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Re: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

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  • pierre jefferson
     I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because white people know how racist views could
    Message 1 of 12 , Oct 4, 2009
    • 0 Attachment
       I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
      than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
      white people know how racist views could strip them of
      their white privilege and value. The only race that really
      doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
      part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
      as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
      it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
      Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
      always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
      [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
      drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
      call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
      purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
      the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
      no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
      black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
      is also felt between white people and black people` because
      race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
      is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
      WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
      by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
      them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
      out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.
       
       
      Pierre


      From: rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...>
      To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Sunday, October 4, 2009 1:38:50 PM
      Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

       

      I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.

      --- In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
      quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:

      In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

      It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

      Tonya

      --- In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
      AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:

      Passing: how "posing"
      became a choice for
      many Americans

      (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
      the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

      ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

      Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
      she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
      skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

      But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
      is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

      She could "pass" for `White'*
      but she has never tried, she said

      "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
      and I was even instructed not to say,
      at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

      In order to get their jobs, they
      had to say they were `White'*"

      [[[

      Note:

      **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
      a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
      also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

      ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
      a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
      who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
      *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

      This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
      the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
      on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
      1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

      These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
      to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
      largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
      that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
      were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

      ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
      anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

      ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
      'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

      ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
      sure that equal rights would become granted to those
      people who suffered discrimination due to having
      'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
      ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

      As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
      "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
      entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
      as instructed by the western media and politicians.

      The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
      are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
      to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

      The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
      the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

      *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
      has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

      The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
      reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
      have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
      ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
      silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
      own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

      ]]]

      Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

      During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
      what her mother before her had done.
      What her grandmother and aunts had done.

      She "passed" for `White'*

      "One time I told a woman I was
      "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
      Marshall recalled.

      "She said, 'You won't get the job
      unless you "pass" for `White'*."

      So that's what Marshall did.
      "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
      she said.
      "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

      It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

      Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
      She felt she did what she had to do.

      Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
      want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

      [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
      but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

      During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
      There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
      slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

      In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
      It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
      It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
      instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
      It often meant better housing.

      It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

      Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
      going out with her `White'* college friends
      vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

      "We went to a show, about
      six of us ["black"^^ students].

      The manager came and sat behind us.
      I asked him
      'Why are you sitting behind us?'
      He said,
      'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

      Douglass said she told the manager that
      he had never sat behind her before.

      His response was,
      "You never came with these people before."

      Douglass, who the manager had assumed
      was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
      leave the theater rather than be insulted …

      Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
      of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
      tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

      When she was a young child, her parents
      didn't emphasize racial differences.
      "I just figured people came in
      different shades," she said.

      But when the subject came up in her
      dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
      approached her mother, who explained
      to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

      "We are `a child of God' first.
      We are `human beings' first,"
      Douglass remembered her mother saying.

      In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
      is a melting pot, and she declared to her
      mother that she would be a melting pot.

      Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
      seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
      `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

      Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
      themselves that way given the chance.

      Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
      to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
      Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

      It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
      can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

      Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
      Africa in their features and skin tone
      also have multicultural ancestry.

      They just can't pass.

      Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
      the luxury of defining themselves.

      After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
      swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
      keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
      as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
      anyone with "one drop" of `Black
      / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

      That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
      to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
      "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

      Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
      their blood line or had their DNA tested,
      would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

      In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
      a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
      and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

      The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
      Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
      15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

      The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
      million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
      "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

      Stuckert predicted that the numbers
      would grow in subsequent decades.

      Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
      although she had family members who did.

      Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
      and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
      [simply married] others with fair skin ...

      "For generations, my mother's side and my
      father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
      Marshall said.

      "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
      and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
      only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

      State decides for you

      Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
      complexion -- not for personal gain but
      -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

      For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
      helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

      Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
      had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
      buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

      But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
      homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
      darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

      Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
      allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

      White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
      remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

      For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
      categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
      depended upon what state that person was in.

      Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
      period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
      every state had its own racial designation,
      said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
      instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

      Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
      in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
      part of study she conducted on that subject.

      A person could be born white in one state
      and be designated "black"^^ in another
      depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
      said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
      candidate at New York University.

      ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
      [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

      ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
      … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

      ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
      with European features', 'light with African
      features' and everything in between.

      "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
      of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
      Gaudin explained.
      "Society had `a place' for them."

      Some were slave owners,
      others staunch abolitionists. ..

      However, after the "one drop"
      rule was instituted and Jim Crow
      [`Segregation] became the law of
      the land in the South, things changed.

      Often, they would move and cut ties
      with family members, especially
      the ones who could not "pass".

      The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
      as they were sometimes called, actually forced
      more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

      "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
      more sense, and it became more necessary,"
      Gaudin said.

      Some who passed

      In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
      Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
      a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

      When she was 16 and about to go off to
      college, her mother told her about her father.

      "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
      "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
      shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

      A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
      Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

      Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
      New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
      for decades because he did not want to be labeled
      as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

      Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
      history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
      brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
      essay that was included in his 1997 book,
      "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

      For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
      ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
      very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

      Even in the waning days of his life, his body
      withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
      request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

      They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
      for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

      No identity crisis

      Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
      never sought the advantages of `White'*
      his complexion could have provided him.

      He's a retired staff member of Western
      Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
      chief of medical services and acting
      director of professional services at
      the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
      Center on Highland Drive, and he has
      taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
      University, the University of Pittsburgh
      and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

      Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
      father, William J. Hale, founding president of
      Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
      College, now known as Tennessee State University.

      Hale had come from a family
      that had accomplished much
      by living as "black"^^ people.

      His goal was to do the same.

      "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
      adored and respected my father," Hale said.
      "He chose to remain "black"^^.

      He got to be a college president."
      His mother, a graduate of Fisk
      University, headed up the business
      department at Tennessee State.
      She, too, was fair enough to
      "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

      Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
      the example of his parents,
      accomplished educators
      Harriet and William J. Hale….

