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The U.S.C.B.'s role in the O.D.R.

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  • multiracialbookclub
    THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE The Data shown below clearly demonstrates how the United States Census Bureau (USCB) has used a form of
    Message 1 of 7 , Mar 20, 2010
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      THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF 
      THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


      The Data shown below clearly demonstrates 
      how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
      has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in 
      an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record 
      of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
      and to also deny said groups the right to be able to 
      lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

      (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race 
      people changed with each census -- until the 
      term was finally eliminated altogether – with 
      the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people 
      groupings altogether mis-categorized.

      Notice also how –without any explanation – 
      it is simply and continually decided that --- 
      anyone who is of the
      'African-American' Ethnic 
      group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially 
      Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's 
      true "racial-admixture" may, in fact,  actually be.)

      Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
      Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under 
      the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks", 
      and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category 
      eventually removed from the Forms.

      From then on, Mixed-Race people 
      became silenced by One-Droppism.

      Historical racial classification and the census:

      Year:
                               1900
      Category:                White, Black, Indian,
       Chinese, and Japanese

      Year:                         1910
      Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese,  
                                          
      Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

      Year:                         1920
      Category:                White, BlackMulattoIndian, 
                                          
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                          
      Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

      Year:                         1930
      Category:                White, Negro
      , Indian, Mexican, 
                                          
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                          
      Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year:                         1940
      Category:                White, NegroIndian, Chinese, 
                                          
      Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean 
                                          
      (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year:                         1950  
      Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, 
                                          
      Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

      Year:                         1960
      Category:                White, NegroAmerican Indian, 
                                          
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
                                          
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

      Year:                         1970
      Category:                White, Negro or Black, Indian
                                          (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, 
                                          
      Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

      Year:                         1980
      Category:                White, Negro, Indian (American), 
                                          
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, 
                                          
      Vietnamese, Asian Indian,  Hawaiian, 
                                          
      Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, 
                                          
      Other (specify); each person 
                                          
      can also be Hispanic or Latino.

      Year:                         1990
      Category:                White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese, 
                                          
      Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo, 
                                          
      Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan, 
                                          
      Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, 
                                          
      Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

      SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html 


      1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

      Color:

      Be particularly careful in 
      reporting the class Mulatto.
       
      The word is here generic
      and includes 
      quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons 
      having any perceptible trace of African blood'

      Important scientific-results depend upon the correct 
      determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

      4.  Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
      Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
      —
      Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, 
      Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to 
      the color or race of the person enumerated. 

      Be particularly careful to distinguish between 
      Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

      The word "mulatto," [should be used to 
      describe] those persons who have from 
      three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;
       
      "quadroon," those persons who have 
      one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
      "those persons who have one-eighth
      or `any trace' of Black blood"

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html 

      1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race:

      Write "W" for white; 
      "B" for black; 
      "Mu" for mulatto; 
      "In" for Indian;
      "Ch" for Chinese;
       "Jp" for Japanese; 
      For all persons not falling within one 
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons 
      Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes, 
      while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all 
      other persons having "some proportion 
      or perceptible trace of Negro blood".
       

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race.—

      Write "W" for white; 
      "B" for black; 
      "Mu" for mulatto; 
      "In" for Indian;

      "Ch" for Chinese;
       "Jp" for Japanese; 
      For all persons not falling within one 
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "black" (B) includes all persons 
      who are evidently full-blooded negroes, 
      while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all 
      other persons having some proportion 
      or perceptible trace of negro blood.
       

      SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

      Race in 1930

      Someone who was part Indian and 
      part Negro was to be reported as Negro
       
      unless the Indian blood predominated and the person 
      was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

      SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm 

      1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Color or Race

      Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian; 
      "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean; 
      "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu; 

      For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

      455. Negroes

      A person of mixed White and Negro blood 
      should be returned as Negro, no matter 
      how small a percentage of Negro blood.
       
      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be 
      returned as Negroes, without distinction. 
      A person of mixed Indian and Negro 
      blood should be returned as a Negro,
       
      unless
       the Indian blood very definitely 
      predominates
       -- AND -- he is 
      `universally 
      accepted'
       in the community as an Indian. 

