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Re: The U.S.C.B.'s role in the O.D.R.

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  • ashley717717
    The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very
    Message 1 of 7 , Mar 30 5:59 AM
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      The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very black and white on the issue and given criteria for being Black (any Negoid blood at all), White (pure), or Native American (on the rolls, with various criteria for being on a particular roll). I think we are putting good pressure on the government to recognize American mixes, and it's driving them crazy! hahahaha


      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
      j s <creolescience@...> wrote:


      I suppose the real question is what was the deciding factor
      in the change in the 1940's census from Mulatto to Negro.
      Was it a desire for a greater black unity and therefore a rejection
      of the mulatto designation ("We are all black" like in the 60's)
      or a desire by whites to categorize them all as the same,
      perhaps even as a backlash against greater acceptance by
      whites of "Negro" culture ( Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?


      multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:


      THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
      THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


      The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
      how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
      has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in
      an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
      of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
      and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
      lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

      (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
      people changed with each census -- until the
      term was finally eliminated altogether – with
      the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
      groupings altogether mis-categorized.

      Notice also how –without any explanation –
      it is simply and continually decided that ---
      anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
      group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
      Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
      true "racial-admixture" may, in fact, actually be.)

      Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
      Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
      the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
      and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
      eventually removed from the Forms.

      From then on, Mixed-Race people
      became silenced by One-Droppism.


      Historical racial classification and the census:

      Year: 1900
      Category: White, Black, Indian, Chinese, and Japanese

      Year: 1910
      Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese,
      Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

      Year: 1920
      Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
      Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

      Year: 1930
      Category: White, Negro, Indian, Mexican,
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
      Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year: 1940
      Category: White, Negro, Indian, Chinese,
      Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean
      (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year: 1950
      Category: White, Negro, Indian, Japanese,
      Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

      Year: 1960
      Category: White, Negro, American Indian,
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

      Year: 1970
      Category: White, Negro or Black, Indian
      (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino,
      Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

      Year: 1980
      Category: White, Negro, Indian (American),
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
      Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Hawaiian,
      Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut,
      Other (specify); each person
      can also be Hispanic or Latino.

      Year: 1990
      Category: White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese,
      Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo,
      Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan,
      Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander,
      Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

      SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html


      1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

      Color:

      Be particularly careful in
      reporting the class Mulatto.

      The word is here generic, and includes
      quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
      having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

      Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
      determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

      4. Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
      Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.—
      Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
      Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
      the color or race of the person enumerated.

      Be particularly careful to distinguish between
      Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

      The word "mulatto," [should be used to
      describe] those persons who have from
      three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;
      "quadroon," those persons who have
      one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
      "those persons who have one-eighth
      or `any trace' of Black blood".

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators


      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race:

      Write "W" for white;
      "B" for black;
      "Mu" for mulatto;
      "In" for Indian;
      "Ch" for Chinese;
      "Jp" for Japanese;
      For all persons not falling within one
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
      Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
      while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
      other persons having "some proportion
      or perceptible trace of Negro blood".

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race.—

      Write "W" for white;
      "B" for black;
      "Mu" for mulatto;
      "In" for Indian;
      "Ch" for Chinese;
      "Jp" for Japanese;
      For all persons not falling within one
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "black" (B) includes all persons
      who are evidently full-blooded negroes,
      while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all
      other persons having some proportion
      or perceptible trace of negro blood.

      SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

      Race in 1930

      Someone who was part Indian and
      part Negro was to be reported as Negro
      unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
      was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

      SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm

      1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Color or Race

      Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
      "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
      "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

      For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

      455. Negroes

      A person of mixed White and Negro blood
      should be returned as Negro, no matter
      how small a percentage of Negro blood.
      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
      returned as Negroes, without distinction.
      A person of mixed Indian and Negro
      blood should be returned as a Negro,
      unless the Indian blood very definitely
      predominates -- AND -- he is `universally
      accepted' in the community as an Indian.

      457. Mixed Races

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
      according to the race of the father, except that
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

      SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml

      1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Personal Characteristics

      Item 9. Race

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.

      Write "W" for white; "Neg"
      for Negro; "Ind" for
      American Indian;
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for
      Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
      For a person of any other
      race, write the race in full.

      Assume that the race of
      related persons living in the
      household is the same as the
      race of your respondent,
      unless you learn otherwise.

      For unrelated persons
      (employees, hired hands,
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
      race, because knowledge of the
      housewife's race (for example)
      tells nothing of the maid's race.

