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The Black-and-White World of 'Walter Plecker'

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  • multiracialbookclub
    The racist obsessions
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 3, 2010
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      The 
      racist obsessions of a former

      state bureaucrat have Virginians 

      -- who are of a "part-Amerindian 

      ancestry" & "part-Black ancestry" 

      -- struggling for their identity
      .



      Walter Ashby Plecker, was the first registrar of Virginia's 'Bureau 
      of Vital Statistics', starting in 1912, forced people who were of 
      any part-Amerindians lineage to become classified 
      as "black". 
      The tribes, he said, had become a "mongrel" mixture.

      (--- written by Warren Fiske -- for 
      'Style Weekly' -- September 22, 2004)

      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      Lacy Branham Hearl closes her eyes and travels eight
      decades back to what began as a sweet childhood.

      There was family everywhere: her parents, five
      siblings, nine sets of adoring aunts and uncles,
      and more cousins than she could count.

      They all lived in a Monacan Indian settlement near
      Amherst, their threadbare homes circling apple
      orchards at the foot of Tobacco Row Mountain.

      As Hearl grew, however, she sensed the
      adults were engulfed in deepening despair.

      When she was 12, an uncle gathered his
      family and left Virginia, never to see her again.

      Other relatives scattered in rapid succession,
      some muttering the name "Plecker".

      Soon, only Hearl's immediate family remained.

      Then the orchards began to close, because there
      were not enough workers and the townspeople
      turned their backs, and all that was left
      was prejudice and plight and Plecker.

      Hearl shakes her head sadly.

      "I thought Plecker was a devil," she says". Still do".

      Walter Ashby Plecker was 
      the first registrar of
      Virginia's Bureau of Vital Statistics
      , which
      records births, marriages and deaths.

      He accepted the job in 1912.

      For the next 34 years, 
      he led the effort to `purify'
      the white race
       in Virginia by forcing Indians and
      other nonwhites to classify themselves as blacks.

      It amounted to bureaucratic genocide.

      He worked with a vengeance.

      Plecker was 
      a white supremacist and a zealous advocate
      of a now discredited movement to preserve the integrity
      of white blood by preventing interracial breeding"
      .

      Unless this can be done," he once wrote,
      "we have little to hope for, but may
      expect in the future decline or complete
      destruction of our civilization".

      Plecker's 
      icy efficiency as racial gatekeeper drew
      international attention, including that of Nazi Germany
      .

      lIn 1943, he boasted: "Hitler's genealogical
      study of the Jews is not more complete".

      Plecker retired in 1946 at the age
      of 85 and died the following year.

      The damage lives on.

      From the grave, Plecker is 
      frustrating the efforts
      of Virginia tribes to win federal recognition and
      a trove of accompanying grants for housing,
      health care and education.

      One of the requirements is that the tribes
      prove their continuous-existence since 1900.

      Plecker, by purging Indians as a "race",
      has made that nearly impossible.

      Six Virginia tribes are seeking the permission
      of Congress to bypass the requirement.

      "It never seems to end with this guy," said
      Kenneth Adams, chief of the Upper Mattaponi".

      You wonder how anyone 
      could be so consumed with hate".

      It's likely that Plecker didn't see
      himself as the least bit hateful.

      Had he not been so personally aloof,
      he might have explained that he believed
      he was practicing "good science" and "religion".

      Perhaps he would have acknowledged that
      he was influenced by his own heritage.

      Walter Plecker was one of the
      last sons of the Old South.

      He was born in Augusta County on April 2, 1861.

      Ten days later, the cannons at Fort Sumter
      sounded the start of the Civil War.

      His father -- a prosperous merchant and
      slave owner-- left home to fight for the
      Confederate Army with many of his kin.

      Some 60 years later, Plecker would recall his early
      days in a letter to a magazine editor expressing
      his abhorrence of interracial breeding.

      He remembered "being largely under the
      control" of a "faithful" slave named Delia.

      When the war ended, she stayed on as a servant.

      The Pleckers were so fond of her that
      they let her get married in their house.

      When Plecker's mother died in 1915, it
      was Delia "who closed her eyes," he wrote.

      Then Plecker got to his point.

      "
      As much as we held in esteem individual negroes
      this esteem was not of a character
       
      that would tolerate
      marriage with them
      though as we know now to our
      sorrow much "illegitimate" mixture has occurred".