      457. Mixed Races

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should 
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent. 
      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
      according to the race of the father, except that 
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro. 

      SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml 

      1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Personal Characteristics

      Item 9. Race

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.

      Write "W" for white; "Neg" 
      for Negro; 
      " Ind " for 
      American Indian;
       
      "Chi" for 
      Chinese; "Jap" for 
      Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino. 

      For a person of any other 
      race, write the race in full. 

      Assume that the race of 
      related persons living in the 
      household is the same as the 
      race of your respondent, 
      unless you learn otherwise. 

      For unrelated persons 
      (employees, hired hands, 
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the 
      race, because knowledge of the 
      housewife's race (for example) 
      tells nothing of the maid's race.

      116. Negroes.-

      Report "Negro" (Neg) 
      for Negroes and for 
      persons of Mixed White
      -And-Negro-Parentage. 

      A person of Mixed-Indian-
      and-Negro-Blood should 
      be returned as a Negro,
       
      unless
       the Indian blood very 
      definitely predominates
       
      -- AND -- he is `accepted' 
      in the community as an Indian. 

      (Note, however, the exceptions 
      described in par. l18 below.)

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian"  
      (Ind) for persons of 
      Mixed-White-And-
      Indian-Blood
       
      -- if enrolled 
      on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll; 
      if not so enrolled, they should 
      still be reported as Indian 
      if 
      the proportion of Indian blood 
      is One-Fourth or more, or if 
      they are `regarded' as Indians 
      in the community where they live. 
      (See par. 116 for persons of 
      Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
      Blood and also exceptions 
      noted in par. 118.)
       
      In those counties where there 
      are many Indians living outside 
      of reservations, special care 
      should be taken to obtain 
      accurate answers to item 9.

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of Mixed-White-
      Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry 
      `living in certain communities' 
      in the  Eastern   United   State 's 
      in terms of The Name By 
      Which They Are Locally Known.

      The communities in question 
      are of long standing and are 
      locally recognized by special 
      names, such as '"Croatian," 
      "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc. 

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
      Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes 
      `not living in such communities' 
      should be returned as 
      "Negro" (see par. 116).

      When in doubt, describe 
      the situation in a footnote.

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report Race of Nonwhite 
      parent for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite-Races.
       

      Mixtures of Nonwhite races 
      should be reported according 
      to the race of the father. 

      (Note, however, exceptions detailed 
      in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      CENSUS :                             1850, 1860
      RACE QUESTION:           Color 
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                 
      White, Black, or Mulatto.

      CENSUS :                             1870, 1880
      RACE QUESTION:           Color 
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                            
      White (W), Black (B), Mulatto 
                            
      (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

      CENSUS:                              1900
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR  
      `Of-Negro-Descent');
       "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for 
      Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be. 

      CENSUS :                             1910
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      108. 
      Write 
      "W" for white; "B" 
      for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto

      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. 
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes, 
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin 
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.  109.
       
      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B) 
      includes all persons who are evidently 
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto" 
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some 
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood
      .

      CENSUS:                              1920
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      120. 
      Write
       "W" for white, "B" for Black; 
      "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian

      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for 
      Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean. 
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes, 
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin 
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121. 
      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B) 
      includes all persons who are evidently 
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto" 
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some 
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

      CENSUS :                             1940
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS: 

      453. Write "W" for white; "Neg" 
      for Negro; "In" for Indian; 
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for 
      Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean. 
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full.  

      454. 
      Mexicans.

      Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless 
      definitely
       of Indian or other nonwhite race.
        

      455. 
      Negroes.

      A person of mixed white and Negro blood 
      should be returned as Negro, no matter
       
      how small a percentage of Negro blood. 
      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be 
      returned as Negroes, without distinction.
       
      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood 
      should be returned as a Negro,
       unless the Indian 
      blood very definitely predominates and he is universally 
      accepted in the community as an Indian.  

