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THE FIVE (5) TYPES OF "CREOLE"-CULTURAL GROUPS

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  • multiracialbookclub
    Here are several articles which contain some information on the MGM-Mixed `Cultural group both commonly known and referred to as Creole . It might be of
    Message 1 of 3 , Aug 2, 2005
    • 0 Attachment
      Here are several articles which contain some
      information on the MGM-Mixed `Cultural' group
      both commonly known and referred to as "Creole".

      It might be of interest to note that there are five
      (5) different categories of "American Creoles":
      'Black', 'French', 'Indian', 'Spaniard' and `White'

      ************************************

      "THE CREOLES & OTHER `FPC' Groups in the USA"
      (Note: This is an article):

      Free People of Color (F.P.C.) were Africans,
      Creoles of Color (New World-Born People of
      African descent), and persons of mixed African,
      European, and or Native American descent.

      Although the term "Creole" has been debated
      over the past 100 years, under Spanish Colonial
      Louisiana and the early American period,
      the word "Creole" was used to describe
      slaves native to the New World and
      by F.P.C. or Creoles of Color.

      Use of the term by whites to describe
      themselves was inconsistent and probably
      did not become common until after the large
      influx of Americans arrived in the city after
      the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. …

      In Louisiana, the first F.P.C. came
      from France or its Colonies in the
      Caribbean and in West Africa. …

      The majority of these slaves were Africans
      and unmixed Blacks who bought their freedom.

      Later on this initial group would be augmented
      by Haitian refugees and other F.P.C. from
      the Caribbean, Mexico, Central and South
      America, other parts of the United
      States, and from around the world.

      The reason for the high number of F.P.C. in
      New Orleans was largely due to the influx of
      Haitian Refugees into the city in 1809.

      http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-
      attractions/multicultural/fpc.htm
      http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/
      http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-
      attractions/multicultural/creole.html

      THE "COLORED CREOLE CONTRADICTION"
      (Note: This is an article):

      [T]he notion of "Creole" was socially
      constructed by whites and coloreds, such
      that the definition of Creole varied depending
      on the racial background of the definer.

      The colored Creoles, or gens de couleur libre,
      were a separate group of Creoles who occupied
      a particular racial position in New Orleans

      Creole society and are a perfect example of a
      marginalized group that faced strict external

      Definitions from Anglo Americans
      after the Civil War. …

      After whites characterized colored Creoles
      as "black," the gens de couleur libre
      created their own society, defining
      themselves as a colored Creole community. …

      Between 1800 and 1860, the gens de couleur
      libre were a socially- and self-defined
      French ethnic group.

      They prided themselves on being descendants
      of a free, well-cultured people. …

      The gens de couleur libre occupied
      a relatively unstable position in
      New Orleans between 1800 and 1860.

      Their community was both dependent on and
      independent of the white and black communities.

      Free people of color used many gradations
      of color as the standard of respectability,
      but the white community was used as
      the standard of beauty.

      Some colored planters owned slaves, whose
      Labor naturally contributed to the wealth
      and prestige of the planter within the
      gens de couleur libre community.

      They also used blacks to contrast
      themselves, as they were a constant
      reminder of their slave origins.

      In this manner, colored Creoles used blacks to
      gauge how far they had progressed from slavery.

      This ideology was further manifested
      in an emphasis on facial features
      and skin color and tone.

      Although the gens de couleur libre did
      not desire to be white, they participated
      in the gradual lightening of their skin.

      Their community operated within a caste
      system based on terminology, "each meaning
      one more generation's elevation toward
      perfection in white blood."

      Thus, colored Creoles imposed a value hierarchy
      on physical appearance: the whiter a person
      was, the better his/her status.

      This apparent confusion is better known
      as the colored Creole contradiction. …

      This identity also came with a price: other
      Creoles of color were oppressed or shunned
      because they did not look "white" enough.