      The proud son says, "He chose
      to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

      His sister, who earned a master's in
      French from Columbia University, married
      a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

      "But they had a very positive marriage as
      "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

      His brother "used to float back and forth
      between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
      he said.
      "He did that for work."

      Why didn't Hale?

      "I chose "black"^^ because
      I have a "black"^^ identity...

      "We had a heritage, and it
      was something important."

      His parents emphasized being proud of
      who he was, excelling at something,
      making a contribution to society.

      After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
      State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
      Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

      Two years later, he earned a master's in
      physiology from the University of Illinois.

      "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
      but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
      look into your background," Hale said.

      When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
      as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
      knew people would assume he was `White'*.

      They soon learned differently through his stand
      on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

      Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
      formed the Gateway Medical Group,
      now called Gateway Medical Society.

      He was active in the National Medical Association
      and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

      "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
      let people know who I was," Hale said.

      Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
      light-skinned people to take what is considered
      the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

      Poor, uneducated folks with the same
      complexion faced a different reality.

      "These were people who used their
      physical appearances because, in
      many cases, that's all they had,"
      Gaudin said.

      "They weren't wealthy.

      In many cases, they felt this was
      their greatest, most valuable resource."

      Unbreakable family ties

      Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
      when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
      about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

      In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
      husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
      young man and should have reached the same career peak.

      Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
      "You've got nothing to complain about;
      you could have [lived as] `White'*".

      Theoretically, yes.

      Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
      swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

      Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
      "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

      "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
      "My family ties were so great."

      Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
      up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

      Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
      lawyer and civil rights activist,
      never considered "passing" as
      `White'^, although he witnessed
      others passing to get into
      barred theaters or stores.
      "That was just casual passing,"
      Freeland says.
      "I knew people who crossed over."

      As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
      West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
      or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

      "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
      Freeland said.
      "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

      Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
      lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
      numerous social and civil rights causes.

      He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
      League and was a member of the search committee that
      selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

      He's been on any number of boards, including those of
      Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
      of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
      of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
      Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

      As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
      said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

      "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
      manumission [emancipation] papers than
      any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

      "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
      I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
      Freeland said,

      … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
      had a life that was more successful and happy.

      I'm successful and happy, too."

      SOURCE:

      hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

      RELATED LINKS:

      http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

      http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

      http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

      http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

      http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

      .


    • rosanna_armendariz
      I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not
      Message 2 of 12 , Oct 5, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.



        In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        pierre jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



        I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
        than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
        white people know how racist views could strip them of
        their white privilege and value. The only race that really
        doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
        part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
        as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
        it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
        Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
        always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
        [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
        drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
        call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
        purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
        the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
        no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
        black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
        is also felt between white people and black people` because
        race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
        is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
        WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
        by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
        them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
        out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


        Pierre



        In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



        I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.



        In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
        quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:



        In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

        It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

        Tonya



        In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
        AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:



        Passing: how "posing"
        became a choice for
        many Americans

        (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
        the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

        ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

        Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
        she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
        skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

        But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
        is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

        She could "pass" for `White'*
        but she has never tried, she said

        "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
        and I was even instructed not to say,
        at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

        In order to get their jobs, they
        had to say they were `White'*"

        [[[

        Note:

        **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
        a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
        also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

        ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
        a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
        who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
        *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

        This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
        the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
        on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
        1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

        These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
        to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
        largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
        that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
        were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

        ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
        anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

        ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
        'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

        ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
        sure that equal rights would become granted to those
        people who suffered discrimination due to having
        'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
        ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

        As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
        "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
        entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
        as instructed by the western media and politicians.

        The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
        are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
        to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

        The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
        the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

        *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
        has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

        The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
        reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
        have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
        ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
        silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
        own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

        ]]]

        Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

        During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
        what her mother before her had done.
        What her grandmother and aunts had done.

        She "passed" for `White'*

        "One time I told a woman I was
        "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
        Marshall recalled.

        "She said, 'You won't get the job
        unless you "pass" for `White'*."

        So that's what Marshall did.
        "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
        she said.
        "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

        It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

        Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
        She felt she did what she had to do.

        Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
        want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

        [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
        but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

        During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
        There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
        slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

        In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
        It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
        It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
        instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
        It often meant better housing.

        It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

        Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
        going out with her `White'* college friends
        vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

        "We went to a show, about
        six of us ["black"^^ students].

        The manager came and sat behind us.
        I asked him
        'Why are you sitting behind us?'
        He said,
        'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

        Douglass said she told the manager that
        he had never sat behind her before.

        His response was,
        "You never came with these people before."

        Douglass, who the manager had assumed
        was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
        leave the theater rather than be insulted …

        Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
        of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
        tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

        When she was a young child, her parents
        didn't emphasize racial differences.
        "I just figured people came in
        different shades," she said.

        But when the subject came up in her
        dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
        approached her mother, who explained
        to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

        "We are `a child of God' first.
        We are `human beings' first,"
        Douglass remembered her mother saying.

        In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
        is a melting pot, and she declared to her
        mother that she would be a melting pot.

        Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
        seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
        `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

        Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
        themselves that way given the chance.

        Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
        to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
        Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

        It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
        can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

        Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
        Africa in their features and skin tone
        also have multicultural ancestry.

        They just can't pass.

        Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
        the luxury of defining themselves.

        After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
        swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
        keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
        as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
        anyone with "one drop" of `Black
        / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

        That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
        to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
        "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

        Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
        their blood line or had their DNA tested,
        would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

        In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
        a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
        and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

        The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
        Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
        15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

        The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
        million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
        "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

        Stuckert predicted that the numbers
        would grow in subsequent decades.

        Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
        although she had family members who did.

        Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
        and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
        [simply married] others with fair skin ...

        "For generations, my mother's side and my
        father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
        Marshall said.

        "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
        and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
        only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

        State decides for you

        Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
        complexion -- not for personal gain but
        -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

        For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
        helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

        Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
        had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
        buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

        But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
        homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
        darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

        Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
        allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

        White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
        remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

        For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
        categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
        depended upon what state that person was in.

        Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
        period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
        every state had its own racial designation,
        said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
        instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

        Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
        in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
        part of study she conducted on that subject.

        A person could be born white in one state
        and be designated "black"^^ in another
        depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
        said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
        candidate at New York University.

        ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
        [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

        ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
        … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

        ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
        with European features', 'light with African
        features' and everything in between.

        "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
        of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
        Gaudin explained.
        "Society had `a place' for them."

        Some were slave owners,
        others staunch abolitionists. ..

        However, after the "one drop"
        rule was instituted and Jim Crow
        [`Segregation] became the law of
        the land in the South, things changed.

        Often, they would move and cut ties
        with family members, especially
        the ones who could not "pass".

        The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
        as they were sometimes called, actually forced
        more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

        "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
        more sense, and it became more necessary,"
        Gaudin said.

        Some who passed

        In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
        Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
        a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

        When she was 16 and about to go off to
        college, her mother told her about her father.

        "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
        "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
        shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

        A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
        Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

        Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
        New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
        for decades because he did not want to be labeled
        as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

        Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
        history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
        brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
        essay that was included in his 1997 book,
        "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

        For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
        ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
        very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

        Even in the waning days of his life, his body
        withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
        request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

        They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
        for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

        No identity crisis

        Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
        never sought the advantages of `White'*
        his complexion could have provided him.

        He's a retired staff member of Western
        Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
        chief of medical services and acting
        director of professional services at
        the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
        Center on Highland Drive, and he has
        taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
        University, the University of Pittsburgh
        and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

        Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
        father, William J. Hale, founding president of
        Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
        College, now known as Tennessee State University.

        Hale had come from a family
        that had accomplished much
        by living as "black"^^ people.

        His goal was to do the same.

        "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
        adored and respected my father," Hale said.
        "He chose to remain "black"^^.

        He got to be a college president."
        His mother, a graduate of Fisk
        University, headed up the business
        department at Tennessee State.
        She, too, was fair enough to
        "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

        Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
        the example of his parents,
        accomplished educators
        Harriet and William J. Hale….

        The proud son says, "He chose
        to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

        His sister, who earned a master's in
        French from Columbia University, married
        a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

        "But they had a very positive marriage as
        "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

        His brother "used to float back and forth
        between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
        he said.
        "He did that for work."

        Why didn't Hale?

        "I chose "black"^^ because
        I have a "black"^^ identity...

        "We had a heritage, and it
        was something important."

        His parents emphasized being proud of
        who he was, excelling at something,
        making a contribution to society.

        After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
        State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
        Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

        Two years later, he earned a master's in
        physiology from the University of Illinois.

        "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
        but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
        look into your background," Hale said.

        When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
        as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
        knew people would assume he was `White'*.

        They soon learned differently through his stand
        on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

        Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
        formed the Gateway Medical Group,
        now called Gateway Medical Society.

        He was active in the National Medical Association
        and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

        "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
        let people know who I was," Hale said.

        Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
        light-skinned people to take what is considered
        the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

        Poor, uneducated folks with the same
        complexion faced a different reality.

        "These were people who used their
        physical appearances because, in
        many cases, that's all they had,"
        Gaudin said.

        "They weren't wealthy.

        In many cases, they felt this was
        their greatest, most valuable resource."

        Unbreakable family ties

        Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
        when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
        about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

        In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
        husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
        young man and should have reached the same career peak.

        Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
        "You've got nothing to complain about;
        you could have [lived as] `White'*".

        Theoretically, yes.

        Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
        swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

        Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
        "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

        "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
        "My family ties were so great."

        Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
        up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

        Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
        lawyer and civil rights activist,
        never considered "passing" as
        `White'^, although he witnessed
        others passing to get into
        barred theaters or stores.
        "That was just casual passing,"
        Freeland says.
        "I knew people who crossed over."

        As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
        West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
        or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

        "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
        Freeland said.
        "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

        Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
        lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
        numerous social and civil rights causes.

        He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
        League and was a member of the search committee that
        selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

        He's been on any number of boards, including those of
        Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
        of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
        of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
        Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

        As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
        said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

        "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
        manumission [emancipation] papers than
        any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

        "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
        I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
        Freeland said,

        … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
        had a life that was more successful and happy.

        I'm successful and happy, too."

        SOURCE:

        hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

        RELATED LINKS:

        http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

        http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

        http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

        http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

        http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

        .
      • pierre jefferson
        I agree Rosanna, Most people are really not aware consciously what they are saying or even thinking concerning this matter. Its so ingrained into our society
        Message 3 of 12 , Oct 5, 2009
        • 0 Attachment
          I agree Rosanna,
           
          Most people are really not aware consciously what
          they are saying or even thinking concerning this
          matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
          automatically respond to the images before us. A
          white person tries to add a little color to their
          family by claiming a Indian ancestor` and a black
          person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
          a European or other light skin race.

           


          From: rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...>
          To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Monday, October 5, 2009 1:17:41 PM
          Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

           

          I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.

          In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
          pierre jefferson <pierrejefferson200 7@...> wrote:

          I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
          than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
          white people know how racist views could strip them of
          their white privilege and value. The only race that really
          doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
          part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
          as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
          it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
          Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
          always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
          [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
          drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
          call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
          purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
          the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
          no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
          black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
          is also felt between white people and black people` because
          race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
          is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
          WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
          by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
          them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
          out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


          Pierre

          In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
          rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@ yahoo.com> wrote

          I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.

          In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
          quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:

          In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

          It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

          Tonya

          In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
          AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:

          Passing: how "posing"
          became a choice for
          many Americans

          (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
          the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

          ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

          Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
          she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
          skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

          But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
          is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

          She could "pass" for `White'*
          but she has never tried, she said

          "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
          and I was even instructed not to say,
          at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

          In order to get their jobs, they
          had to say they were `White'*"

          [[[

          Note:

          **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
          a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
          also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

          ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
          a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
          who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
          *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

          This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
          the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
          on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
          1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

          These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
          to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
          largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
          that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
          were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

          ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
          anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

          ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
          'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

          ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
          sure that equal rights would become granted to those
          people who suffered discrimination due to having
          'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
          ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

          As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
          "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
          entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
          as instructed by the western media and politicians.

