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(Pt III) The Impact of the Racist-ODR AND the Misogynistic-ROM

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  • multiracialbookclub
    . NOTE: . ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ . THIS ARTICLE IS A CONTINUATION (Pt III) OF THE ARTICLE ENTITLED: . (Pt II) The Impact of the Racist-ODR AND
    Message 1 of 1 , Aug 26, 2012
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      .
      NOTE:
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 
      .
      THIS ARTICLE IS A CONTINUATION 
      (Pt III) OF THE ARTICLE ENTITLED: 
      .
      (Pt II) The Impact of the Racist-ODR
      AND the Misogynistic-ROM
       
      .

      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


      The socio-political impact of 
      the Racist-ODR 
      -- AND -- 
      the Misogynistic-ROM cont'd:

      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

      .
      QUOTE
      .
      "Hybrid populations, such as the African Americans 
      [an ETHNIC group, NOT a `Race' group] and Hispanic 
      Americans [a CULTURAL group, NOT a `Race' group], 
      also can be a valuable resource for mapping … genes. 
      .
      This method is called "mapping by admixture 
      linkage disequilibrium" (MALD) and uses the 
      linkage disequilibrium created when divergent 
      populations hybridize to localize genes …
      (Chakraborty and Weiss 1988; Briscoe 
      et al. 1994; Stephens et al. 1994). "
      .
      "This observation is consistent with data 
      from other genetic studies, which show 
      … that 
      the European genetic component 
      is 25% [on average] in contemporary 
      African American populations 
      (Chakraborty et al. 1991) and 
      60% [on average] in contemporary 
      Hispanic populations (Hanis et al. 1991)".
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1712479/pdf/ajhg00004-0212.pdf 
      .
      RELATED LINK:
      .
      http://www.facebook.com/allpeople.gifts/posts/300777016632181
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .
      QUOTE:

      .
      "We propose an explanation based on the 
      understanding that 
      ELEVATED GENOMIC 
      CONTRIBUTIONS FROM EUROPEAN MALES 
      and Amerindian or African females DEPEND not 
      only on directional mating, but ALSO ON the "racial" 
      and social category of the children born from these …

      .
      In this respect, social practices in Brazil and 
      in the United States diverge considerably. 
      .
      In Brazil, socially significant "races" 
      are particularly categorized by the 
      physical appearance of the individual .
      .
      There seems to be no descent rule and 
      it is possible for two siblings differing in color 
      to belong to completely diverse "racial" categories.
      .
      In the United States, `descent' appears to 
      be much more important than `physical 
      appearance' as shown by the "one drop 
      rule" and other hypo-descent stipulations.

      .
      Thus, all the offspring of the historical mating 
      of a White European male with a Black 
      African woman would be considered 
      Black regardless of physical appearance.
      .
      This allows the introgression of Y-chromosomal 
      lineages into ["black" Americans], but not of 
      African mtDNA lineages into American Caucasians
      .
      SOURCE(S):
      .
      In V.F. Gonçalves et al. 160
      Genetics and Molecular Research 6 (2): 156-161 (2007) 
      www.funpecrp.com.br
      .
      Hickman CB (1997). 
      The devil and the one drop rule: 
      racial categories, African Americans, 
      and the U.S.census. 
      .

      Michigan. Law. Rev. 95: 1161-1265
      .
      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1682537/pdf/ajhg00072-0149.pdf 
      .
      http://laboratoriogene.info/Cientificos/African_Americans.pdf
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "With some figures showing 70% of African 
      Americans fitting into a multiracial category,"
      .
      Source: 
      .
      http://www.interracialvoice.com/editor10.html
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "Seventy to eighty percent of so-called 
      "blacks" are of mixed racial heritage."
      .

      Source: 
      .
      http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~perspy/old/issues/1997/may/boxing.html
      .
      RELATED LINK:
      .
      http://www.facebook.com/allpeople.gifts/posts/300777016632181
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 
      .
      Fundação de Pesquisas Científicas de Ribeirão Preto
      .
      http://www.funpecrp.com.br/
      .
      www.funpecrp.com.br 
      .
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .

      As noted, in addition to the law of `Partus' – 
      it should always be remembered that LESS 
      THAN 6% of the Black West Africans
       that were 
      kidnapped as the captives of the "triangular trade" 
      (the Trans-Atlantic slave system) 
      were even 
      transported onto the continental U.S. -- 
      (as the MAJORITY were actually taken to West Indies 
      islands plantations
       (ex. tobacco / sugar / coffee / etc.); 
      South American mines (ex. gold / iron / etc.); and to 
      South American plantations (ex. sugar / coffee, etc.).
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "About 65 percent of the slaves were brought 
      to Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Saint Domingue 
      (now Haiti), and other sugar colonies. 

      Brazil alone received about 38 percent. 

      NORTH AMERICA got about 6 PERCENT. "
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.east-buc.k12.ia.us/00_01/ca/sla1.htm
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      They were transported mostly to the 
      Caribbean Islands and Spanish colonies 
      in Central and South America. 
      .
      Only an estimated 6 PERCENT …
      were traded in British North America
      .
      http://www.jazzistry.org/timeline.html
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces 
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/assessment/estimates.faces
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "The Second Atlantic system was 
      the trade 
      of enslaved Africans by mostly British, 
      Portuguese, French and Dutch traders
      . 
      .
      The MAIN destinations of this phase WERE 
      THE CARIBBEAN colonies AND BRAZIL,"

      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      Klein, Herbert S. and Jacob Klein. 
      `The Atlantic Slave Trade'.
      Cambridge University Press, 1999. 
      pp. 103–139.
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "Britain captured JAMAICA from the Spanish in 1655. 
      .

      Under British control 
      the island developed into the 
      major plantation colony in the British West Indies, 
      importing FORTY PERCENT OF ALL 
      enslaved Africans
       on British vessels. "
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/help/glossary.faces 
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "The poor conditions on plantations 
      typically resulted in high mortality rates. 
      .
      In the Caribbean and Brazil, for example, 
      plantation owners purchased slaves on 
      the basis that they would live for four years.
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/help/glossary.faces 
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "
      BRAZIL was the center of the 
      trans-Atlantic slave trade for most 
      years between 1570 and 1850 …"
      . 
      Perhaps FORTY PERCENT of 
      all Africans forced into the slave 
      trade -- ended their lives in Brazil …"

      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/help/glossary.faces 
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      "
      Brazil, in South America, was 
      the principal destination for 
      all Africans sold as slaves 
      across the Atlantic. "
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.africandiasporatourism.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=254%3Athe-african-diaspora-in-brazil-slavery-slave-trade-a-cultural-heritage&catid=93%3Aculture-3&Itemid=134 
      .
      QUOTE:
      .
      The height of the trans-Atlantic slave 
      trade to Brazil occurred in 1828-1829, as 
      merchants rushed to outfit slaving ships.
       
      .
      SOURCE:
      .
      http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/help/glossary.faces 
      .
      RELATED LINK:
      .
      http://www.facebook.com/allpeople.gifts/posts/300777016632181 
      .
      ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
      .
      Slave Trade
      .
      http://www.east-buc.k12.ia.us/00_01/ca/sla1.htm 
      .
      www.east-buc.k12.ia.us
      .
       
      .
      RELATED LINK / SOURCE:
      .
      https://www.facebook.com/allpeople.gifts/posts/309460495741441 
      .

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