      Again, the emphasis on light skin in the gens
      de couleur libre community did not translate
      into a desire to actually be white. …

      Whites enjoyed full social equality and
      freedom under Louisiana law, and the gens
      de couleur libre wished to partake of those
      same freedoms and equalities but were
      excluded full participation because of
      their varying degrees of black blood. …

      COLORED CREOLES DISLIKED
      BEING DEFINED AS MULATTO
      because of its origins,
      from the Spanish word
      for mule, which they
      perceived as an offense.

      MULATTO WAS ALSO A SOCIALLY-CONSTRUCTED
      TERM THAT WAS GENERALLY APPLIED TO ALL
      MIXED BLACKS in the United States,
      especially to the gens de couleur
      libre, without their consent.

      Colored Creoles believed that
      they were neither black nor white.

      Thus, they occupied an uncertain
      region somewhere in between. …

      White attitudes towards the gens de couleur
      libre can be best understood in further
      historical analysis of their treatment
      in the American period of Louisiana.

      The American period is more demonstrative of
      the general beliefs held about free people of
      color than the French and Spanish eras.

      During the American period, a few years
      before the Civil War, the gens de couleur
      libre BECAME THE VICTIMS OF SOCIAL

      DISCRIMINATION IN EVERY PART OF THEIR
      LIVES DUE TO WHITE FEAR OF RACIAL EQUALITY.

      SEGREGATION MADE WHITES FEEL
      SUPERIOR AND COMFORTABLE. …

      Colored Creoles were regarded as dangerous
      by whites because of their ideas of
      freedom, education, and "constant
      influence over slaves." …

      THE HOSTILITY … WAS EVENTUALLY
      TRANSFORMED INTO AN ANTI-
      FREE PERSON OF COLOR MOVEMENT. …

      White racism and prejudice was detrimental
      to the colored Creole community and the effects
      of these various attitudes on Creoles of color
      was manifested by an increasing emphasis on
      race rather than socio-economic class. …

      Their unique "position" between blacks
      and whites lasted for only fifty years.

      WHAT DOES THEIR SITUATION REVEAL ABOUT SELF-
      PERCEIVED, AND EXTERNALLY APPLIED IDENTITY?

      For nineteenth century Creoles of color,
      their identities were informed by
      whites and in part by blacks.

      External influences mattered very little
      before the Civil War, because they created
      their own institutions and environments that
      defined for themselves who they were.

      These institutions reinforced self-perceptions
      about skin color and socially prescribed
      colored Creole culture.

      But, the world of the gens de couleur libre was
      insulated for only a short time because the
      Civil War spelled their eradication as a
      racially separate group of people. …

      To romanticize the lives of the gens
      de couleur libre ultimately does
      their memory a great disservice.

      The history of race, race relations and the
      formation of identity as examined through the
      lives of the gens de couleur libre continue
      to inform our understanding and teaching of
      American history.

      http://www-
      mcnair.berkeley.edu/uga/osl/mcnair/94BerkeleyMcNairJournal/02_McNeill.
      html

      "REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY OF THE
      LOUISIANA AFRO-CREOLE POPULATION"

      (article)

      Most scholars will already be familiar with
      the … Creoles [those who are]…of mixed African
      and French or Spanish descent, and their
      distinctive situation as an intermediate caste
      between the white masters and the black slaves.

      Their social and legal status, even after
      the American takeover of Louisiana in 1803,
      resembled that of a third racial category.

      THIS TOPIC HAS BECOME TIMELY OF LATE, WITH
      THE CENSUS DISPUTE OVER COUNTING AFRICAN
      AMERICANS OF "MULTIRACIAL" BACKGROUND,

      http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=23634982007430

      "BLACK CREOLE":

      A person who can trace his family bloodline to a direct
      descendent of the Africans who settled in Louisiana during
      the colonial period of African-American history.

      Black Creole physical traits:

      **Dark eyes.
      **Has predominantly African
      ancestral physical traits. …

      While THE FIRST RECORDED CREOLES IN AMERICA
      HAD A MIXTURE OF ETHNICALLY FRENCH
      AND AFRICAN TRAITS..