          The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
          are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
          to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

          The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
          the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

          *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
          has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

          The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
          reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
          have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
          ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
          silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
          own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

          ]]]

          Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

          During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
          what her mother before her had done.
          What her grandmother and aunts had done.

          She "passed" for `White'*

          "One time I told a woman I was
          "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
          Marshall recalled.

          "She said, 'You won't get the job
          unless you "pass" for `White'*."

          So that's what Marshall did.
          "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
          she said.
          "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

          It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

          Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
          She felt she did what she had to do.

          Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
          want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

          [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
          but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

          During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
          There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
          slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

          In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
          It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
          It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
          instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
          It often meant better housing.

          It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

          Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
          going out with her `White'* college friends
          vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

          "We went to a show, about
          six of us ["black"^^ students].

          The manager came and sat behind us.
          I asked him
          'Why are you sitting behind us?'
          He said,
          'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

          Douglass said she told the manager that
          he had never sat behind her before.

          His response was,
          "You never came with these people before."

          Douglass, who the manager had assumed
          was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
          leave the theater rather than be insulted …

          Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
          of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
          tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

          When she was a young child, her parents
          didn't emphasize racial differences.
          "I just figured people came in
          different shades," she said.

          But when the subject came up in her
          dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
          approached her mother, who explained
          to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

          "We are `a child of God' first.
          We are `human beings' first,"
          Douglass remembered her mother saying.

          In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
          is a melting pot, and she declared to her
          mother that she would be a melting pot.

          Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
          seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
          `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

          Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
          themselves that way given the chance.

          Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
          to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
          Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

          It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
          can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

          Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
          Africa in their features and skin tone
          also have multicultural ancestry.

          They just can't pass.

          Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
          the luxury of defining themselves.

          After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
          swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
          keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
          as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
          anyone with "one drop" of `Black
          / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

          That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
          to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
          "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

          Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
          their blood line or had their DNA tested,
          would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

          In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
          a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
          and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

          The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
          Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
          15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

          The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
          million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
          "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

          Stuckert predicted that the numbers
          would grow in subsequent decades.

          Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
          although she had family members who did.

          Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
          and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
          [simply married] others with fair skin ...

          "For generations, my mother's side and my
          father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
          Marshall said.

          "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
          and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
          only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

          State decides for you

          Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
          complexion -- not for personal gain but
          -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

          For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
          helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

          Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
          had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
          buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

          But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
          homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
          darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

          Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
          allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

          White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
          remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

          For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
          categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
          depended upon what state that person was in.

          Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
          period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
          every state had its own racial designation,
          said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
          instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

          Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
          in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
          part of study she conducted on that subject.

          A person could be born white in one state
          and be designated "black"^^ in another
          depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
          said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
          candidate at New York University.

          ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
          [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

          ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
          … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

          ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
          with European features', 'light with African
          features' and everything in between.

          "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
          of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
          Gaudin explained.
          "Society had `a place' for them."

          Some were slave owners,
          others staunch abolitionists. ..

          However, after the "one drop"
          rule was instituted and Jim Crow
          [`Segregation] became the law of
          the land in the South, things changed.

          Often, they would move and cut ties
          with family members, especially
          the ones who could not "pass".

          The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
          as they were sometimes called, actually forced
          more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

          "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
          more sense, and it became more necessary,"
          Gaudin said.

          Some who passed

          In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
          Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
          a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

          When she was 16 and about to go off to
          college, her mother told her about her father.

          "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
          "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
          shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

          A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
          Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

          Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
          New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
          for decades because he did not want to be labeled
          as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

          Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
          history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
          brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
          essay that was included in his 1997 book,
          "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

          For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
          ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
          very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

          Even in the waning days of his life, his body
          withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
          request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

          They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
          for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

          No identity crisis

          Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
          never sought the advantages of `White'*
          his complexion could have provided him.

          He's a retired staff member of Western
          Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
          chief of medical services and acting
          director of professional services at
          the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
          Center on Highland Drive, and he has
          taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
          University, the University of Pittsburgh
          and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

          Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
          father, William J. Hale, founding president of
          Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
          College, now known as Tennessee State University.

          Hale had come from a family
          that had accomplished much
          by living as "black"^^ people.

          His goal was to do the same.

          "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
          adored and respected my father," Hale said.
          "He chose to remain "black"^^.

          He got to be a college president."
          His mother, a graduate of Fisk
          University, headed up the business
          department at Tennessee State.
          She, too, was fair enough to
          "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

          Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
          the example of his parents,
          accomplished educators
          Harriet and William J. Hale….

          The proud son says, "He chose
          to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

          His sister, who earned a master's in
          French from Columbia University, married
          a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

          "But they had a very positive marriage as
          "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

          His brother "used to float back and forth
          between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
          he said.
          "He did that for work."

          Why didn't Hale?

          "I chose "black"^^ because
          I have a "black"^^ identity...

          "We had a heritage, and it
          was something important."

          His parents emphasized being proud of
          who he was, excelling at something,
          making a contribution to society.

          After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
          State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
          Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

          Two years later, he earned a master's in
          physiology from the University of Illinois.

          "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
          but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
          look into your background," Hale said.

          When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
          as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
          knew people would assume he was `White'*.

          They soon learned differently through his stand
          on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

          Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
          formed the Gateway Medical Group,
          now called Gateway Medical Society.

          He was active in the National Medical Association
          and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

          "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
          let people know who I was," Hale said.

          Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
          light-skinned people to take what is considered
          the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

          Poor, uneducated folks with the same
          complexion faced a different reality.

          "These were people who used their
          physical appearances because, in
          many cases, that's all they had,"
          Gaudin said.

