examination concluded after seven months!)

      14.     ÁÂÌ Ã2007/4337 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      16/10/2007 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of housing loans to Roma living in
      settlements - preliminary examination not concluded after ten months)

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF CHANIA (CRETE)

      15.     ABM B2006/990 (ex officio opening of
      court case file also after a GHM complaint report
      on 20/7/2006 for the eviction of Roma in
      Kladissos (Chania) on 18/7/2006 - preliminary
      examination not concluded after more than two years)

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF AMALIADA (PELOPONNISOS)

      16.     ÁÂÌ Á2002/2325 (ex officio opening of
      court case file also after a GHM complaint report
      on 9/10/2002 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of pre-fabricated homes for Roma in
      Lehaina (Peloponnese) to non-beneficiaries in
      October 2002 - preliminary examination and
      summary investigation concluded after almost
      three years on 24/6/2005  referral to trial of
      Mayor and City Council Member of
      Lehaina  acquittal by court on
      12/2/2008  judgment not written and formally
      published through August 2008 six years after the incident)

      17.     ÁÂÌ Á2008/19 (ex officio opening of court
      case file after a GHM complaint report on
      11/12/2007 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of pre-fabricated homes for Roma in
      Lehaina (Peloponnese) to non-beneficiaries in
      October 2002 and inadequate investigation by
      prosecutor and judges since - preliminary
      examination not concluded after seven months)

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF CEPHALLONIA (IONIAN ISLANDS)

      18.     ÁÂÌ Á2001/2797 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  of a Rom child and his father with the
      help of GHM on 8/10/2001 for police violence
      against Roma in Argostoli (Cephallonia) on
      5/8/2001  preliminary examination concluded after
      eight months with pressing of charges against
      police officers on 12/6/2002 and assignment of
      case to an investigating judge  full criminal
      investigation between May-September 2003 and
      pressing of charges against four police officers
      for ill-treatment of two Roma  referral to trial
      by panle of judges of only one police officer on
      30/1/2004  conviction of the police officer to a
      suspended sentence of three years êáôáäßêç on
      12/4/2006  acquittal of the officer on appeal on
      15/4/2008  final judgment not written and
      published through August 2008 seven years after
      the incident and the filing of the complaint)

      19.     ÁÂÌ Á2006/1939 (opening of court case
      file after a police summary investigation on 19
      and 20/8/2006 for an incident in the settlement
      of Roma in Argostoli (Cephallonia) between Roma
      and a police officer on 19/8/2006  conviction of
      a Rom to a suspended prison sentence of fourteen
      months on 24/8/2006 for unprovoked bodily harm
      and insult through an act of a police
      officer  request for postponement and holding of
      the trial jointly with the coincidental police
      violence against the Roma (see below)
      rejected  appeals trial date set for 2/6/2009)

      20.     ÁÂÌ Ã2006/2301 in relation with ÁÂÌ
      Á2006/1939 (opening of court case file after a
      police summary investigation on 19 and 20/8/2006
      for an incident in the settlement of Roma in
      Argostoli (Cephallonia) between Roma and a police
      officer on 19/8/2006  two Roma children acquitted
      of the charges of unprovoked bodily harm and
      insult through an act of a police officer (one
      child was on trial in two trials for the same crime!) on 3/4/2008)

      21.     ÁÂÌ Ã2006/2039 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      23/8/2006 for perjury of witnesses, unlawful use
      of weapon not mentioned to the service (!) and
      breach of duty by police officers and fire
      fighters in an incident in the settlement of Roma
      in Argostoli (Cephallonia) between Roma and a
      police officer on 19/8/2006 and in the ensuing
      summary police investigation - preliminary
      examination not concluded after two years)

      22.     ÁÂÌ Ã2006/2104 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      24/8/2006 for unlawful issuance and use of false
      certificates on the hospitalization of a Rom in
      the state Hosptial of Argostoli (Cephallonia) on
      12/4/2006 upon a request by the lawyer of the
      police officer on trial on the same day for
      ill-treatment of the Rom - preliminary
      examination not concluded after two years)

      23.     ÁÂÌ Ã2007/426 (opening of court case file
      after a police summary investigation on 8/3/2007
      against five Roma children in Cephallonia (one
      aged 9 and another 11 years!!) for theft on that
      day of scrap metal from a deserted factory worth
      300 euros (!)  trial date set for 9/10/2008)