      "FRENCH CREOLE":

      A person who can trace his family bloodline
      to a direct descendent of French settlers
      who settled in Louisiana during the colonial
      period of French and American History.

      French Creole physical traits:

      **Fair to tan skin pigmentation.

      **Naturally straight to wavy hair, a synthetic
      look, without the use of synthetic products.
      **Light brown or hazel eyes within the
      family genealogical lines.
      **High cheek bones, predominantly French
      with some ancestral traits of other races.

      "INDIAN CREOLE":
      A person that can trace his family bloodline
      to a Creole descendant of the Colonial
      Creole period, and the American Indian
      in American history.

      Most Indian Creole have similar physical
      traits to the French Creole with
      very little distinction.

      "SPANIARD CREOLE":

      Spaniard Creoles are for the most part
      NON-EXISTENT today, due to the strong
      French , Indian, and Afro / American and
      White influence of the Creole community.

      "WHITE CREOLE":

      A person that can trace his family bloodline to
      Creole and Italian and Indian descendent of the
      colonial Creole period prior to the American
      Civil War period in American history.

      White Creole physical traits:

      **Most white Creoles have
      very fair skin pigmentation.

      **Naturally blond hair, hazel eyes,
      (some have blue eyes) and dark brown eyes.

      In today's world White Creoles exist
      in a White/Creole marriage union. …

      Over the years more predominantly French traits
      have dominated the genealogy of the Creole
      cultural heritage or ( or Creole person ). …

      It makes no difference if your family was
      French Creole in the early years and is
      now black Creole or your family began as
      Afro-American and later married French Creole
      or white Creoles, the main point is that you
      are a part of the Creole Cultural heritage
      originating from the main line of Colonial
      Creoles that came from Louisiana

      http://www.brothermichael.com/cajun/creole/
      http://ccet.louisiana.edu/03a_Cultural_Tourism_Files/01.02_The_People/
      Creoles.html
      http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/tourism/ourcultureabounds/ocasola.htm
    • multiracialbookclub
      THE FIVE (5) TYPES OF CREOLE -CULTURAL GROUPS Listed below are several articles which contain some information on the MGM-Mixed* `Cultural group both
      Message 2 of 3 , May 13 10:42 PM
      • 0 Attachment

        THE FIVE (5) TYPES OF "CREOLE"-CULTURAL GROUPS          

        Listed below are several articles which contain some
        information on the MGM-Mixed* `Cultural' group
        both commonly known and referred to as "Creole".
        (*MGM-Mixed=Multi-Generational Multiracially-Mixed)

        It might be of interest to note that there are five
        (5) different categories of "American Creoles":

        --- 'Black',
        --- 'French',
        --- 'Indian',
        --- 'Spaniard'
        and
        --- `White'

        ************************************

        ARTICLE:
        "THE CREOLES & THE
        OTHER `FPC' GROUPS IN THE USA"


        Free People of Color (F.P.C.) were Africans, Creoles of Color
        (New World-Born People of African descent), and persons
        of Mixed African, European, and or Native American descent.

        Although the term "Creole" has been debated over the past
        100 years, under Spanish Colonial Louisiana and the early
        American period, the word "Creole" was used to describe
        slaves native to the New World and by F.P.C. or Creoles of Color.

        Use of the term by whites to describe themselves was inconsistent and
        probably did not become common until after the large influx of
        Americans arrived in the city after the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. …

        In Louisiana , the first F.P.C. came from France or its
        Colonies in the Caribbean and in West Africa . …

        The majority of these slaves were Africans
        and unmixed Blacks who bought their freedom.

        Later on this initial group would be augmented by Haitian refugees and
        other F.P.C. from the Caribbean, Mexico , Central and South America ,
        other parts of the United States, and from around the world.