          "They weren't wealthy.

          In many cases, they felt this was
          their greatest, most valuable resource."

          Unbreakable family ties

          Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
          when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
          about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

          In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
          husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
          young man and should have reached the same career peak.

          Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
          "You've got nothing to complain about;
          you could have [lived as] `White'*".

          Theoretically, yes.

          Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
          swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

          Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
          "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

          "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
          "My family ties were so great."

          Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
          up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

          Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
          lawyer and civil rights activist,
          never considered "passing" as
          `White'^, although he witnessed
          others passing to get into
          barred theaters or stores.
          "That was just casual passing,"
          Freeland says.
          "I knew people who crossed over."

          As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
          West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
          or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

          "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
          Freeland said.
          "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

          Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
          lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
          numerous social and civil rights causes.

          He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
          League and was a member of the search committee that
          selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

          He's been on any number of boards, including those of
          Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
          of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
          of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
          Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

          As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
          said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

          "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
          manumission [emancipation] papers than
          any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

          "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
          I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
          Freeland said,

          … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
          had a life that was more successful and happy.

          I'm successful and happy, too."

          SOURCE:

          hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

          RELATED LINKS:

          http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

          http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

          http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

          http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

          http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

          .


        • lauraparkercastoro
          Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don t think so many whites deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person s
          Message 4 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
            Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed ancestry, black or white.

            That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced. People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense. We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

            So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let their own members know what was going on.

            So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't hide what you were never told.

            I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are learning some surprising things.

            Laura



            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
            jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



            I agree Rosanna,

            Most people are really not aware consciously what
            they are saying or even thinking concerning this
            matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
            automatically respond to the images before us. A
            white person tries to add a little color to their
            family by claiming a Indian ancestor and a black
            person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
            a European or other light skin race.




            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
            armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



            I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.


            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
            jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



            I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
            than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
            white people know how racist views could strip them of
            their white privilege and value. The only race that really
            doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
            part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
            as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
            it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
            Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
            always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
            [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
            drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
            call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
            purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
            the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
            no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
            black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
            is also felt between white people and black people` because
            race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
            is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
            WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
            by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
            them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
            out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


            Pierre



            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
            armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



            I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.




            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



            In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

            It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

            Tonya



            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



            Passing: how "posing" became
            a choice for many Americans


            (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
            the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003


            ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* *********


            Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
            she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
            skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

            But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
            is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

            She could "pass" for `White'*
            but she has never tried, she said

            "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
            and I was even instructed not to say,
            at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

            In order to get their jobs, they
            had to say they were `White'*"

            [[[

            Note:

            **The term 'Colored'** as used here is a reference to
            a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
            also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

            ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ as used here is
            a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
            who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
            *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

            This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
            the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
            on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
            1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

            These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^ when in reference
            to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
            largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
            that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
            were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

            ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
            anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

            ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
            'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

            ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
            sure that equal rights would become granted to those
            people who suffered discrimination due to having
            'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
            ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

            As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' the terms
            "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
            entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
            as instructed by the western media and politicians.

            The term `Black' as used here is in reference those who
            are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
            to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

            The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
            the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

            *The term `White'* as used here is a reference to a person who
            has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

            The terms `Pass' and `Passing' as used here is
            reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
            have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
            ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
            silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
            own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

            ]]]

            Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

            During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
            what her mother before her had done.
            What her grandmother and aunts had done.

            She "passed" for `White'*

            "One time I told a woman I was
            "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
            Marshall recalled.

            "She said, 'You won't get the job
            unless you "pass" for `White'*."

            So that's what Marshall did.
            "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
            she said.
            "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

            It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

            Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
            She felt she did what she had to do.

            Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
            want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

            [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
            but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

            During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
            There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
            slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

            In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
            It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
            It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
            instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
            It often meant better housing.

            It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

            Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
            going out with her `White'* college friends
            vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

            "We went to a show, about
            six of us ["black"^^ students].

            The manager came and sat behind us.
            I asked him
            'Why are you sitting behind us?'
            He said,
            'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

            Douglass said she told the manager that
            he had never sat behind her before.

            His response was,
            "You never came with these people before."

            Douglass, who the manager had assumed
            was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
            leave the theater rather than be insulted.

            Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
            of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
            tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

            When she was a young child, her parents
            didn't emphasize racial differences.
            "I just figured people came in
            different shades," she said.

            But when the subject came up in her
            dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
            approached her mother, who explained
            to her about "race" and 'racism.'

            "We are `a child of God' first.
            We are `human beings' first,"
            Douglass remembered her mother saying.

            In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
            is a melting pot, and she declared to her
            mother that she would be a melting pot.

            Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
            seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
            `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

            Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
            themselves that way given the chance.

            Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
            to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
            Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

            It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
            can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

            Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
            Africa in their features and skin tone
            also have multicultural ancestry.

            They just can't pass.

            Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
            the luxury of defining themselves.

            After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
            swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
            keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
            as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
            anyone with "one drop" of `Black
            / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

            That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
            to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
            "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

            Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
            their blood line or had their DNA tested,
            would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

            In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
            a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
            and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

            The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
            Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
            15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

            The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
            million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
            "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

            Stuckert predicted that the numbers
            would grow in subsequent decades.

            Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
            although she had family members who did.

            Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
            and "keen features" did not "pass" but
            [simply married] others with fair skin ...

            "For generations, my mother's side and my
            father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
            Marshall said.

            "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
            and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
            only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

            State decides for you

            Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
            complexion -- not for personal gain but
            -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

            For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
            helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

            Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
            had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
            buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

            But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
            homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
            darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

            Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
            allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

            White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
            remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

            For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
            categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
            depended upon what state that person was in.

            Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
            period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
            every state had its own racial designation,
            said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
            instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

            Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
            in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
            part of study she conducted on that subject.

            A person could be born white in one state
            and be designated "black"^^ in another
            depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
            said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
            candidate at New York University.

            ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
            [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

            ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
            who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

            ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
            with European features', 'light with African
            features' and everything in between.