      24.     ÁÂÌ Â2008/681 (opening of court case file
      after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  of a Rom through GHM on  29/4/2008
      against state agents for a series of unlawful and
      racist actions and discrimination against this
      Roma and other Roma in Argostoli (Cephallonia) in
      matters related to housing and with notification
      of racist articles in local media  even before
      the beginning of the preliminary examination the
      prosecutor issued a decision in a related interim
      measures procedure with which he adopted all the
      arguments of those charged by the complaint
      ignoring all documents available to him and
      denying GHM's right to represent the Rom on the
      basis of article 13 of the Law on Equal Treatment
      3304/2005 thus challenging his own (prosecutor's)
      objective impartiality - preliminary examination
      not concluded after three montsh)

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF THESSALONIKI

      25.     ÁÂÌ Â2007/74839 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      16/10/2007 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of housing loans to Roma living in
      settlements - preliminary examination not concluded after ten months)

      FIRST INSTANCE PROSECUTOR OFFICE OF PATRAS

      26.     ÁÂÌ E2004/435 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a complaint report by
      municipal district authorities on 12/2/2004 for
      illegal settlement and criminal behaviour of all
      Roma in Riganokampos (Patras) - preliminary
      examination concluded after seven months without
      depositions by Roma (!) all of whom were indicted
      on 27/9/2004 for violation of sanitary decrees
      and the (abolished!) decree for uncontrolled
      settlements  archived on 21/7/2006)

      27.     ÁÂÌ B2004/1566 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  of a Rom through GHM on  8/12/2004 for
      racist police circular dated 16/2/2004 against
      Roma in Patras  without examination of
      plaintiffs' witnesses archived on 15/6/2005 with
      First Instance Prosecutor's decree that included
      racist expressions (!)  GHM application for
      review accepted  Appeals Prosecutor's decree
      dated 18/6/2007 finds violation of anti-racism
      law though time-barred  final archival on
      2/8/2007 - preliminary examination concluded after more than two years)

      28.     ÁÂÌ B2004/1567 (opening of court case
      file after a complaint with constitution of civil
      claimant  of a Rom through GHM on 8/12/2004 for
      racist decision of state agents to prevent Roma
      in Patras from frequenting a central square on
      23/6/2004  without examination of plaintiffs'
      witnesses archived on 2/7/2005 with First
      Instance Prosecutor's decree  GHM application for
      review accepted  final archival with Appeals
      Prosecutor's decree dated 25/9/2007 and served
      19/10/2007 - preliminary examination concluded after almost three years)

      29.     ÁÂÌ Ç2005/119 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a complaint report by
      neihgbors on 24/1/2005 for illegal settlement of
      Roma in Makrygianni (Patras) - preliminary
      examination concluded after four months without
      depositions by Roma (!) with Roma indicted on
      9/6/2005   total duration of summary
      investigation four months again without defense
      statements by the defendants  archived)

      30.     ÁÂÌ ÉÁ2005/243 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a complaint report by state
      Real Estate Agency of Achaia on 9/2/2005 for
      arbitrary seizure of public land by Roma in
      Makrygianni (Patras) on 28/1/2005 (!) -
      preliminary examination concluded after nine
      months with referral to trial of the "heads" of
      six Romani households on 4/12/2005  acquittal on
      25/6/2008  final judgment not written and
      published through August 2008, three and a half years after the incident)

      31.     ÁÂÌ Ä2005/1143 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after local press articles on
      24/3/2005 and related order by Appeals Prosecutor
      for arbitrary seizure of public land and
      violation of sanitary decrees by Roma in
      Makrygianni (Patras)  preliminary examination
      concluded after three months without depositions
      by Roma (!) with Roma indicted on
      2/7/2005  summary investigation lasted for ten
      months and ended with prosecutorial motion to
      quash charges that was upheld by a judicial council on 6/6/2006)

      32.     ABM A2005/711 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a complaint report by state
      Real Estate Agency of Achaia on 1/6/2005 for
      arbitrary seizure of public land by Roma in
      Riganokampos (Patras) on 24/5/2005 (!) -
      preliminary examination concluded after one year
      with referral to trial of the "heads" of all
      fifteen Romani households on 10/6/2006  acquittal
      on 26/11/2007  final judgment not written and
      published through August 2008, more than three years after the incident)

      33.     ÁÂÌ ÉÁ2005/1517 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after complaint reports by GHM on
      27/12/2005, 5/1/2006, 8/1/2006, 16/1/2006,
      23/1/2006 for unlawful an racist actions and
      threats of eviction against Roma in Makrygianni -
      Roma in Riganokampos and Makrygianni
      (Patras)  constituted themselves civil claimants
      through GHM for a series of unlawful and racist
      actions by state and judicial officials on
      27/3/2005 - preliminary examination not concluded
      after more than two years while accused
      prosecutors continue to handle other court case
      files on Roma cases thus creating a problem of
      objective and sometimes subjective partiality!!)