        The reason for the high number of F.P.C. in New Orleans was
        largely due to the influx of Haitian Refugees into the city in 1809.

        http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/fpc.htm
        http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/
        http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/creole.html

        ARTICLE: THE "COLORED
        CREOLE CONTRADICTION"

        [T]he notion of "Creole" was socially constructed by whites
        and coloreds, such that the definition of Creole varied
        depending on the racial background of the definer.

        The colored Creoles, or gens de couleur libre, were a separate group
        of Creoles who occupied a particular racial position in New Orleans

        Creole society and are a perfect example of
        a marginalized group that faced strict external

        Definitions from Anglo Americans after the Civil War. …

        After whites characterized colored Creoles as "black,"
        the gens de couleur libre created their own society,
        defining themselves as a colored Creole community. …

        Between 1800 and 1860, the gens de couleur libre were
        a socially- and self-defined French ethnic group.

        They prided themselves on being descendants
        of a free, well-cultured people. …

        The gens de couleur libre occupied a relatively unstable
        position in New Orleans between 1800 and 1860.

        Their community was both dependent on and
        independent of the white and black communities.

        Free people of color used many gradations of color
        as the standard of respectability, but the white
        community was used as the standard of beauty.

        Some colored planters owned slaves, whose Labor
        naturally contributed to the wealth and prestige of
        the planter within the gens de couleur libre community.

        They also used blacks to contrast themselves, as they
        were a constant reminder of their slave origins.

        In this manner, colored Creoles used blacks to
        gauge how far they had progressed from slavery.

        This ideology was further manifested in an
        emphasis on facial features and skin color and tone.

        Although the gens de couleur libre did not desire to be
        white, they participated in the gradual lightening of their skin.

        Their community operated within a caste system
        based on terminology, "each meaning one more
        generation's elevation toward perfection in white blood."

        Thus, colored Creoles imposed a value
        hierarchy on physical appearance:
        the whiter a person was, the better his/her status.

        This apparent confusion is better known
        as the colored Creole contradiction. …

        This identity also came with a price:
        other Creoles of color were oppressed or shunned
        because they did not look "white" enough.

        Again, the emphasis on light skin in the gens de couleur libre
        community did not translate into a desire to actually be white. …

        Whites enjoyed full social equality and freedom under
        Louisiana law, and the gens de couleur libre wished to partake
        of those same freedoms and equalities but were excluded full
        participation because of their varying degrees of black blood. …

        COLORED CREOLES DISLIKED BEING DEFINED AS
        MULATTO because of its origins, from the Spanish
        word for mule, which they perceived as an offense.

        MULATTO WAS ALSO A SOCIALLY-CONSTRUCTED
        TERM THAT WAS GENERALLY APPLIED TO ALL
        MIXED BLACKS in the United States, especially
        to the gens de couleur libre, without their consent.

        Colored Creoles believed that they were neither black nor white.

        Thus, they occupied an uncertain region somewhere in between. …

        White attitudes towards the gens de couleur libre
        can be best understood in further historical analysis
        of their treatment in the American period of Louisiana .

        The American period is more demonstrative of the general beliefs
        held about free people of color than the French and Spanish eras.

        During the American period, a few years before the Civil War,
        the gens de couleur libre BECAME THE VICTIMS OF SOCIAL

        DISCRIMINATION IN EVERY PART OF THEIR
        LIVES DUE TO WHITE FEAR OF RACIAL EQUALITY.

        SEGREGATION MADE WHITES FEEL
        SUPERIOR AND COMFORTABLE. …

        Colored Creoles were regarded as dangerous by whites
        because of their ideas of freedom, education, and
        "constant influence over slaves." …

        THE HOSTILITY … WAS EVENTUALLY TRANSFORMED
        INTO AN ANTI-FREE PERSON OF COLOR MOVEMENT. …

        White racism and prejudice was detrimental to the colored Creole community
        and the effects of these various attitudes on Creoles of color was manifested
        by an increasing emphasis on race rather than socio-economic class. …

        Their unique "position" between blacks and whites lasted for only fifty years.