      456. 
      Indians.

      A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood 
      should be returned as an Indian
      , if enrolled 
      on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
      so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is 
      One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded 
      as an Indian in the community where he lives.  

      457. Mixed Races.

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should 
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent. 

      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported 
      according to the race of the father, except that 
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

      Note that Mulattos no longer have 
      their own category from this point 
      forward, but they were also 
      without a separate category in 1900.

      CENSUS :                             1950
      RACE QUESTION:           Race: 
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      White (W); Negro (Neg); 
      American Indian (Ind ) ;
       
      Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi); 
      Filipino (Fil) ;
      Other race – spell out

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.-
      Write 
      "W" for white; "Neg" for 
      Negro; " Ind " for American Indian
      ;
       
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino. 
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

      Assume that the race of related persons living 
      in the household is the same as the race of your 
      respondent, unless you learn otherwise. 

      For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands, 
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because 
      knowledge of the housewife's race (for 
      example) tells nothing f the maid's race. 

      115. Mexicans.

      Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are 
      definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.  


      116.
       Negroes.

      Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for 
      persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.
       

      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood 
      should be returned as a Negro
      unless the 
      Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
      AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian. 
      (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)  

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of 
      Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an 
      Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled, 
      they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion 
      of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are 
      regarded as Indians in the community where they live. 

      (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and 
      Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)
       

      In those counties where there are many Indians 
      living outside of reservations, special care should 
      be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.  

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry 
      living in certain communities in the Eastern United States 
      in terms of the name by which they are locally known.  
      The communities in question are of long standing and 
      are locally recognized by special names, such as '
      "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc. 

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro- 
      Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such 
      communities' should be returned as "Negro"
       

      (see par. 116). When in doubt, 
      describe the situation in a footnote.  

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons 
      of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races
      . 
      Mixtures of nonwhite races should be 
      reported according to the race of the father. 
      (Note, however, exceptions 
      detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.) 

      CENSUS :                             1960
      RACE QUESTION:

      Is this person – 
      White, Negro, American Indian, 
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

      (STARTING IN 1970 THERE WERE 
      NO ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS 
      BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE THEN 
      ALLOWED TO CHOOSE THEIR 
      OWN "RACIAL" CATEGORIES.)


      CENSUS :                             1970
      COLOR OR RACE  

      Fill one circle. If "Indian (American)," 
      also give tribe.
       If "Other," also give race. 
      O White 
      O Negro or Black 
      O Indian (Amer.)
       
      Print tribe ____________________ 
      O Japanese
      O Chinese 
      O Filipino 
      O Hawaiian 
      O Korean 
      O Other - 
      Print race ____________________
      [On the questionnaires used in  Alaska , 
      the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo" 
      were substituted for "Hawaiian" 
      and "Korean" in question 4.] 


      CENSUS :                                         1980
      COLOR OR RACE

      Is this person -- 
      Fill one circle
      O White                   
      O Asian Indian 
      O Black or Negro
          
      O Hawaiian 
      O Japanese              
      O Guamanian 
      O Chinese                
      O Samoan 
      O Filipino                 
      O Eskimo 
      O Korean                
      O Aleut 
      O Vietnamese          
      O Other - 
      Specify __________ 
      O Indian (Amer.)  
      Print tribe ____________
      "Fill the circle for the category with 
      which the person most closely identifies. 
      If you fill the Indian (American) or 
      Other circle, be sure to print the name 
      of the specific Indian tribe or specific group." 