      34.     ÁÂÌ É2006/7 (ex officio opening of court
      case file after order by Appeals Prosecutor on
      18/1/2006 for pollution, violation of sanitary
      regulations, instigation of or simple complicity
      to crimes, provocation and assistance to commit
      misdemeanors by Roma in Makrygianni (Patras), GHM
      and others  preliminary examination concluded
      after four months without depositions by
      Roma  and GHM  with pressing charges against the
      Roma for the aforementioned crimes and for
      arbitrary seizure of public land, repeated
      thefts, negligence of children by parents, and
      violation of measures to prevent diseases,
      unlawful violence, violation of laws for aliens
      and for drugs, on 9/6/2006  summary investigation
      lasted six months until charges were dropped
      because of the eviction of the Roma which
      according to a statement of the First Instance
      Prosecutor of Patras was the aim of the pressing
      of the charges rathe than the punishment of alleged perpetrators (!!!))

      35.     ÁÂÌ É2006/71 (ex officio opening of court
      case file after a complaint report by neihgbors
      on 2/5/2006 for unlawful actions of state agents,
      police officers, a magistrate and GHM related to
      Roma in Makrygianni (Patras)  preliminary
      examination lasted six months without testimony
      by GHM (!!)  case archived because of the
      lowering of tensions after the eviction of the
      Roma according to a statement of the First
      Instance Prosecutor of Patras (!!!)).

      36.     Interim measures of mandatory law
      1539/1938 (hearing before a First Instance
      Prosecutor of Patras on 11/8/2006 concerning
      seizure of public land by Roma in Makrygianni
      (Patras)  for alleged urgency of the case no
      postponement was granted (!)  two years later there is still no decision (!!))

      37.     ÁÂÌ ÓÔ2006/1241 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      4/10/2006 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of housing loans to Roma living in
      settlements - preliminary examination not concluded after almost two years)

      38.     ÁÂÌ È2007/1992 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      16/10/2007 for scandals and corruption in the
      allocation of housing loans to Roma living in
      settlements - preliminary examination not concluded after ten months)

      39.     ÁÂÌ Å2006/1568 (ex officio opening of
      court case file after a GHM complaint report on
      13/12/2006 for multiple evictions of Roma in
      Riganokampos and Makrygianni (Patras)  archiving
      by First Instance Prosecutor of rejected by
      Appeals Prosecutor  case file returned to  First
      Instance Prosecutor on 11/4/2008 for pressing of
      charges -  preliminary examination concluded
      after sixteen months  summary investigation lasting already four months)
      GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM)
      Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera
      Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760
      e-mail: office@... website: http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr

      PRESS RELEASE

      3 August 2008 [updated on 28 August 2008]

      Greece: Ten years of GHM litigation on behalf of Roma

      Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM), on the occasion of
      yesterday's Roma Holocaust Remembrance Day
      (Porjamos)
      (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Porajmos), draws up
      a balance sheet of ten years of GHM litigation on
      behalf of Greece's Roma and Roma's vindication in
      some cases related to specific Roma rights
      violations (1998-2008) and also announces that
      three new cases have been communicated to Greece
      by international jurisdictions. In this ten year
      struggle, Roma organizations that are the
      privileged interlocutors of the state and the
      independent authorities, and are generously
      funded by the state, with the exception of the
      Greek Gypsy Union (¸íùóç ÅëëÞíùí ÔóéããÜíùí), not
      only did nothing about these or other cases, but
      have repeatedly criticized GHM.