        WHAT DOES THEIR SITUATION REVEAL ABOUT SELF-
        PERCEIVED, AND EXTERNALLY APPLIED IDENTITY?

        For nineteenth century Creoles of color, their identities
        were informed by whites and in part by blacks.

        External influences mattered very little before the Civil
        War,  because they created their own institutions and
        environments that defined for themselves who they were.

        These institutions reinforced self-perceptions about skin
        color and socially prescribed colored Creole culture.

        But, the world of the gens de couleur libre was insulated for
        only a short time because the Civil War spelled their
        eradication as a racially separate group of people. …

        To romanticize the lives of the gens de couleur libre
        ultimately does their memory a great disservice.

        The history of race, race relations and the formation of identity as
        examined through the lives of the gens de couleur libre continue
        to inform our understanding and teaching of American history.

        http://www-mcnair.berkeley.edu/uga/osl/mcnair/94BerkeleyMcNairJournal/02_McNeill.html

        ARTICLE: REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY OF
        THE LOUISIANA AFRO-CREOLE POPULATION

        Most scholars will already be familiar with the …
        Creoles [those who are]…of mixed African
        and French or Spanish descent, and their
        distinctive situation as an intermediate caste
        between the white masters and the black slaves.

        Their social and legal status, even after
        the American takeover of Louisiana in 1803,
        resembled that of a third racial category.

        THIS TOPIC HAS BECOME TIMELY OF LATE, WITH
        THE CENSUS DISPUTE OVER COUNTING AFRICAN
        AMERICANS OF "MULTIRACIAL" BACKGROUND,

        http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=23634982007430

        "BLACK" CREOLE:

        A person who can trace his family bloodline to a direct
        descendent of the Africans who settled in Louisiana during
        the colonial period of African-American history.

        Black Creole physical traits:

        **Dark eyes.
        **Has predominantly African
        ancestral physical traits. …


        THE FIRST RECORDED CREOLES IN AMERICA
        HAD A MIXTURE OF ETHNICALLY
        FRENCH AND AFRICAN TRAITS..


        "FRENCH" CREOLE:

        A person who can trace his family bloodline
        to a direct descendent of French settlers
        who settled in Louisiana during the colonial
        period of French and American History.

        French Creole physical traits:

        **Fair to tan skin pigmentation.
        **Naturally straight to wavy hair, a synthetic
        look, without the use of synthetic products.
        **Light brown or hazel eyes within the
        family genealogical lines.
        **High cheek bones, predominantly French
        with some ancestral traits of other races.

        "INDIAN" CREOLE:

        A person that can trace his family bloodline to
        a Creole descendant of the Colonial Creole period,
        and the American Indian in American history.

        Most Indian Creole have similar physical traits
        to the French Creole with very little distinction.


        "SPANIARD" CREOLE:

        Spaniard Creoles are for the most part
        NON-EXISTENT today, due to the strong
        French , Indian, and Afro / American and
        White influence of the Creole community.


        "WHITE" CREOLE:

        A person that can trace his family bloodline to
        Creole and Italian and Indian descendent of the
        colonial Creole period prior to the American
        Civil War period in American history.

        White Creole physical traits:

        **Most white Creoles have
        very fair skin pigmentation.
        **Naturally blond hair, hazel eyes,
        (some have blue eyes) and dark brown eyes.

        In today's world White Creoles exist
        in a White/Creole marriage union. …

        Over the years more predominantly French traits
        have dominated the genealogy of the Creole
        cultural heritage or ( or Creole person ). …

        http://www.brothermichael.com/cajun/creole/
        http://ccet.louisiana.edu/03a_Cultural_Tourism_Files/01.02_The_People/Creoles.html
        http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/tourism/ourcultureabounds/ocasola.htm

      • docilechicken24
        There are a few things in these articles that I wanted to bring attention to: The Haitian Migrations that began in 1809 doubled the population of the Free
        Message 3 of 3 , May 14 6:35 PM
        • 0 Attachment
          There are a few things in these articles
          that I wanted to bring attention to:

          The Haitian Migrations that began in 1809 doubled
          the population of the Free People of Color (FPC).
          There were already a lot of Free People of Color (FPC)
          which was a byproduct of Spanish Colonial policies,
          but it did strengthen the group considerably.
          I mention this because the reading gives the
          impression that New Orleans FPC came primarily from
          Haiti and that there weren't many FPC initially.