      Plecker added, "If you desire to do the correct thing
      for the Negro race, inspire (them) with 
      the thought that
      the birth of Mulatto children is a standing disgrace
      ".

      Plecker graduated from Hoover
      Military Academy in Staunton in 1880.

      He became a doctor, graduating from the
      University of Maryland's medical school in 1885.

      He moved around western Virginia and the coal
      fields of Alabama before settling in Hampton in 1892.

      Plecker took special interest in delivering babies.

      He became concerned about the high mortality rate
      among poor mothers and began keeping records
      and searching for ways to improve birthing.

      Public health was first being recognized as
      a government concern at the turn of the last
      century, and Plecker was a pioneer.

      In 1902, he became health officer for
      Elizabeth City County (today, Hampton).

      He recorded details of more than 98 percent
      of the births and deaths in the county
      an amazing feat during a time when m
      ost people were born and died at home.

      When lawmakers established the state Bureau of Vital
      Statistics in 1912, they asked Plecker to run it...

      Plecker was all work.

      He did not seek friendship.
      Although married most of his
      life, he did not have children.
      He listed his hobbies as "books and birds".

      "He was a man you could sometimes respect and admire,
      but never love," said Russell E. Booker Jr., who grew
      up in Plecker's neighborhood, delivered his newspaper
      and worked in the Bureau of Vital Statistics from
      1960 to 1994, spending the last 12 years as director".

      He was a very rigid man," Booker added".
      I don't know of anyone who ever saw him smile".

      Plecker was tall, bone-thin, had wavy, white
      hair that was neatly combed and a trim mustache.

      He took a bus to work and lunched
      every day on just an apple.

      He was a miserly taskmaster.
      Plecker scraped glue pots, mixed the gunk
      with water and sent it back to employees for use.
      Booker said that, according to office legend,
      "You didn't get a new pencil until you turned
      in your old one, and it better not be
      longer than an inch and a quarter".

      Plecker never looked before crossing streets.
      "He just expected the cars to stop for him,"
      said Booker, who still lives in Richmond.
      "One time a woman grabbed him just as
      he was about to be hit, and he laid
      her out like she'd just touched God".

      Plecker … [claimed to] believe the Bible … 
      [openly] condoned segregation....maintained 
      that God flooded the earth 
      and destroyed 
      Sodom to express his anger at racial interbreeding
      .

      "Let us turn a deaf ear to those who would
      interpret Christian brotherhood as racial equality,"
      Plecker wrote in a 1925 essay.

      Plecker described himself as "a man of science".

      And at the turn of the 20th century, Eugenics was
      internationally heralded as the thinking man's science.

      The term "Eugenics" was coined in 1883 by English
      scientist Francis Galton, a cousin of Charles
      Darwin, a year after Darwin's death.

      Galton defined it as "The Science of Race Improvement".

      It was viewed as "a practical application of Darwin's
      theories of evolution and natural selection".

      The early aim of Galton and his followers
      was to promote selective marriages...

      It wasn't long, however, before they focused
      on perpetuating a superior class of humans.

      As "the science" swept across the Atlantic,
      it picked up more ominous tones.

      Eugenicists began espousing mandatory
      sterilization of "wicked" and mentally
      retarded people to eliminate their bloodlines.

      All the major colleges, including the
      University of Virginia, taught "the science".


      It was embraced by such great minds as Alexander
      Graham Bell, George Bernard Shaw and H. G. Wells.


      Margaret Sanger won support for legalizing
      contraception by arguing it would lower
      the birth rate of "[the] undesirables".


      Winston Churchill unsuccessfully proposed
      sterilization laws for Great Britain in 1910.


      As governor of New Jersey, Woodrow Wilson
      signed that state's first sterilization law in 1911.
      The next year, he was elected president.


      Virginia's gentry embraced the fad.

      Eugenics was the perfect way to
      deal with race and the underclass.

      "Virginians thought of themselves as more progressive
      than their neighbors to the south," said Gregory
      M. Dorr, a University of Alabama history
      professor who is writing a book on eugenics.

      "There was a feeling that we don't
      need to do lynching or the KKK.
      We're not savage.
      We can handle our problems in a rational way".

      The leader of the state movement was John Powell
      of Richmond, an internationally acclaimed pianist
      and composer who would work closely with
      Plecker for more than a quarter of a century.

      Powell was rich, well-connected
      and a compelling speaker.

      Plecker stayed behind the scenes, supplying Powell
      with copies of all the major correspondence of
      his office and drafting racial separation bills
      for the legislature's consideration.