      The first ever GHM Roma litigation case concerned
      the ill-treatment of two young Roma in a police
      station in Mesolonghi (Western Greece) on 8 May
      1998. By pure coincidence, a field trip to
      Greece's Roma settlements by GHM and the European
      Roma Rights Center (ERRC) included a visit to
      Mesolonghi on 9 May 1998. There the allegations
      were recorded, the bruised bodies were
      photographed, and the two Roma were taken first
      to the local hospital and then to the forensic
      doctor in Patras, who examined them and wrote a
      detailed report. What followed showed that, as in
      almost every other case of even documented
      allegations, Roma almost never have the
      possibility to have a fair treatment from the
      Greek police, judicial, administrative and
      independent authorities, even if some agents of
      those authorities at some point did handle cases
      with objectivity and acknowledged violations. The
      police sworn administrative investigation (EDE)
      was concluded with a report where it was
      recommended that the police officers involved be
      severely punished, but the Hellenic Police
      leadership did not sanction them. The Greek
      Ombudsman, to whom GHM appealed in 2001 in order
      to review the legality and the objectivity of the
      EDE, did not do it, even though it did record a
      case of discrimination against Roma. That
      Authority merely included this finding in a
      comprehensive report on police violence released
      in 2004, when the domestic remedies had been
      exhausted (with the acquittal of one police
      officer by the Three-Member Appeals Court of
      Patras on 9 October 2001). This case was also the
      object of the first ever application by GHM
      (along with the ERRC) to the European Court of
      Human Rights (ECtHR) which led to the first ever
      (triple) conviction of Greece for the violation
      of Roma rights on 13 December 2005 (see
      information on the case of Bekos-Koutropoulos below).

      Five more convictions by the ECtHR in three cases
      litigated by GHM followed  two on police violence
      (June 2007 and December 2007) and one for
      exclusion from or racial segregation in primary
      education (June 2008). Moreover, the European
      Committee of Social Rights, in February 2005,
      convicted Greece for a triple violation of Roma's
      right to adequate housing. Complete information follows.

      In the cases litigated by GHM before Greek
      courts, there are only two final convictions of
      police officers for the death of two Roma,
      Anastasios Mouratis (Three-Member Appeals Court
      of Lamia  March 2003  suspended prison sentence
      of two-and-a-half years) and Marinos
      Christopoulos (Mixed Jury Appeals Court of
      Athens  April 2006 -  prison sentence of ten
      years and three months). There is also a final
      decision of the Three-Member Administrative Court
      of Athens (November 2003) for compensation of Marinos Christopoulos' family.

      There are also two convictions at first instance
      where domestic remedies are pending. The first by
      the Three-Member Administrative Court of Athens
      (September 2006) for compensation of three Roma
      families (of Dionysia Panayotopoulou  George
      Panayotopoulos  Dionysis Halilipoulos) for their
      unlawful eviction by the Municipality of
      Aspropyrgos. The second by the Three-Member
      Misdemeanors Court of Athens (July 2008) which
      convicted three persons of the extreme right
      weekly "Eleftheros Kosmos" for a racist comment
      against Roma (prison sentence of seven months suspended or commuted to fine).

      The decisions of the UN Human Rights Committee
      (UN HRC - equivalent to the ECtHR) in three cases
      communicated by GHM and on which the two parties
      have exchanged arguments are pending. Two concern
      police violence against Roma Nikos Katsaris
      (Nafplio, Peloponnese  September 1999) and
      Andreas Kalamiotis (Aghia Paraskevi, Greater
      Athens  June 2001) that were archived by
      prosecutors. The third concerns a racist letter
      against Roma in Riganokampos (Patras) (November
      2001) for which the signatories were acquitted by
      a Three-Member Misdemeanors Court of Patras (June
      2003). [Updated on 28 August 2008: GHM was
      informed after 3 August that on 24 July 2008 the
      UN HRC convicted Greece in the Kalamiotis case
      for the violation of the right to an effective
      remedy read together with the prohibition of torture].

      Finally, the ECtHR communicated recently to
      Greece two new cases based on GHM applications:
      on 17 June 2008 for the eviction of Roma in
      Chania (Crete) in July
      2006
      (http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?action=html&documentId=837184&portal=hbkm&source=externalbydocnumber&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649)
      and on 8 July 2008 for police violence against
      Rom Theodore Stefanou in Argostoli (Cephallonia)
      in August 2001, a case for which the Three-Member
      Misdemeanors Court of Cephallonia convicted a
      police officer to a suspended sentence of three
      years (April 2006) but the Three-Member Appeals
      Court of Patras, in a shameful trial, acquitted
      him (April
      2008)
      (http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?action=html&documentId=838327&portal=hbkm&source=externalbydocnumber&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649).
      Whereas, on 17 July 2008,  the UN Human Rights
      Committee communicated to Greece a new case after
      a GHM communication for multiple evictions of one
      Roma family in Riganokampos (Patras) in August
      and September 2006, one of which was witnessed
      and documented by the Commissioner for Human
      Rights at the Council of Europe during his visit
      to that settlement in September 2006.


      EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS:
      9 CONVICITONS OF GREECE IN FOUR GHM CASES IN 2005-2008

      1-3. Bekos & Koutropoulos (application 15250/02
      with the European Roma Rights Center
      (ERRC)  judgment on 13/12/05  victims Roma).
      Three violations of articles: 3 (ill-treatment by
      police), 3 (absence of effective investigation)
      and 14 (non-investigation of racial motive).
      Judgment in English at:
      http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int////tkp197/viewhbkm.asp?action=open&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649&key=11768&sessionId=1776122&skin=hudoc-en&attachment=true.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=1500.

      4-5. Karagiannopoulos (application
      27850/03  judgment on 21/6/07  victim Rom). Two
      violations of articles: 2 (injury that caused
      permanent disability by police) and 2 (absence of
      effective investigation). Judgment in French at:
      http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int////tkp197/viewhbkm.asp?action=open&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649&key=62997&sessionId=1779934&skin=hudoc-en&attachment=true.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=3153.

      6-7. Petropoulou-Tsakiri (application 44803/04
      with ERRC  judgment on 6/12/07  victim Romni).
      Two violations of articles: 3 (absence of
      effective investigation of ill-treatment by
      police) and 14 (non-investigation of racial
      motive and racist behavior). Judgment in English
      available at:
      http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?action=html&documentId=826734&portal=hbkm&source=externalbydocnumber&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=192&cid=3210.

      8-9. Sampanis and others (application
      32526/05  judgment on 5/6/08  victims Roma). Two
      violations of articles: 14 (prohibition of
      discrimination) in conjunction with article 2 of
      Protocol 1 (right to education) and 13 (right to
      an effective remedy). Judgment in French at:
      http://cmiskp.echr.coe.int/tkp197/view.asp?action=html&documentId=836273&portal=hbkm&source=externalbydocnumber&table=F69A27FD8FB86142BF01C1166DEA398649.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=3304.

      EUROPEAN COMMITTEE OF SOCIAL RIGHTS:
      3 CONVICITONS OF GREECE IN ONE GHM CASE IN 2005

      1-3. Collective complaint by ERRC (complaint
      15/03 in cooperation with GHM  decision
      communicated on 7/2/05  victims Roma). Three
      violations of Article 16 of the European Social
      Charter for a) the insufficiency of permanent
      dwellings for Roma b) the lack of temporary
      stopping facilities for Roma and c) the forced
      eviction and other sanctions of Roma. Decision in
      English at:
      http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/esc/4_collective_complaints/list_of_collective_complaints/CC15Merits_en.pdf.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=748.

      [UPDATE ON 28/8/2008] UN HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE:
      1 CONVICITON OF GREECE IN ONE GHM CASE IN 2008

      1. Kalamiotis (communication 1486/2006 in
      cooperation with the World Organisation Against
      Torture (OMCT)  decision on 24/7/08  victim Rom).
      One violation of Article 2 paragraph 3 (right to
      an effective remedy of ill-tretament) read
      together with Article 7 (prohibition of torture)
      of the International Covenant on Civil and
      Political Rights. Decision available in English
      at:
      http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/DER/G08/434/84/PDF/G0843484.pdf.
      Related GHM press release at:
      http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr/index.php?sec=194&cid=3329.


      In the original letter in Greek sent to the
      authorities was attached a GHM press release
      dated 9/8/2008 with the title "Hellenic Police:
      'Near zero criminality in Rhodes Roma settlement.
      We did not find what we expected to find'  What
      had happened in Patras." Therein was documented a
      contrast between a recent Rhodes police operation
      that dispelled the racist myth of Roma
      criminality in settlements, and the attitude of
      prosecutors, police and neighbors in Patras in
      2006 where such unproven allegations were used to
      evict the Roma in Makrygianni.
      GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM)
      MINORITY RIGHTS GROUP-GREECE (MRG-G)
      Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera
      Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760
      e-mail: office@... website: http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr

      Mr. Christos Polyzogopoulos
      President of the Economic and Social Committee of Greece (OKE)

      30 April 2008

      Mr. President,

      With great delay due to work overload and limited
      resources in our mainly voluntary work, we reply
      to your letter with protocol number 900.02.004/554/Î/27-2-2008.