      116. Negroes.-


      Report "Negro" (Neg)
      for Negroes and for
      persons of Mixed White
      -And-Negro-Parentage.

      A person of Mixed-Indian-
      and-Negro-Blood should
      be returned as a Negro,
      unless the Indian blood very
      definitely predominates
      -- AND -- he is `accepted'
      in the community as an Indian.

      (Note, however, the exceptions
      described in par. l18 below.)

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian"
      (Ind) for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-
      Indian-Blood -- if enrolled
      on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
      if not so enrolled, they should
      still be reported as Indian if
      the proportion of Indian blood
      is One-Fourth or more, or if
      they are `regarded' as Indians
      in the community where they live.
      (See par. 116 for persons of
      Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
      Blood and also exceptions
      noted in par. 118.)
      In those counties where there
      are many Indians living outside
      of reservations, special care
      should be taken to obtain
      accurate answers to item 9.

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of Mixed-White-
      Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry
      `living in certain communities'
      in the Eastern United State's
      in terms of The Name By
      Which They Are Locally Known.

      The communities in question
      are of long standing and are
      locally recognized by special
      names, such as '"Croatian,"
      "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
      Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes
      `not living in such communities'
      should be returned as
      "Negro" (see par. 116).

      When in doubt, describe
      the situation in a footnote.

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report Race of Nonwhite
      parent for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite-Races.

      Mixtures of Nonwhite races
      should be reported according
      to the race of the father.

      (Note, however, exceptions detailed
      in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      CENSUS : 1850, 1860
      RACE QUESTION: Color
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
      White, Black, or Mulatto.

      CENSUS : 1870, 1880
      RACE QUESTION: Color
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
      White (W), Black (B), Mulatto
      (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

      CENSUS: 1900
      RACE QUESTION: Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR
      `Of-Negro-Descent'); "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
      Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be.

      CENSUS : 1910
      RACE QUESTION: Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      108.
      Write "W" for white; "B"
      for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto;
      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 109.
      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
      includes all persons who are evidently
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

      CENSUS: 1920
      RACE QUESTION: Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      120.
      Write "W" for white, "B" for Black;
      "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian;
      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
      Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
      includes all persons who are evidently
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

      CENSUS : 1940
      RACE QUESTION: Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
      for Negro; "In" for Indian;
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
      Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

      454. Mexicans.

      Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless
      definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

      455. Negroes.

      A person of mixed white and Negro blood
      should be returned as Negro, no matter
      how small a percentage of Negro blood.
      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
      returned as Negroes, without distinction.
      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
      should be returned as a Negro, unless the Indian
      blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
      accepted in the community as an Indian.

      456. Indians.

      A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood
      should be returned as an Indian, if enrolled
      on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
      so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
      One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
      as an Indian in the community where he lives.

      457. Mixed Races.

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
      according to the race of the father, except that
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

      Note that Mulattos no longer have
      their own category from this point
      forward, but they were also
      without a separate category in 1900.


      CENSUS : 1950
      RACE QUESTION: Race:
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      White (W); Negro (Neg);
      American Indian (Ind) ;
      Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
      Filipino (Fil) ;
      Other race – spell out

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.-
      Write "W" for white; "Neg" for
      Negro; "Ind" for American Indian;
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

      Assume that the race of related persons living
      in the household is the same as the race of your
      respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

      For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
      knowledge of the housewife's race (for
      example) tells nothing f the maid's race.

      115. Mexicans.

      Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
      definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

      116. Negroes.

      Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for
      persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.

      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
      should be returned as a Negro, unless the
      Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
      AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
      (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an
      Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
      they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
      of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
      regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

      (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and
      Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)

      In those counties where there are many Indians
      living outside of reservations, special care should
      be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
      living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
      in terms of the name by which they are locally known.
      The communities in question are of long standing and
      are locally recognized by special names, such as '
      "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
      Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such
      communities' should be returned as "Negro"

      (see par. 116). When in doubt,
      describe the situation in a footnote.

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
      of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races.
      Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
      reported according to the race of the father.
      (Note, however, exceptions
      detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

      CENSUS : 1960
      RACE QUESTION:

      Is this person –
      White, Negro, American Indian,
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

      (STARTING IN 1970 THERE WERE
      NO ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS
      BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE THEN
      ALLOWED TO CHOOSE THEIR
      OWN "RACIAL" CATEGORIES.)