            "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
            of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
            Gaudin explained.
            "Society had `a place' for them."

            Some were slave owners,
            others staunch abolitionists. ..

            However, after the "one drop"
            rule was instituted and Jim Crow
            [`Segregation] became the law of
            the land in the South, things changed.

            Often, they would move and cut ties
            with family members, especially
            the ones who could not "pass".

            The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
            as they were sometimes called, actually forced
            more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

            "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
            more sense, and it became more necessary,"
            Gaudin said.

            Some who passed

            In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
            Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
            a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

            When she was 16 and about to go off to
            college, her mother told her about her father.

            "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
            "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
            shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

            A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
            Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

            Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
            New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
            for decades because he did not want to be labeled
            as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

            Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
            history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
            brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
            essay that was included in his 1997 book,
            "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

            For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
            ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
            very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

            Even in the waning days of his life, his body
            withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
            request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

            They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
            for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

            No identity crisis

            Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
            never sought the advantages of `White'*
            his complexion could have provided him.

            He's a retired staff member of Western
            Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
            chief of medical services and acting
            director of professional services at
            the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
            Center on Highland Drive, and he has
            taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
            University, the University of Pittsburgh
            and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

            Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
            father, William J. Hale, founding president of
            Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
            College, now known as Tennessee State University.

            Hale had come from a family
            that had accomplished much
            by living as "black"^^ people.

            His goal was to do the same.

            "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
            adored and respected my father," Hale said.
            "He chose to remain "black"^^.

            He got to be a college president."
            His mother, a graduate of Fisk
            University, headed up the business
            department at Tennessee State.
            She, too, was fair enough to
            "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

            Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
            the example of his parents,
            accomplished educators
            Harriet and William J. Hale.

            The proud son says, "He chose
            to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

            His sister, who earned a master's in
            French from Columbia University, married
            a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

            "But they had a very positive marriage as
            "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

            His brother "used to float back and forth
            between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
            he said.
            "He did that for work."

            Why didn't Hale?

            "I chose "black"^^ because
            I have a "black"^^ identity...

            "We had a heritage, and it
            was something important."

            His parents emphasized being proud of
            who he was, excelling at something,
            making a contribution to society.

            After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
            State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
            Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

            Two years later, he earned a master's in
            physiology from the University of Illinois.

            "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
            but if you got to be too outstanding, people would
            look into your background," Hale said.

            When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
            as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
            knew people would assume he was `White'*.

            They soon learned differently through his stand
            on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

            Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
            formed the Gateway Medical Group,
            now called Gateway Medical Society.

            He was active in the National Medical Association
            and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

            "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
            let people know who I was," Hale said.

            Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
            light-skinned people to take what is considered
            the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

            Poor, uneducated folks with the same
            complexion faced a different reality.

            "These were people who used their
            physical appearances because, in
            many cases, that's all they had,"
            Gaudin said.

            "They weren't wealthy.

            In many cases, they felt this was
            their greatest, most valuable resource."

            Unbreakable family ties

            Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
            when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
            about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

            In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
            husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
            young man and should have reached the same career peak.

            Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
            "You've got nothing to complain about;
            you could have [lived as] `White'*".

            Theoretically, yes.

            Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
            swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

            Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
            "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

            "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
            "My family ties were so great."

            Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
            up in a segregated community in Baltimore.

            Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
            lawyer and civil rights activist,
            never considered "passing" as
            `White'^, although he witnessed
            others passing to get into
            barred theaters or stores.
            "That was just casual passing,"
            Freeland says.
            "I knew people who crossed over."

            As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
            West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
            or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

            "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
            Freeland said.
            "I knew people who crossed-over. "

            Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
            lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
            numerous social and civil rights causes.

            He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
            League and was a member of the search committee that
            selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

            He's been on any number of boards, including those of
            Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
            of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
            of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
            Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

            As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
            said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

            "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
            manumission [emancipation] papers than
            any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

            "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
            I learn a lot about `White'* people,"
            Freeland said,

            "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
            had a life that was more successful and happy.

            I'm successful and happy, too."

            SOURCE:

            hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp

            RELATED LINKS:

            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

            http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

            http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN& show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

            http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_ single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

            http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_ single_post?pid=34070414&postcount; =14.

            .
          • Rodney S
            I ve heard many stories of family members from Louisiana in decided to cross over to the other side so to speak. There are also a few mysteries that floated
            Message 5 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              I've heard many stories of family members from Louisiana in decided to

              "cross over" to the other side so to speak. There are also a few mysteries that floated around my family. One is the story that my great-grandfather had a half-white brother who was taken to Houston by the White fathers sisters and never heard from again. I am also curious or planning to take the genetic admixture DNA test to what numbers show up. I wouldnt be surprised if my results show extensive european ancestry considered many of my ancestors were louisiana creoles of mixed or multi-racial heritage. You can look at a new pic I just posted showing my great-grandmother and her older sister. Look at their appearance. They look almost racially ambigious.

              Rodney Sam
            • rosanna_armendariz
              Good point. I totally agree that some White persons don t know of their mixed heritage. However, I still maintain that some do and prefer not to mention
              Message 6 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
              • 0 Attachment
                Good point. I totally agree that some "White" persons don't know of their mixed heritage. However, I still maintain that some do and prefer not to mention it. And others are unwilling to even consider the possibility.



                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:


                Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                ancestry, black or white.

                That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                their own members know what was going on.

                So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                hide what you were never told.

                I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                learning some surprising things.

                Laura



                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                I agree Rosanna,

                Most people are really not aware consciously what
                they are saying or even thinking concerning this
                matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
                automatically respond to the images before us. A
                white person tries to add a little color to their
                family by claiming a Indian ancestor and a black
                person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
                a European or other light skin race.




                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



                I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I
                think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want
                to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as
                likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's
                consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part
                Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long
                since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the
                time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.