      As we explained on the phone to your scientific
      associate Athanasios Papaioannou, on 30 March
      2008, we were able only during the Easter break
      to write the attached short but we believe also
      concise Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM) memo on the
      effective denial of justice by the Ombudsman as
      Equal Treatment Authority regarding issues
      concerning Roma, on the basis of our experience
      to this day. To this memo, we attach the 31
      complaints or letters to that Authority, without
      the often multi-page long documents attached to
      them. We are available for any additional
      information on, dialogue on, or investigation of
      that matter by OKE, as well as to on the
      extensive use by our NGOs of article 13 and
      others of Law 3304/2005 on the implementation of
      the Principle of Equal Treatment.

      Finally, we inform you that the signatories of
      this letter are the legal representatives of the
      two NGOs which cooperate on this issue.

      Yours faithfully,


      [original in Greek
      signed]
      [original in Greek signed]

      Panayote
      Dimitras
      Nafsika Papanikolatos
      GHM
      Spokesperson
      MRG-G Spokesperson
      GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR (GHM)
      Address: P.O. Box 60820, GR-15304 Glyka Nera
      Telephone: (+30) 2103472259 Fax: (+30) 2106018760
      e-mail: office@... website: http://cm.greekhelsinki.gr

      THE GREEK OMBUDSMAN AS EQUAL TREATMENT AUTHORITY:
      39 MONTHS OF DENIAL OF JUSTICE IN COMPLAINTS ABOUT ROMA

      30 April 2008

      According to Law 3304/2005 on the implementation
      of the Principle of Equal Treatment, the Greek
      Ombudsman was assigned the task of the competent
      Authority on related matters concerning the
      public sector. In the ensuing 39 months, Greek
      Helsinki Monitor (GHM) acting as representative,
      or on behalf, of victims of alleged
      discrimination, and on the basis of article 7 of
      Directive 200/43/EC and article 13 of Law
      3304/2005 that was promulgated in implementation
      of the Directive, sent 31 complaints or other
      letters (some may be considered as complementary
      complaints to previous complaints on the same
      issue, while two concerned requests that the
      Greek Ombudsman provides copies of documents sent
      by state agencies to it in the framework of the
      investigation of complaints). 21 complaints and 8
      letters concerned Roma, while 2 complaints
      concerned Jews. The full list follows.

      On the basis of the law and the related annual
      report of the Greek Ombudsman, this
      quasi-judicial competence of that Authority
      should lead, following an investigation, to
      mediation and/or a conclusion of the existence or absence of discrimination.

      Some complaints appear to have been archived on
      the basis of false claims that there was no legal
      representation of victims, when it is known that
      this Authority has examined other complaints
      without any representation of victims but filed
      by third persons on behalf of victims.

      In one case, the complaint was considered
      unfounded after a procedure that violated the
      fundamental principles of fair trial and
      impartiality, but also of article 13 of Law
      3304/2005. The Greek Ombudsman organized a
      meeting of the (Rom) victim without informing the
      victim's representative (GHM), but with an
      invitation of the victim to the meeting by the
      state agency which was the opposing party in that
      case and which used a misleading method. During
      that meeting, the victim was reported to have
      retracted his allegation and agreed with the act
      of discrimination. When subsequently informed by
      GHM about his alleged positions in that meeting,
      the Rom victim denied it with a sworn statement before a magistrate.

      The practice of contacting directly the victims
      avoiding their legal representative who was not
      present in such meetings is a generalized
      practice. Moreover, this Authority never sought
      any contact with GHM, other than through written communication.

      The investigation of most complaints is in theory
      ongoing or pending, for some for over one year,
      while at the same time the Greek Ombudsman
      refuses to provide GHM with copies of the
      documents sent by state agencies to the Greek
      Ombudsman. At the same time, in texts published
      by individual Greek Ombudsman researchers, there
      are references to the existence of discrimination
      in cases that are the object of GHM complaints,
      even though such finding of discrimination has
      never been reported by the Authority in its own
      official documents. Besides, for these acts of
      discrimination, some of which are also of the
      competence of the prosecutor to whom the
      Authority is legally obligated to refer possible
      violations of the law, the prosecutor's office has never been informed.

      There were urgent complaints aiming at the
      prevention of upcoming violations. The Authority
      disdained to investigate them promptly or at
      least inform GHM that it cannot do so. The
      violations did occur and sometimes they were
      later on reported by the Authority or some of its
      individual researches in their own texts, in the
      form of reports that are usually the work of
      non-governmental "observatories" rather than the
      Greek Ombudsman, which is, and should operate as,
      a jurisdictional quasi-judicial institution. In
      other complaints, the Greek Ombudsman initially
      sent to competent state agencies some documents
      and then the investigation became inactive.