      Their work paid off in 1924 when the General
      Assembly passed the Racial Integrity Act and
      a mandatory sterilization law that would be
      invoked 8,300 times over the next 55 years.

      Although 31 states would pass eugenics
      laws, none was tougher than Virginia's.


      The Racial Integrity Act essentially 
      narrowed race classifications on birth 
      and marriage certificates 
      to two choices:
      'White Person' --- or --- "Colored".

      The law defined a 'White' as one
      "with no trace of Black blood".

      A 'White' person could have "no more 
      than a"one-sixteenth trace of Indian blood"

      ---- an exception, much to Plecker's regret, 
      legislators made to appease the descendants
      of Pocahontas and John Rolfe, who were
      considered among Virginia's first families.

      The act forbade interracial marriage
      and lying about race on registration forms.

      Violators faced felony convictions and a year in prison.

      Plecker strongly supported sterilization laws,
      arguing that feebleminded 'Whites' were
      prone to mate with Indians and "blacks".

      He had no role in administering the law, however.

      The Racial Integrity Act, on the other hand, was his
      to enforce, and Plecker went about it obsessively.

      Gov. E. Lee Trinkle, a year after signing the act,
      asked Plecker to ease up on the Indians and
      not "embarrass them any more than possible".

      Plecker fired back an angry letter.

      "I am unable to see how it is working any injustice
      upon them or humiliation for our office to take a
      firm stand against their intermarriage with 'White'
      people, or to the preliminary steps of recognition
      as Indians with permission to attend 'White' schools
      and to ride in 'White' coaches," Plecker wrote.

      The governor retreated.

      Plecker saw everything in "black" and 'White'.
      There were no other races.
      There was no such thing as a Virginia Indian.
      The tribes, he said, had become a "mongrel"
      mixture of "black" and American Indian blood.

      Their existence greatly disturbed Plecker.

      He was convinced that Mulatto offspring
      would slowly seep into the 'White' race.

      "Like rats when you're not watching,
      "they " have been sneaking in their birth
      certificates through their own midwives,
      giving either Indian or 'White' racial
      classification," Plecker wrote.

      He called them "the breach in the dike".

      They had to be stopped.

      Many who came into Plecker's cross
      hairs were acting with pure intentions.

      They registered as 'White' or Indian because
      that's how their parents identified themselves.

      Plecker seemed to delight in informing them they were
      "Colored," citing genealogical records dating back to
      the early 1800s that he said his office possessed.

      His tone was cold and final.

      In one letter, Plecker informed a Pennsylvania
      woman that the Virginia man about to
      become her son-in-law had "black" blood.

      "You have to set the thing straight now and we hope your
      daughter can see the seriousness of the whole matter and
      dismiss this young man without any more ado," he wrote.

      In another missive, he rejected a Lynchburg
      woman's claim that her newborn was 'White'.

      The father, he told her in a letter,
      had traces of "Negro" blood.

      "This is to inform you that this is a Mulatto child
      and you cannot pass it off as White," he wrote.

      "You will have to do something about this
      matter and see that this child is not
      allowed to mix with White children.

      It cannot go to White schools and can
      never marry a White person in Virginia.

      "It is a horrible thing".

      Plecker's no-nonsense approach made him a
      celebrity within the Eugenics movement, which
      was increasingly losing support among scientists
      and becoming a platform for White supremacy.

      He spoke around the country, was widely published
      and wrote to every governor in the nation to urge
      passage of racial laws just as tough as Virginia's.

      He dined at the New York home of Harry H.
      Laughlin, the nation's leading eugenics 
      advocate and an unabashed Nazi sympathizer.

      http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110516781/abstract
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_Hamilton_Laughlin

      In 1932, Plecker gave a keynote speech 
      at the Third
      International Conference on Eugenics in New York.

      Among those in attendance was Ernst Rudin
      of Germany who, 11 months later, would
      help write Hitler's Eugenics law.

      http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/65738/abstract 
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernst_Rüdin

      In 1935, Plecker wrote to Walter Gross, 
      the director of Germany's Bureau 
      of Human Betterment and Eugenics.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Gross

      He outlined Virginia's racial purity laws
      and asked to be put on a mailing list for
      bulletins from Gross' department.

      Plecker complimented the Third Reich for
      sterilizing 600 children in Algeria who
      were born to German women and "black" men.

      "I hope this work is complete and not
      one has been missed," he wrote".