                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
                than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
                white people know how racist views could strip them of
                their white privilege and value. The only race that really
                doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
                part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
                as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
                it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
                Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
                always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
                [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
                drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
                call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
                purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
                the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
                no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
                black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
                is also felt between white people and black people` because
                race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
                is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
                WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
                by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
                them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
                out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


                Pierre



                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



                I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have
                Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that
                they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors
                were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely
                encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors,
                although many probably do.




                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



                In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had
                to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint,
                considering my so-called exotic features.

                It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African
                ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down
                on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever
                remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

                Tonya



                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



                Passing: how "posing" became
                a choice for many Americans


                (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
                the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003


                ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* *********


                Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
                she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
                skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

                But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
                is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

                She could "pass" for `White'*
                but she has never tried, she said

                "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
                and I was even instructed not to say,
                at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

                In order to get their jobs, they
                had to say they were `White'*"

                [[[

                Note:

                **The term 'Colored'** as used here is a reference to
                a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
                also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

                ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ as used here is
                a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
                who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
                *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

                This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
                the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
                on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
                1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

                These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^ when in reference
                to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
                largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
                that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
                were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

                ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
                anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

                ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
                'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

                ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
                sure that equal rights would become granted to those
                people who suffered discrimination due to having
                'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
                ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

                As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' the terms
                "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
                entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
                as instructed by the western media and politicians.

                The term `Black' as used here is in reference those who
                are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
                to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

                The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
                the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

                *The term `White'* as used here is a reference to a person who
                has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

                The terms `Pass' and `Passing' as used here is
                reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
                have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
                ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
                silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
                own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

                ]]]

                Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

                During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
                what her mother before her had done.
                What her grandmother and aunts had done.

                She "passed" for `White'*

                "One time I told a woman I was
                "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
                Marshall recalled.

                "She said, 'You won't get the job
                unless you "pass" for `White'*."

                So that's what Marshall did.
                "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
                she said.
                "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

                It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

                Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
                She felt she did what she had to do.

                Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
                want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

                [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
                but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

                During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
                There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
                slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

                In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
                It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
                It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
                instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
                It often meant better housing.

                It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

                Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
                going out with her `White'* college friends
                vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

                "We went to a show, about
                six of us ["black"^^ students].

                The manager came and sat behind us.
                I asked him
                'Why are you sitting behind us?'
                He said,
                'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

                Douglass said she told the manager that
                he had never sat behind her before.

                His response was,
                "You never came with these people before."

                Douglass, who the manager had assumed
                was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
                leave the theater rather than be insulted.

                Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
                of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
                tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

                When she was a young child, her parents
                didn't emphasize racial differences.
                "I just figured people came in
                different shades," she said.

                But when the subject came up in her
                dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
                approached her mother, who explained
                to her about "race" and 'racism.'

                "We are `a child of God' first.
                We are `human beings' first,"
                Douglass remembered her mother saying.

                In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
                is a melting pot, and she declared to her
                mother that she would be a melting pot.

                Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
                seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
                `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

                Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
                themselves that way given the chance.

                Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
                to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
                Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

                It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
                can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

                Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
                Africa in their features and skin tone
                also have multicultural ancestry.

                They just can't pass.

                Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
                the luxury of defining themselves.

                After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
                swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
                keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
                as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
                anyone with "one drop" of `Black
                / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

                That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
                to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
                "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

                Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
                their blood line or had their DNA tested,
                would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

                In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
                a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
                and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

                The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
                Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
                15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

                The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
                million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
                "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

                Stuckert predicted that the numbers
                would grow in subsequent decades.

                Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
                although she had family members who did.

                Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
                and "keen features" did not "pass" but
                [simply married] others with fair skin ...

                "For generations, my mother's side and my
                father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
                Marshall said.

                "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
                and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
                only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

                State decides for you

                Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
                complexion -- not for personal gain but
                -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

                For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
                helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

                Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
                had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
                buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

                But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
                homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
                darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

                Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
                allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

                White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
                remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

                For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
                categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
                depended upon what state that person was in.

                Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
                period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
                every state had its own racial designation,
                said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
                instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

                Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
                in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
                part of study she conducted on that subject.

                A person could be born white in one state
                and be designated "black"^^ in another
                depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
                said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
                candidate at New York University.

                ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
                [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

                ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
                who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

                ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
                with European features', 'light with African
                features' and everything in between.

                "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
                of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
                Gaudin explained.
                "Society had `a place' for them."

                Some were slave owners,
                others staunch abolitionists. ..

                However, after the "one drop"
                rule was instituted and Jim Crow
                [`Segregation] became the law of
                the land in the South, things changed.

                Often, they would move and cut ties
                with family members, especially
                the ones who could not "pass".

                The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
                as they were sometimes called, actually forced
                more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

                "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
                more sense, and it became more necessary,"
                Gaudin said.

                Some who passed

                In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
                Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
                a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

                When she was 16 and about to go off to
                college, her mother told her about her father.

                "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
                "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
                shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

                A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
                Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

                Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
                New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
                for decades because he did not want to be labeled
                as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

                Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
                history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
                brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
                essay that was included in his 1997 book,
                "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

                For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
                ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
                very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

                Even in the waning days of his life, his body
                withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
                request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

                They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
                for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

                No identity crisis

                Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
                never sought the advantages of `White'*
                his complexion could have provided him.

                He's a retired staff member of Western
                Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
                chief of medical services and acting
                director of professional services at
                the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
                Center on Highland Drive, and he has
                taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
                University, the University of Pittsburgh
                and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

                Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
                father, William J. Hale, founding president of
                Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
                College, now known as Tennessee State University.

                Hale had come from a family
                that had accomplished much
                by living as "black"^^ people.

                His goal was to do the same.

                "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
                adored and respected my father," Hale said.
                "He chose to remain "black"^^.

                He got to be a college president."
                His mother, a graduate of Fisk
                University, headed up the business
                department at Tennessee State.
                She, too, was fair enough to
                "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

                Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
                the example of his parents,
                accomplished educators
                Harriet and William J. Hale.