      CENSUS :                             1990
      COLOR OR RACE

      Fill ONE circle for the race that the 
      person considers himself/herself to be.
      If Indian (Amer.), print the name 
      of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

      If Other Asian or Pacific Islander 
      (API), print one group, for example:

      Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan, 
      Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
      If Other race, print race.
      O White
      O Black or Negro
      O Indian (Amer.) 
      (Print the name of the enrolled
       or principal tribe.) 
      _______________
      O Eskimo
      O Aleut
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
      O Chinese           
      O Japanese
      O Filipino           
      O Asian Indian
      O Hawaiian  
      O Samoan
      O Korean            
      O Guamanian
      O Vietnamese      
      O Other API  
      ____________________
      O Other race (Print race)  
      ____________________

      "Fill ONE circle for the race each person 
      considers himself/herself to be. 
      If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle, 
      print the name of the Tribe or Tribes 
      in which the person is enrolled. 
      If the person is not enrolled in a tribe, 
      print the name of the principal tribe(s). 
      If you fill the Other API circle [under 
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)], 
      only print the name of the group 
      to which the person belongs. 
      For example, the Other API category 
      includes persons who identify as Burmese, 
      Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian, 
      Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai, 
      Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on. 
      If you fill the Other race circle, be 
      sure to print the name of the race. 

      If the person considers him

      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • latonyabeatty76
      This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all
      Message 2 of 7 , Mar 27, 2010
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        This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all else. His name is even Tsalagi and not English. It just upsets me when I see this. I marked Indian and put the tribe on the census on behalf of my ggrandfather and our heritage. I would be more than happy to show them and explain to them why I did. I also have proof of white ancestry but don't feel connected to the part of my heritage.



        [[[ QUOTE:

        "Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
        be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
        Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
        according to the race of the father, except that
        Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

        CENSUS : 1910" ]]]
      • Philip Arnell
        An interesting story latonya. Dive more into your european background though, You might establish a connection more than you think.
        Message 3 of 7 , Mar 29, 2010
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          An interesting story latonya. Dive more into your european background though, You might establish a connection more than you think.


          From: latonyabeatty76 <latonyabeatty76@...>
          To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Sat, March 27, 2010 1:29:38 PM
          Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The U.S.C.B.'s role in the O.D.R.

           

          This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all else. His name is even Tsalagi and not English. It just upsets me when I see this. I marked Indian and put the tribe on the census on behalf of my ggrandfather and our heritage. I would be more than happy to show them and explain to them why I did. I also have proof of white ancestry but don't feel connected to the part of my heritage.

          [[[ QUOTE:

          "Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
          be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
          Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
          according to the race of the father, except that
          Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

          CENSUS : 1910" ]]]


        • ashley717717
          The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very
          Message 4 of 7 , Mar 30, 2010
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            The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very black and white on the issue and given criteria for being Black (any Negoid blood at all), White (pure), or Native American (on the rolls, with various criteria for being on a particular roll). I think we are putting good pressure on the government to recognize American mixes, and it's driving them crazy! hahahaha


            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            j s <creolescience@...> wrote:


            I suppose the real question is what was the deciding factor
            in the change in the 1940's census from Mulatto to Negro.
            Was it a desire for a greater black unity and therefore a rejection
            of the mulatto designation ("We are all black" like in the 60's)
            or a desire by whites to categorize them all as the same,
            perhaps even as a backlash against greater acceptance by
            whites of "Negro" culture ( Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?


            multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:


            THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
            THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


            The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
            how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
            has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in
            an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
            of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
            and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
            lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

            (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
            people changed with each census -- until the
            term was finally eliminated altogether – with
            the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
            groupings altogether mis-categorized.

            Notice also how –without any explanation –
            it is simply and continually decided that ---
            anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
            group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
            Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
            true "racial-admixture" may, in fact, actually be.)

            Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
            Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
            the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
            and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
            eventually removed from the Forms.

            From then on, Mixed-Race people
            became silenced by One-Droppism.


            Historical racial classification and the census:

            Year: 1900
            Category: White, Black, Indian, Chinese, and Japanese

            Year: 1910
            Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese,
            Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

            Year: 1920
            Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
            Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
            Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

            Year: 1930
            Category: White, Negro, Indian, Mexican,
            Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
            Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

            Year: 1940
            Category: White, Negro, Indian, Chinese,
            Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean
            (Other races, spell out in full)

            Year: 1950
            Category: White, Negro, Indian, Japanese,
            Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

            Year: 1960
            Category: White, Negro, American Indian,
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
            Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

            Year: 1970
            Category: White, Negro or Black, Indian
            (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino,
            Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

            Year: 1980
            Category: White, Negro, Indian (American),
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
            Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Hawaiian,
            Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut,
            Other (specify); each person
            can also be Hispanic or Latino.