      I sometimes regret that we have not the authority
      to put some measures in practice in Virginia".


      Plecker wrote to Gross on state-issued stationery.
      He sold copies of Eugenics books in his office.

      He was occasionally rebuked for turning
      official publications into diatribes against Racial
      Interbreeding and mailing them at government expense.


      And when the Racial Integrity Act failed
      to meet his needs, Plecker stretched it.

      He pressured superintendents to remove 
      children from 'White' schools based on 
      complaints that they had "Negro"-features".

      As to deciding the point of race, you and the sheriff,
      and any other intelligent citizen of your community,
      are as capable of judging from the appearance
      of the child as the most learned scientist,"
      Plecker wrote one superintendent.

      "There is absolutely no blood or
      other test to determine the question".

      Plecker demanded the removal
      of bodies from 'White' cemeteries.

      He tried to evict a set of twins from a Presbyterian
      orphanage because they were "illegitimate"
      and ... therefore ... the "chances are
      10-1 they are of Negro blood".

      Plecker maintained that all of his racial
      designations were based on impeccable records.

      There was, however, a secret Plecker
      revealed to only a few trusted allies:

      A lot of the time he was just guessing.

      He acknowledged the sham when a Richmond attorney
      questioned his authority to change the birth certificate
      of a woman classified as an Indian before 1924.

      Plecker quietly admitted he had no such power and
      rescinded his designation of the woman as "Colored".

      Plecker fretted that he would lose his hold
      on Indians if word of his retreat got out".

      In reality I have been doing a good deal of bluffing,
      knowing all the while that it could never be legally
      sustained," he wrote to his cohort, John Powell".

      This is the first time that my
      hand has been absolutely called".

      The setback was temporary, however.

      The attorney kept quiet.

      And Plecker began developing his 
      ultimate weapon against the Indians.


      In January 1943, he sent a list of common
      surnames from each of the state's tribes
      to local officials where the clans lived.


      He instructed them that anyone with those
      names must be classified and treated as "Negro".


      Today, the Indians call it Plecker's hit list.

      It was the last indignity for many of them,
      the act that convinced them there was
      no prospect for happiness in Virginia.

      It was the reason Lacy Hearl's
      relatives pulled out for other states.

      Why she got married in Maryland,
      which recognized her heritage.

      Why her son couldn't get into a Boy Scout troop.

      Hearl's maiden name "Branham" was on the list.

      Although the Branhams and most other Monacans
      lived among themselves and attended an
      Indian school, many of them had light
      complexions and could move freely.

      Suddenly, their freedom was gone.

      "You had to lie about your name and hope the
      person at the door didn't know you," she said.

      Hearl had always loved going to the movies and dances.
      That stopped.
      She could no longer get in.

      "It was the end of my family,"
      said Hearl, now 74 "I was lonely.

      It's sad that a family has to depart
      from each other just because of a name".

      Other tribes tell similar stories.

      "The worst thing about Plecker is how he
      screwed up The Community,"
       said Kenneth
      Adams, the chief of the Upper Mattaponi".

      People just left.

      Indian schools did not go beyond eighth grade.
      White schools were off-limits.
      The "black" schools were not an option for 
      most Indians 
      because attending them would be 
      a concession to Plecker's racial classifications
      .

      "We were the third race in a two-race state,"
      said Stephen Adkins, chief of the Chickahominy tribe".

      I remember once traveling with my father, and we
      pulled into a gas station because I had to go to the
      bathroom and there was one bathroom marked
      'White' and one bathroom marked "Colored.

      `I said, "Dad, what do I do?' "

      After his retirement, Plecker planned to write
      a book about the decline of the White race.

      Before he had a chance, he stepped
      into traffic without looking.

      Legend has it that he was hit by a bus.

      "I know it's kind of cruel to say this, but I hope the
      last thing he saw was an Indian driving that bus,"
      said Sue Elliott, Hearl's daughter.

      The truth is that he was hit by a car
      driven by Kenneth R. Berrell, whose
      racial origins have fallen into oblivion.

      Plecker died in a hospital two hours later.

      It was 1947.

      Plecker's racial records were largely ignored after
      1959, when his handpicked successor retired.

      Virginia schools were fully integrated in 1963
      and --- four years later ---  the state's ban on
      Interracial Marriage was ruled unconstitutional.

      In 1975, the General Assembly repealed
      the rest of the Racial Integrity Act.