                The proud son says, "He chose
                to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

                His sister, who earned a master's in
                French from Columbia University, married
                a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

                "But they had a very positive marriage as
                "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

                His brother "used to float back and forth
                between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
                he said.
                "He did that for work."

                Why didn't Hale?

                "I chose "black"^^ because
                I have a "black"^^ identity...

                "We had a heritage, and it
                was something important."

                His parents emphasized being proud of
                who he was, excelling at something,
                making a contribution to society.

                After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
                State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
                Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

                Two years later, he earned a master's in
                physiology from the University of Illinois.

                "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
                but if you got to be too outstanding, people would
                look into your background," Hale said.

                When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
                as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
                knew people would assume he was `White'*.

                They soon learned differently through his stand
                on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

                Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
                formed the Gateway Medical Group,
                now called Gateway Medical Society.

                He was active in the National Medical Association
                and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

                "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
                let people know who I was," Hale said.

                Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
                light-skinned people to take what is considered
                the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

                Poor, uneducated folks with the same
                complexion faced a different reality.

                "These were people who used their
                physical appearances because, in
                many cases, that's all they had,"
                Gaudin said.

                "They weren't wealthy.

                In many cases, they felt this was
                their greatest, most valuable resource."

                Unbreakable family ties

                Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
                when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
                about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

                In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
                husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
                young man and should have reached the same career peak.

                Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
                "You've got nothing to complain about;
                you could have [lived as] `White'*".

                Theoretically, yes.

                Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
                swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

                Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
                "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

                "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
                "My family ties were so great."

                Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
                up in a segregated community in Baltimore.

                Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
                lawyer and civil rights activist,
                never considered "passing" as
                `White'^, although he witnessed
                others passing to get into
                barred theaters or stores.
                "That was just casual passing,"
                Freeland says.
                "I knew people who crossed over."

                As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
                West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
                or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

                "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
                Freeland said.
                "I knew people who crossed-over. "

                Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
                lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
                numerous social and civil rights causes.

                He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
                League and was a member of the search committee that
                selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

                He's been on any number of boards, including those of
                Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
                of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
                of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
                Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

                As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
                said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

                "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
                manumission [emancipation] papers than
                any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

                "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
                I learn a lot about `White'* people,"
                Freeland said,

                "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
                had a life that was more successful and happy.

                I'm successful and happy, too."

                SOURCE:

                hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp

                RELATED LINKS:

                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

                http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=20070527201834AAIhzhM&show=7#profile-info-CiC2JY9Maa

                http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN&show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

                http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

                http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14.

                .
              • Queen Blues
                I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what s been on my mind so perfectly. Some people look upon me as being
                Message 7 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                • 0 Attachment
                  I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                  "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself as a multiracial woman of color.

                  I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                  As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed" contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                  When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy, knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story, and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I had the gene for albinism.

                  As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young, I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other. It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that I am mixed from both sides.

                  So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious African features.

                  I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that they are also mixed.

                  Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                  Peace



                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                  "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                  Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                  deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                  family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                  they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                  ancestry, black or white.

                  That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                  admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                  by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                  People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                  We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                  choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                  friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                  would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                  the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                  mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                  So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                  likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                  mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                  secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                  their own members know what was going on.

                  So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                  hide what you were never told.

                  I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                  learning some surprising things.

                  Laura
                • Queen Blues
                  Laura, I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what s been on my mind so perfectly. Some people look upon me
                  Message 8 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Laura, I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                    "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself as a multiracial woman of color.

                    I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                    As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed" contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                    When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy, knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story, and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I had the gene for albinism.

                    As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young, I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other. It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that I am mixed from both sides.

                    So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious African features.

                    I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that they are also mixed.

                    Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                    Peace



                    In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                    "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                    Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                    deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                    family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                    they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                    ancestry, black or white.

                    That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                    admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                    by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                    People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                    We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                    choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                    friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                    would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                    the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                    mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                    So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                    likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                    mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                    secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                    their own members know what was going on.

                    So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                    hide what you were never told.

                    I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                    learning some surprising things.

                    Laura
                  • rosanna_armendariz
                    Wow, you have a fascinating story. Thank you for sharing here. I never would have thought about people using albinism as a way to pass for White. I wish
                    Message 9 of 12 , Oct 19, 2009
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Wow, you have a fascinating story. Thank you for sharing here. I never would have thought about people using albinism as a way to pass for "White." I wish you the best with your health and just said a prayer for you. Be well & God bless.



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                      "Queen Blues" <la_cayena@...> wrote:



                      I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a
                      part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                      "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other
                      portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all
                      that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself
                      as a multiracial woman of color.

                      I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many
                      different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed
                      me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from
                      both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have
                      no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as
                      Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no
                      knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                      As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed"
                      contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various
                      decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal
                      albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had
                      many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were
                      supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition
                      and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark
                      eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                      When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly
                      like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to
                      stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much
                      & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The
                      following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed
                      she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy,
                      knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this
                      happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my
                      father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as
                      a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and
                      has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story,
                      and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I
                      believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I
                      had the gene for albinism.

                      As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair
                      chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's
                      side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's
                      mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family
                      tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young,
                      I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were
                      "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other.
                      It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that
                      perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it
                      more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that
                      I am mixed from both sides.

                      So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever
                      be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around
                      pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious
                      African features.

                      I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of
                      color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as
                      a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has
                      experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are
                      other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that
                      they are also mixed.

                      Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of
                      this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of
                      contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of
                      changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how
                      long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to
                      give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                      Peace



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                      "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                      Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                      deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                      family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                      they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                      ancestry, black or white.

                      That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                      admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                      by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                      People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                      We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                      choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                      friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                      would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                      the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                      mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                      So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                      likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                      mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                      secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                      their own members know what was going on.

                      So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                      hide what you were never told.

                      I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                      learning some surprising things.

                      Laura
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