          The intense Colorism and Color Stratification of
          Creoles of Color was a response to loss of status
          from the Civil War and Jim Crow which began setting
          in during the early part of the 20th century.
          Although Colorism did exist, Class and
          Refinement was more important than skin
          color to the Antebellum Creoles of Color.
          It was the racial environment of post-Reconstruction
          in which extreme Colorism flourished.
          Again, it was still "better" to be closer to
          White, but it was in no way as pronounced
          as it became in the more recent history.

          I also wanted to make the distinction that the five (5)
          types of Creole Cultural groups are not specifically
          talking about Louisiana but the whole United States.
          This is distinct from the Louisiana Creole Culture
          because their definitions in no way describe the
          Racial and Ethnic group dynamics of Louisiana.
          To apply these categories to Louisiana is very
          very problematic, because although all of the
          Ethnicities mentioned are present in Louisiana,
          these divisions didn't exist in the way
          that the five (5) types describe.
          To apply the physical descriptions
          to Louisiana makes even less sense.

          Anyway, sorry to be nitpicky on the article,
          but I wanted to let y'all know, that there
          were a few spots in the articles that I found
          to be misrepresentations or problematic.



          Dustin


          ********************ARTICLE************************


          THE FIVE (5) TYPES OF "CREOLE"-CULTURAL GROUPS


          Listed below are several articles which contain some
          information on the MGM-Mixed* `Cultural' group
          both commonly known and referred to as "Creole".
          (*MGM-Mixed=Multi-Generational Multiracially-Mixed)

          It might be of interest to note that there are five
          (5) different categories of "American Creoles":

          --- 'Black',
          --- 'French',
          --- 'Indian',
          --- 'Spaniard'
          and
          --- `White'

          ***********************************

          ARTICLE:

          "THE CREOLES & THE OTHER `FPC' GROUPS IN THE USA"

          Free People of Color (F.P.C.) were Africans,
          Creoles of Color (New World-Born People of
          African descent), and persons of Mixed African,
          European, and or Native American descent.

          Although the term "Creole" has been debated over the
          past 100 years, under Spanish Colonial Louisiana
          and the early American period, the word "Creole"
          was used to describe slaves native to the New
          World and by F.P.C. or Creoles of Color.

          Use of the term by whites to describe themselves was
          inconsistent and probably did not become common
          until after the large influx of Americans arrived
          in the city after the Battle of New Orleans in 1815.
          ...

          In Louisiana, the first F.P.C. came from France or
          its Colonies in the Caribbean and in West Africa...

          The majority of these slaves were Africans
          and unmixed Blacks who bought their freedom.

          Later on this initial group would be augmented by
          Haitian refugees and other F.P.C. from the Caribbean,
          Mexico, Central and South America, other parts of
          the United States, and from around the world.

          The reason for the high number of F.P.C. in
          New Orleans was largely due to the influx
          of Haitian Refugees into the city in 1809.

          http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-ttractions/multicultural/fpc.htm
          http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/
          http://www.neworleansonline.com/tours-attractions/multicultural/creole.html


          ARTICLE:


          THE "COLORED CREOLE CONTRADICTION"


          [T]he notion of "Creole" was socially constructed
          by 'Whites' and 'Coloreds', such that the
          definition of "Creole" varied depending
          on the racial background of the definer.