      CENSUS : 1970
      COLOR OR RACE

      Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
      also give tribe. If "Other," also give race.
      O White
      O Negro or Black
      O Indian (Amer.)
      Print tribe ____________________
      O Japanese
      O Chinese
      O Filipino
      O Hawaiian
      O Korean
      O Other -
      Print race ____________________
      [On the questionnaires used in Alaska,
      the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
      were substituted for "Hawaiian"
      and "Korean" in question 4.]


      CENSUS : 1980
      COLOR OR RACE

      Is this person --
      Fill one circle.
      O White
      O Asian Indian
      O Black or Negro
      O Hawaiian
      O Japanese
      O Guamanian
      O Chinese
      O Samoan
      O Filipino
      O Eskimo
      O Korean
      O Aleut
      O Vietnamese
      O Other -
      Specify __________
      O Indian (Amer.)
      Print tribe ____________
      "Fill the circle for the category with
      which the person most closely identifies.
      If you fill the Indian (American) or
      Other circle, be sure to print the name
      of the specific Indian tribe or specific group."

      CENSUS : 1990
      COLOR OR RACE

      Fill ONE circle for the race that the
      person considers himself/herself to be.
      If Indian (Amer.), print the name
      of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

      If Other Asian or Pacific Islander
      (API), print one group, for example:

      Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan,
      Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
      If Other race, print race.
      O White
      O Black or Negro
      O Indian (Amer.)
      (Print the name of the enrolled
      or principal tribe.)
      _______________
      O Eskimo
      O Aleut
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
      O Chinese
      O Japanese
      O Filipino
      O Asian Indian
      O Hawaiian
      O Samoan
      O Korean
      O Guamanian
      O Vietnamese
      O Other API
      ____________________
      O Other race (Print race)
      ____________________

      "Fill ONE circle for the race each person
      considers himself/herself to be.
      If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle,
      print the name of the Tribe or Tribes
      in which the person is enrolled.
      If the person is not enrolled in a tribe,
      print the name of the principal tribe(s).
      If you fill the Other API circle [under
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)],
      only print the name of the group
      to which the person belongs.
      For example, the Other API category
      includes persons who identify as Burmese,
      Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian,
      Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai,
      Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on.
      If you fill the Other race circle, be
      sure to print the name of the race.

      If the person considers himself/herself to
      be White, Black or Negro, Eskimo
      or Aleut, fill one circle only.

      Please do not print the race in the boxes.

      The Black or Negro category
      also includes persons who
      identify as 'African-American'
      Afro-American, Haitian, Jamaican,
      West Indian, Nigerian, and so on.

      All persons, regardless of citizenship
      status, should answer this question."


      CENSUS : 2000
      COLOR OR RACE

      What is this person's race?
      Mark one or more races to indicate what
      this person considers himself/herself to be.
      White
      Black, 'African-American', or Negro
      American Indian or Alaska Native
      ______________
      (print name of enrolled or principal tribe)
      Asian Indian
      Native Hawaiian
      Japanese
      Korean
      Vietnamese
      Guamanian or Chomorro
      Samoan
      Other Pacific Islander
      ______________________
      Some Other Race
      _______________________

      New standards, issued in 1997, made for
      5 minimum racial categories instead of 4.
      ("Asian or Pacific Islander" is now
      "Asian" and "Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.)

      The categories are now American Indian
      or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black or
      'African-American', Native Hawaiian
      and Other Pacific Islander, White.

      For the first time, people can select more than
      one when they self-identify, and respondents
      are instructed to check all races that apply..
      There were 15 check box response categories
      and 3 write-in areas (as compared with
      1990's 16 responses and 2 write-ins.
      They combined the 3 separate categories
      of American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
      into one – American Indian or Alaska
      Native – with instructions to write in the tribe.
      And "Asian and Pacific Islander" is now two
      categories, Asian, and "Native Hawaiian
      and Other Pacific Islander."
      The categories are meant to be collapsible
      to the "six basic racial categories"
      (quoted from the Census Bureau document
      "Racial and Ethnic Classifications used in
      Census 2000 and Beyond (2000) found at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/racefactcb.html)

      SOURCE: www.rci.rutgers.edu/~vbashi/soc108-handout-census.htm

      Related Links:

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/198
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/199
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/200
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1122
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1050
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/640
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/301
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/285
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/195

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      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

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      http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3344

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      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1570

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1573

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