      A characteristic example of the systematic
      refusal to send answers to GHM and effectively
      investigate allegations are the evictions of
      Patras Roma in the summer of 2006.Following a
      visit to the two settlements lasting a mere few
      hours, in September 2006, a visit that was
      undermined and disturbed by neighbors and
      representatives of the municipal authorities, the
      Commissioner for Human Rights at the Council of
      Europe concluded that there were acts of
      discrimination as well as anti-Roma tendencies
      and sent a letter to the Greek authorities. There
      was never any answer to that letter. The Deputy
      Ombudsman for Human Rights visited Patras after
      the Commissioner and publicly reassured local
      authorities of his understanding of the problems
      these authorities were facing. The related GHM
      complaints on these evictions have remained
      pending and unanswered, while the correspondence
      between the Authority and the state agencies has
      not been given to GHM, in violation of every
      principle of transparency and good administration.

      In some related letters to GHM, the Greek
      Ombudsman has referred with contempt to NGOs in
      general or GHM in particular and/or has asked
      that the Roma complain directly to the Authority,
      challenging their representation on the basis of
      article 13 of Law 3304/2005 and slighting the
      fact that Roma living in settlements are
      uneducated and unable to document their allegations.

      The only report that is being investigated to
      this day in an almost satisfactory way concerns a
      Jew. The Ministry of Interior has not deigned to
      answer to the Authority for several months and
      the Authority has tolerated this delay, but this is understandable.

      It can be concluded that the Roma do not enjoy
      effective legal protection by the Greek Ombudsman
      and in turn by Law 3304/2005 but are the objects
      of denial of justice. GHM is available to
      document this with numerous more documents and
      other texts before any competent authority.

      GHM finally recalls that on the basis of GHM
      reports, Greece was convicted by the European
      Committee of Social Rights in the framework of
      collective complaint no. 15 (European Roma Rights
      Center v. Greece), in December 2004, as well as
      in the follow-up procedure of monitoring the
      implementation of the previous decision, in July
      2006, for the violation of the rights of the Roma
      in Greece to adequate housing as well as for the
      illegal evictions against them. Moreover, through
      April 2008, there were three convictions of
      Greece by the European Court of Human Rights
      (ECtHR) for police violence, ineffective
      investigation and (in two cases) discrimination
      against Roma (Bekos-Koutropoulos in December
      2005, Karagiannopoulos in June 2007, and
      Petropoulou-Tsakiri in December 2007). All three
      complaints were submitted by GHM. In two of them,
      the Greek Ombudsman had been involved, without
      ever reaching similar conclusions: in fact, in
      Petropoulou-Tsakiri Greece included in its
      arguments excerpts from an Ombudsman text that
      has evaluated as satisfactory the explanations
      provided by Hellenic Police after the
      disciplinary investigation of the case, which the
      ECtHR on the contrary found to be ineffective and
      racist! In conclusion, on the basis of reports
      and other texts by GHM and/or international NGOs
      based on GHM work, all experts' bodies of the
      Council of Europe and the UN, in their reports or
      concluding observations on Greece, have expressed
      concerns or criticism for violations of the rights of Roma in Greece.

      Presumably all these international institutions
      do not agree with the Greek Ombudsman that GHM
      "was insisting in sending to the Ombudsman cases
      that were vague about the crucial facts or it was
      completely impossible to prove" (April 2007) or
      with the Deputy Greek Ombudsman that "it is our
      firm belief that exclusively denunciatory tactics
      of civil society agents have greatly contributed
      to the defensive stubbornness exhibited nowadays
      by most public authorities competent on Roma issues" (January 2008).

      Finally, it is characteristic that in the webpage
      of the Greek Ombudsman as Institution to Promote
      the Principle of Equal Treatment, under "Useful
      Links" there is a list of Non-Governmental
      Organizations
      (http://www.synigoros.gr/diakriseis/links.htm)
      that the Greek Ombudsman presumably considers as
      working on anti-discrimination. GHM is not among
      the 16 names listed, indicative of the
      institutionally and objectively negative partial
      attitude of the Greek Ombudsman towards GHM. It
      should be noted moreover that, for the Greek
      Ombudsman, the state Research Centre for Gender
      Equality (ÊÅTHÉ), the Office of the UN High
      Commissioner for Refugees, and the National Youth
      Council (which includes party youth organizations) are NGOs, listed therein!