          The 'Colored' Creoles, or 'Gens de Couleur Libre',
          were a separate group of Creoles who occupied
          a particular racial position in New Orleans

          Creole society and are a perfect example of
          a marginalized group that faced strict external

          Definitions from Anglo Americans after the Civil War...

          After Whites characterized 'Colored' Creoles as "black,"
          the Gens de Couleur Libre created their own society,
          defining themselves as a 'Colored' Creole community...

          Between 1800 and 1860, the gens de couleur libre were
          a socially- and self-defined French ethnic group.

          They prided themselves on being descendants
          of a free, well-cultured people...

          The Gens de Couleur Libre occupied a relatively unstable
          position in New Orleans between 1800 and 1860.

          Their community was both dependent on and
          independent of the White and Black communities.

          Free People of Color (FPC) used many gradations of color
          as the standard of respectability, but the white
          community was used as the standard of beauty.

          Some 'Colored' planters owned slaves, whose Labor
          naturally contributed to the wealth and prestige of
          the planter within the Gens de Couleur Libre community.

          They also used Blacks to contrast themselves, as they
          were a constant reminder of their slave origins.

          In this manner, 'Colored' Creoles used Blacks to
          gauge how far they had progressed from slavery.

          This ideology was further manifested in an
          emphasis on facial features and skin color and tone.

          Although the Gens de Couleur Libre did not
          desire to be 'White', they participated
          in the gradual lightening of their skin.

          Their community operated within a caste system based
          on terminology, "each meaning one more generation's
          elevation toward perfection in White blood."

          Thus, 'Colored' Creoles imposed a value
          hierarchy on physical appearance:
          the whiter a person was, the "better" his/her 'statu'.

          This apparent confusion is better known
          as the 'Colored'-Creole-Contradiction...

          This identity also came with a price:
          other Creoles of Color were oppressed or shunned
          because they did not look "white" enough.

          Again, the emphasis on light skin in the Gens
          de Couleur Libre community did not translate
          into a desire to actually be 'White' ...

          Whites enjoyed full social equality and freedom
          under Louisiana law, and the Gens de Couleur
          Libre wished to partake of those same freedoms
          and equalities but were excluded full participation
          because of their varying degrees of Black blood ...

          THE 'COLORED' CREOLES DISLIKED BEING DEFINED AS
          MULATTO because of its origins, from the Spanish
          word for mule, which they perceived as an offense.

          MULATTO WAS ALSO A SOCIALLY-CONSTRUCTED
          TERM THAT WAS GENERALLY APPLIED TO ALL
          MIXED-"blacks" in the United States,
          especially to the Gens de Couleur
          Libre, without their consent.

          The 'Colored' Creoles believed that
          they were neither Black nor White.

          Thus, they occupied 'an uncertain
          region somewhere in between ...'

          White attitudes towards the Gens de Couleur Libre
          can be best understood in further historical analysis
          of their treatment in the American period of Louisiana.

          The American period is more demonstrative of the
          general beliefs held about Free People of Color
          (FPC) than the French and Spanish eras.

          During the American period, a few years before
          the Civil War, the Gens de Couleur Libre
          BECAME THE VICTIMS OF SOCIAL

          DISCRIMINATION IN EVERY PART OF THEIR
          LIVES DUE TO WHITE FEAR OF RACIAL EQUALITY.

          SEGREGATION MADE WHITES FEEL
          SUPERIOR AND COMFORTABLE...

          The 'Colored' Creoles were regarded as dangerous by
          Whites because of their ideas of freedom, education,
          and "constant influence over slaves."...

          THE HOSTILITY ... WAS EVENTUALLY TRANSFORMED INTO
          AN ANTI-FREE PERSON OF COLOR (FPC) MOVEMENT...

          White racism and prejudice was detrimental to
          the 'Colored' Creole community and the effects
          of these various attitudes on Creoles of Color
          was manifested by an increasing emphasis on
          "race" rather than socio-economic 'class'.

          ...

          Their unique "position" between Blacks and
          Whites lasted for only fifty years.