      Virginia has tried to erase Plecker's legacy.

      It has established councils on Indian affairs and has
      conferred official state recognition on eight tribes,
      a designation that provides no privileges.

      But Indian leaders say recognition equals respect.

      In 1997, then-Gov. George F. Allen
      simplified procedures for people to 
      correct inaccurate birth records.


      Hearl had her race changed from "Black" to Indian.

      "I know who I am and I'm proud of it," she said.

      The going has been tougher in Washington,
      where Virginia Indians are trying to join 562 tribes
      around the country that are federally recognized.

      The Bush administration has been
      unwilling to ease application rules.


      Allen, now a U.S. senator, is again
      championing the Indians' cause.

      The Republican has authored legislation that
      would 
      bypass bureaucratic requirements and
      allow Congress to federally recognize the tribes
      .

      Allen, during a Senate hearing last year,
      lamented Virginia's racist past.

      "Virginia Indians were not extended the rights offered to
      other U.S. citizens, and the years of discrimination and
      coercive policies took a tremendous toll," he said.

      The bill has been approved by a key Senate committee
      and may come up for a floor vote later this year.

      The legislation faces major opposition in the House
      of Representatives, however, where Rep. Frank
      Wolf, R-Fairfax County, has raised concern
      that federal recognition would open the
      door to Indian-run casinos in Virginia.

      The tribes, most of them devout
      Christians
      , say they oppose gaming.

      Allen and Gov. Mark R. Warner say there
      are many safeguards that would prevent
      casinos from opening in the Old Dominion.

      The Virginia tribes are moving decisively.

      Six have banded together to ask Congress for help.

      They have brought Plecker's story to Capitol Hill,
      hired a lobbyist and meet regularly to plan strategy,
      which includes deciding whether to participate in the
      400th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement in 2007.

      Indian leaders say that's 
      a big change from the days not
      long ago when all of the tribes went separate ways
      .

      "We have a bond now," Adkins,
      the Chickahominy chief, said".

      It's kind of ironic, but Plecker has made us stronger".

      Information for this story was gathered from interviews,
      books on the history of eugenics and the collection of
      Plecker's writings on file in the John Powell papers,
      kept in the special collections department of
      the Alderman Library at the University of Virginia.

      SOURCE:  http://www.styleweekly.com/article.asp?idarticle=9077


      A NOTE ON "RACIAL INTEGRITY"
      / 'EUGENICS' LAWS IN THE U.S.

      IN 1922, John Powell, who was born in Richmond, Virginia 
      forty years earlier, founded -- with the support of Dr. Walter 
      Plecker --'The Anglo-Saxon Clubs of America', whose goals 
      were echoed in Philip Hirschkop's argument in 1967: 

      "the preservation and maintenance of Anglo-Saxon 
      ideals and civilization in America."
      19 

      Two years after the Clubs' founding, Powell presented 
      to the General Assembly of Virginia a signed petition 
      calling for a bill to preserve "racial integrity." 

      On February 18, 1924, the day the bill was to be 
      considered, the 
      Richmond Times-Dispatch
       published 
      an editorial endorsing it, with a "warning" that ...
      "[u]nless stringent measures are adopted to keep the races 
      separate in the matter of marriage, amalgamation is inevitable."
      20  

      Walter Plecker was born in Augusta County, 
      Virginia in 1861, at the start of the Civil War. 

      In 1912, he was appointed Richmond's registrar of the state's 
      primary watchdog for "racial purity," the Bureau of Vital Statistics. 

      "[H]e used his position and influence ... to promote the agendas 
      of John Powell and the Anglo-Saxon Clubs," and  for years 
      "pursued, with vengeful enthusiasm, individuals and groups" 
      that he felt violated "the natural laws of racial separation [.]"
      21 

      John Powell's proposed bill would further tighten the doctor's legal 
      grip by making it "a FELONY to falsify one's race on a certificate[,]" 
      and would give county clerks the authority "to deny 
      marriage licenses to couples who could not prove 
      upon demand that they were of the same race.
      "22

      "The Breach in the Dike"

      On March 20, 1924, Virginia's governor signed 
      into law the "
      Act to Preserve Racial Integrity
      ." 
      But it was only in a few quick months after its passage 
      that quite a significant challenge to the Act began ... 
      "when Atha Sorrells, whose Grandmother's 
      birth records designated her as a `free Colored 
      person,' attempted to marry" a White man. 