      COMPLAINTS AND LETTERS TO THE GREEK OMBUDSMAN

      1.      4 February 2005: Cancellation of
      resettlement of Aghia Paraskevi (Greater Athens)
      Roma in area bought for that purpose in Spata (Attica)
      2.      13 February 2005: Albanian Roma evictions
      in Riganokampos and Makrygianni, Patras
      3.      19 February 2005: Threat of eviction of Roma in Makrygianni, Patras
      4.      23 May 2005: Threat of eviction of Roma in Makrygianni, Patras
      5.      11 July 2005: Use of derogatory terms for Roma by the administration
      6.      20 June 2006: Unanswered letters to
      Region of Western Greece and Municipality of
      Patras on the resettlement of Roma in Riganokampos and Makrygianni, Patras
      7.      31 July 2006: Eviction of Roma in Makrygianni, Patras
      8.      8 August 2006: Threat of eviction of Roma in Makrygianni, Patras
      9.      10 August 2006: Eviction and threat of
      eviction of Roma in Chania (Crete)
      10.     1 October 2006: Unanswered letters to
      Region of Western Greece (on the substance) and
      Municipality of Patras (formally and on the
      substance) on the resettlement of Roma in Riganokampos and Makrygianni, Patras
      11.     14 October 2006: Evictions, and no answer
      from the authorities on the resettlement, of Roma
      in Riganokampos and Makrygianni, Patras
      12.     26 November 2006: Request for the
      provision of copies of documents sent by state
      authorities on the eviction of Roma in Chania (Crete)
      13.     14 January 2007: Roma children in annex
      segregated classes in Psari Aspropyrgos (Attica)
      14.     14 January 2007: Resettlement of Albanian Roma in Votanikos (Athens)
      15.     27 January 2007: Refusal to issue a
      certificate on Property Fee to a non-Rom resident
      in Ano Liosia (Attica) so that he could sell his property to a Rom
      16.     5 February 2007: Unanswered letter to
      Municipality of Patras on resettlement of
      Riganokampos Roma to rented homes with rent subsidy
      17.     9 April 2007: Request for the provision
      of copies of documents sent by state authorities
      related to complaints on Roma in Chania (Crete),
      Riganokampos and Makrygianni (Patras) and
      reminder that eight complaints or other letters
      to the Greek Ombudsman have remained unanswered.
      18.     5 June 2007: Eviction of Albanian Roma in Votanikos (Athens)
      19.     11 June 2007: Eviction of Albanian Roma in Votanikos (Athens)
      20.     11 June 2007: Eviction and threatened
      eviction of Roma in Nea Alikarnassos (Crete)
      21.     14 July 2007: Refusal to issue a
      certificate on Property Fee to a non-Rom resident
      in Ano Liosia (Attica) so that he could sell his property to a Rom
      22.     17 September 2007: Refusal to reinstate
      citizenship to a Greek Jew resident of Israel
      23.     16 January 2008: Eviction of Albanian Roma in Votanikos (Athens)
      24.     16 January 2008: Threatened eviction of Roma in Paiania (Attica)
      25.     18 January 2008: Unanswered letter to
      Foreign Minister for the non-inclusion of Greek
      Jews emigrants to Israel in the Ministry's
      statistics on Greeks emigrants to Israel
      26.     30 March 2008: Unanswered letter by Roma
      from Psari Aspropyrgos (Attica) to the Secretary
      General of the Ministry of Interior on their resettlement
      27.      30 March 2008: Resettlement of Roma in
      Koropi  Attica Highway (Attica)
      28.     8 April 2008: Threat of eviction of a
      Romani family in Argostoli (Cephallonia)
      29.     10 April 2008: Unlawful and racist
      interruption of provision of electric power by
      the state company DEI to a Romani family in Argostoli (Cephallonia)
      30.     27 April 2008: Unlawful and racist
      interruption of provision of electric power by
      the state company DEI to a Romani family in
      Argostoli (Cephallonia) and refusal by the
      Prefecture of Cephallonia to reply to the written requests of the family
      31.     30 April 2008: Copy of memo to the State
      Real Estate Agency of Cephallonia on threatened
      eviction of a Romani family in Argostoli
      (Cephallonia) without provision of alternative
      adequate housing, including a commitment that the
      family will comply with any related opinion of the Greek Ombudsman
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