          WHAT DOES THEIR SITUATION REVEAL ABOUT SELF-
          PERCEIVED, AND EXTERNALLY APPLIED IDENTITY?

          For nineteenth century Creoles of Color,
          their identities were informed by
          Whites and in part by Blacks.

          External influences mattered very little
          before the Civil War, because they created
          their own institutions and environments
          that defined for themselves who they were.

          These institutions reinforced self-perceptions
          about skin color and socially prescribed
          'Colored' Creole Culture.

          But, the world of the Gens de Couleur Libre was
          insulated for only a short time because the
          Civil War spelled their eradication as a
          racially separate group of people...

          To romanticize the lives of the Gens de Couleur Libre
          ultimately does their memory a great disservice.

          The history of race, race relations and the
          formation of 'identity' as examined through
          the lives of the Gens de Couleur Libre
          continue to inform our understanding
          and teaching of American history.

          http://www-mcnair.berkeley.edu/uga/osl/mcnair/94BerkeleyMcNairJournal/02_McNeill.html


          ARTICLE:

          REFLECTIONS ON THE HISTORY OF THE
          LOUISIANA AFRO-CREOLE POPULATION

          Most scholars will already be familiar with the ...
          Creoles [those who are]... of Mixed African
          and French or Spanish descent, and their
          distinctive situation as an intermediate caste
          between the White owners and the Black slaves.

          Their social and legal status, even after
          the American takeover of Louisiana in 1803,
          resembled that of a third racial category.

          THIS TOPIC HAS BECOME TIMELY OF LATE, WITH
          THE CENSUS DISPUTE OVER COUNTING AFRICAN
          AMERICANS OF "MULTIRACIAL" BACKGROUND,

          http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=23634982007430
          <http://www.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=23634982007430>


          "BLACK" CREOLE:


          A person who can trace his family bloodline
          to a direct descendent of the Africans who
          settled in Louisiana during the colonial
          period of African-American history.

          Black Creole physical traits:

          **Dark eyes.
          **Has predominantly African
          ancestral physical traits...


          THE FIRST RECORDED CREOLES IN AMERICA
          HAD A MIXTURE OF ETHNICALLY
          FRENCH AND AFRICAN TRAITS..


          "FRENCH" CREOLE:

          A person who can trace his family bloodline
          to a direct descendent of French settlers
          who settled in Louisiana during the colonial
          period of French and American History.

          French Creole physical traits:

          **Fair to tan skin pigmentation.
          **Naturally straight to wavy hair, a synthetic
          look, without the use of synthetic products.
          **Light brown or hazel eyes within the
          family genealogical lines.
          **High cheek bones, predominantly French
          with some ancestral traits of other races.


          "INDIAN" CREOLE:


          A person that can trace his family bloodline to
          a Creole descendant of the Colonial Creole period,
          and the American Indian in American history.

          Most Indian Creole have similar physical traits
          to the French Creole with very little distinction.


          "SPANIARD" CREOLE:

          Spaniard Creoles are for the most part
          NON-EXISTENT today, due to the strong
          French , Indian, and Afro / American and
          White influence of the Creole community.


          "WHITE" CREOLE:

          A person that can trace his family bloodline to
          Creole and Italian and Indian descendent of the
          colonial Creole period prior to the American
          Civil War period in American history.

          White Creole physical traits:

          **Most White Creoles have
          very fair skin pigmentation.
          **Naturally blond hair, hazel eyes,
          (some have blue eyes) and dark brown eyes.

          In today's world White Creoles exist
          in a White/Creole marriage union...

          Over the years more predominantly French traits
          have dominated the genealogy of the Creole
          cultural heritage (or Creole person)...

          http://www.brothermichael.com/cajun/creole/
          http://ccet.louisiana.edu/03a_Cultural_Tourism_Files/01.02_The_People/Creoles.html
          http://www.crt.state.la.us/crt/tourism/ourcultureabounds/ocasola.htm
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