      "The clerk rejected the couple's application 
      for a marriage license,"
      23 because it 
      would have violated the new statute. 

      When they filed a protest suit, Judge Henry Holt, who 
      presided over the hearing, "ruled in favor of Sorrells 
      and ordered the clerk to issue a license."
      24 

      Alarmed by Holt's ruling, John Powell and Walter 
      Plecker "contacted the state attorney general in 
      an attempt to overturn the precedent they 
      feared as a result of the Sorrells case." 

      They were advised, however, "that appeal was 
      dangerous since a loss at the appellate level 
      would set a binding precedent throughout the state."
      25 

      Though the Sorrells case had created a small "breach 
      in the dike,"
      27 the Racial Integrity Act itself remained intact. 
      Moreover, Powell and Plecker now had a formidable 
      ally who would stalwartly guard Virginia's 
      front lines in their racist campaign. 

      Ironically—and fortunately—however, their ally 
      would also help facilitate the Act's demise.

      STANDING before the United States Supreme Court 
      on Wednesday, April 10, 1967, Philip Hirschkop neared 
      the end of his defense of Richard and Mildred Loving. 

      To illustrate the emotional foundation of Virginia's 
      antimiscegenation argument, he recited a now 
      infamous and often-published opinion aired by 
      Judge Bazile, who had in 1959 effectively banished 
      Mr. and Mrs. Loving from the state for twenty-five 
      years, and who, six years later, stubbornly 
      denied a motion to set aside his ruling ...

      Though he had recited only a small portion of that 
      quote, Hirschkop's was an effective legal strategy, 
      for on June 12, 1967, when U.S. Supreme Court 
      Chief Justice Earl Warren delivered the court's 
      unanimous decision that struck down all 
      standing anti-miscegenation laws, he, too, 
      recited the Virginia judge's opinion. 

      Thus does it bear repeating here at length:

      Almighty God created the races...and 
      placed them on separate continents. 
      And but for the interference with his arrangement 
      there would be no cause for such marriages. 
      The fact that he separated the races shows 
      that he did not intend for the races to mix. 
      The awfulness of the offense is shown by the fact . . . 
      [that] the code makes the contracting of a marriage 
      between a white person and any Colored person a FELONY. 
      Conviction of a felony is a serious matter. 
      You lose your political rights; and only the 
      government has the power to restore them. 
      And as long as you live you will be known as a FELON.
       
      29

      With a nod to polygenesis and with a literary flourish, Judge 
      Leon Bazile had dutifully upheld the Racial Integrity Act of 1924, 
      which Powell and Plecker had worked so arduously to establish.  

      "Justices Upset All Bans On Interracial Marriage," 
      the front page headline announced in the Tuesday, 
      June 13, 1967 edition of 
      The New York Times

      WASHINGTON, June 12—
      The Supreme Court ruled unanimously today that states 
      cannot outlaw marriages between Whites and Non-Whites. 
      The opinion by Chief Justice Earl Warren was directed 
      specifically at the antimiscegenation laws of Virginia[.]      
      However, the wording was sufficiently broad and disapproving 
      to leave no doubt that the anti-miscegenation laws 
      of 15 other states are also now void.
      "We have consistently denied the constitutionality of measures 
      which restrict the rights of citizens on account of race," 
      Chief Justice Warren said.
      "There can be no doubt that restricting the freedom to marry 
      solely because of racial classifications violates the central 
      meaning of the [Constitution's] equal protection clause."
      32

      "Under our Constitution," the justices concurred 
      in their landmark ruling, "the freedom to marry 
      or not marry, a person of another race, resides with 
      the individual and cannot be infringed by the state. 
      These convictions must be reversed. 
      It is so ordered.  Reversed."
      33

      Source: 

      http://www.charlielawing.com/pigmentsfolder/words/words_thefamilytreeweb.htm#_ftn33 


      RELATED LINKS: 


      http://vfhblogs.org/vignettes/2007/04/02/was-walter-plecker/
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331
       
      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AjwuxYj8agKY7yGgqaJ7i.Xty6IX?qid=20070704121228AA7ZMsA&show=7#profile-info-ezQwEaJLaa  
      http://hamptonroads.com/2004/08/blackandwhite-world-walter-ashby-plecker 
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Ashby_Plecker
      http://virginiavignettes.org/2007/04/was-walter-plecker
      http://hamptonroads.com/2009/06/bureaucrat-ripped-hole-tapestry-indian-history

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