            Year: 1990
            Category: White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese,
            Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo,
            Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan,
            Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander,
            Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

            SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html


            1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

            Color:

            Be particularly careful in
            reporting the class Mulatto.

            The word is here generic, and includes
            quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
            having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

            Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
            determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

            4. Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
            Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.—
            Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
            Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
            the color or race of the person enumerated.

            Be particularly careful to distinguish between
            Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

            The word "mulatto," [should be used to
            describe] those persons who have from
            three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;
            "quadroon," those persons who have
            one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
            "those persons who have one-eighth
            or `any trace' of Black blood".

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators


            PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

            Color or Race:

            Write "W" for white;
            "B" for black;
            "Mu" for mulatto;
            "In" for Indian;
            "Ch" for Chinese;
            "Jp" for Japanese;
            For all persons not falling within one
            of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

            … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
            Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
            while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
            other persons having "some proportion
            or perceptible trace of Negro blood".

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

            Color or Race.—

            Write "W" for white;
            "B" for black;
            "Mu" for mulatto;
            "In" for Indian;
            "Ch" for Chinese;
            "Jp" for Japanese;
            For all persons not falling within one
            of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

            … the term "black" (B) includes all persons
            who are evidently full-blooded negroes,
            while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all
            other persons having some proportion
            or perceptible trace of negro blood.

            SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

            Race in 1930

            Someone who was part Indian and
            part Negro was to be reported as Negro
            unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
            was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

            SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm

            1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            Color or Race

            Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
            "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
            "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

            For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

            455. Negroes

            A person of mixed White and Negro blood
            should be returned as Negro, no matter
            how small a percentage of Negro blood.
            Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
            returned as Negroes, without distinction.
            A person of mixed Indian and Negro
            blood should be returned as a Negro,
            unless the Indian blood very definitely
            predominates -- AND -- he is `universally
            accepted' in the community as an Indian.

            457. Mixed Races

            Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
            be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
            Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
            according to the race of the father, except that
            Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

            SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml

            1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            Personal Characteristics

            Item 9. Race

            114. Item 9.

            Determining and entering race.

            Write "W" for white; "Neg"
            for Negro; "Ind" for
            American Indian;
            "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for
            Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
            For a person of any other
            race, write the race in full.

            Assume that the race of
            related persons living in the
            household is the same as the
            race of your respondent,
            unless you learn otherwise.

            For unrelated persons
            (employees, hired hands,
            lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
            race, because knowledge of the
            housewife's race (for example)
            tells nothing of the maid's race.

            116. Negroes.-


            Report "Negro" (Neg)
            for Negroes and for
            persons of Mixed White
            -And-Negro-Parentage.

            A person of Mixed-Indian-
            and-Negro-Blood should
            be returned as a Negro,
            unless the Indian blood very
            definitely predominates
            -- AND -- he is `accepted'
            in the community as an Indian.

            (Note, however, the exceptions
            described in par. l18 below.)

            117. American Indians.

            Report "American Indian"
            (Ind) for persons of
            Mixed-White-And-
            Indian-Blood -- if enrolled
            on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
            if not so enrolled, they should
            still be reported as Indian if
            the proportion of Indian blood
            is One-Fourth or more, or if
            they are `regarded' as Indians
            in the community where they live.
            (See par. 116 for persons of
            Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
            Blood and also exceptions
            noted in par. 118.)
            In those counties where there
            are many Indians living outside
            of reservations, special care
            should be taken to obtain
            accurate answers to item 9.

            118. Special communities.

            Report persons of Mixed-White-
            Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry
            `living in certain communities'
            in the Eastern United State's
            in terms of The Name By
            Which They Are Locally Known.

            The communities in question
            are of long standing and are
            locally recognized by special
            names, such as '"Croatian,"
            "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

            Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
            Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes
            `not living in such communities'
            should be returned as
            "Negro" (see par. 116).

            When in doubt, describe
            the situation in a footnote.

            119. Mixed parentage.

            Report Race of Nonwhite
            parent for persons of
            Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite-Races.

            Mixtures of Nonwhite races
            should be reported according
            to the race of the father.

            (Note, however, exceptions detailed
            in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            CENSUS : 1850, 1860
            RACE QUESTION: Color
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
            White, Black, or Mulatto.

            CENSUS : 1870, 1880
            RACE QUESTION: Color
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
            White (W), Black (B), Mulatto
            (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

            CENSUS: 1900
            RACE QUESTION: Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR
            `Of-Negro-Descent'); "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
            Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be.

            CENSUS : 1910
            RACE QUESTION: Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            108.
            Write "W" for white; "B"
            for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto;
            "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
            For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
            write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
            of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 109.
            For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
            includes all persons who are evidently
            Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
            (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
            Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

            CENSUS: 1920
            RACE QUESTION: Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            120.
            Write "W" for white, "B" for Black;
            "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian;
            "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
            Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
            For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
            write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
            of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
            For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
            includes all persons who are evidently
            Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
            (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
            Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

            CENSUS : 1940
            RACE QUESTION: Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
            for Negro; "In" for Indian;
            "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
            Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
            For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

            454. Mexicans.

            Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless
            definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

            455. Negroes.

            A person of mixed white and Negro blood
            should be returned as Negro, no matter
            how small a percentage of Negro blood.
            Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
            returned as Negroes, without distinction.
            A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
            should be returned as a Negro, unless the Indian
            blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
            accepted in the community as an Indian.

            456. Indians.

            A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood
            should be returned as an Indian, if enrolled
            on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
            so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
            One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
            as an Indian in the community where he lives.

            457. Mixed Races.

            Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
            be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

            Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
            according to the race of the father, except that
            Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

            Note that Mulattos no longer have
            their own category from this point
            forward, but they were also
            without a separate category in 1900.


            CENSUS : 1950
            RACE QUESTION: Race:
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            White (W); Negro (Neg);
            American Indian (Ind) ;
            Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
            Filipino (Fil) ;
            Other race – spell out

            114. Item 9.

            Determining and entering race.-
            Write "W" for white; "Neg" for
            Negro; "Ind" for American Indian;
            "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
            For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

            Assume that the race of related persons living
            in the household is the same as the race of your
            respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

            For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
            lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
            knowledge of the housewife's race (for
            example) tells nothing f the maid's race.

            115. Mexicans.

            Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
            definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

            116. Negroes.

            Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for
            persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.

            A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
            should be returned as a Negro, unless the
            Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
            AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
            (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)

            117. American Indians.

            Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
            Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an
            Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
            they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
            of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
            regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

            (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and
            Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)

            In those counties where there are many Indians
            living outside of reservations, special care should
            be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.

            118. Special communities.

            Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
            living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
            in terms of the name by which they are locally known.
            The communities in question are of long standing and
            are locally recognized by special names, such as '
            "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

            Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
            Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such
            communities' should be returned as "Negro"

            (see par. 116). When in doubt,
            describe the situation in a footnote.

            119. Mixed parentage.

            Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
            of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races.
            Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
            reported according to the race of the father.
            (Note, however, exceptions
            detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

            CENSUS : 1960
            RACE QUESTION:

            Is this person –
            White, Negro, American Indian,
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
            Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

            (STARTING IN 1970 THERE WERE
            NO ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS
            BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE THEN
            ALLOWED TO CHOOSE THEIR
            OWN "RACIAL" CATEGORIES.)


            CENSUS : 1970
            COLOR OR RACE

            Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
            also give tribe. If "Other," also give race.
            O White
            O Negro or Black
            O Indian (Amer.)
            Print tribe ____________________
            O Japanese
            O Chinese
            O Filipino
            O Hawaiian
            O Korean
            O Other -
            Print race ____________________
            [On the questionnaires used in Alaska,
            the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
            were substituted for "Hawaiian"
            and "Korean" in question 4.]


            CENSUS : 1980
            COLOR OR RACE

            Is this person --
            Fill one circle.
            O White
            O Asian Indian
            O Black or Negro
            O Hawaiian
            O Japanese
            O Guamanian
            O Chinese
            O Samoan
            O Filipino
            O Eskimo
            O Korean
            O Aleut
            O Vietnamese
            O Other -
            Specify __________
            O Indian (Amer.)
            Print tribe ____________
            "Fill the circle for the category with
            which the person most closely identifies.
            If you fill the Indian (American) or
            Other circle, be sure to print the name
            of the specific Indian tribe or specific group."

            CENSUS : 1990
            COLOR OR RACE

            Fill ONE circle for the race that the
            person considers himself/herself to be.
            If Indian (Amer.), print the name
            of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

            If Other Asian or Pacific Islander
            (API), print one group, for example:

            Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan,
            Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
            If Other race, print race.
            O White
            O Black or Negro
            O Indian (Amer.)
            (Print the name of the enrolled
            or principal tribe.)
            _______________
            O Eskimo
            O Aleut
            Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
            O Chinese
            O Japanese
            O Filipino
            O Asian Indian
            O Hawaiian
            O Samoan
            O Korean
            O Guamanian
            O Vietnamese
            O Other API
            ____________________
            O Other race (Print race)
            ____________________

            "Fill ONE circle for the race each person
            considers himself/herself to be.
            If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle,
            print the name of the Tribe or Tribes
            in which the person is enrolled.
            If the person is not enrolled in a tribe,
            print the name of the principal tribe(s).
            If you fill the Other API circle [under
            Asian or Pacific Islander (API)],
            only print the name of the group
            to which the person belongs.
            For example, the Other API category
            includes persons who identify as Burmese,
            Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian,
            Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai,
            Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on.
            If you fill the Other race circle, be
            sure to print the name of the race.

            If the person considers himself/herself to
            be White, Black or Negro, Eskimo
            or Aleut, fill one circle only.

            Please do not print the race in the boxes.

            The Black or Negro category
            also includes persons who
            identify as 'African-American'
            Afro-American, Haitian, Jamaican,
            West Indian, Nigerian, and so on.

            All persons, regardless of citizenship
            status, should answer this question."


            CENSUS : 2000
            COLOR OR RACE

            What is this person's race?
            Mark one or more races to indicate what
            this person considers himself/herself to be.
            White
            Black, 'African-American', or Negro
            American Indian or Alaska Native
            ______________
            (print name of enrolled or principal tribe)
            Asian Indian
            Native Hawaiian
            Japanese
            Korean
            Vietnamese
            Guamanian or Chomorro
            Samoan
            Other Pacific Islander
            ______________________
            Some Other Race
            _______________________

            New standards, issued in 1997, made for
            5 minimum racial categories instead of 4.
            ("Asian or Pacific Islander" is now
            "Asian" and "Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.)

            The categories are now American Indian
            or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black or
            'African-American', Native Hawaiian
            and Other Pacific Islander, White.

            For the first time, people can select more than
            one when they self-identify, and respondents
            are instructed to check all races that apply..
            There were 15 check box response categories
            and 3 write-in areas (as compared with
            1990's 16 responses and 2 write-ins.
            They combined the 3 separate categories
            of American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
            into one – American Indian or Alaska
            Native – with instructions to write in the tribe.
            And "Asian and Pacific Islander" is now two
            categories, Asian, and "Native Hawaiian
            and Other Pacific Islander."
            The categories are meant to be collapsible
            to the "six basic racial categories"
            (quoted from the Census Bureau document
            "Racial and Ethnic Classifications used in
            Census 2000 and Beyond (2000) found at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/racefactcb.html)

            SOURCE: www.rci.rutgers.edu/~vbashi/soc108-handout-census.htm

            Related Links:

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/198
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/199
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/200
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1122
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1050
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/640
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/301
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/285
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/195

            ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


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            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2885


            http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

            http://mgmix.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=879:light-skin-curse-a-different-point-of-view&catid=36:biracial#comment-1271

            http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3344

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1399

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1747


            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1402

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1400

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1570

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1573

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