Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Re: [MGM-Mixed] The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

Expand Messages
  • quallagirl
    In a way it is good to be able to choose.  I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by.  I couldn t speak from a white looking person s
    Message 1 of 12 , Oct 3, 2009
    • 0 Attachment

      In a way it is good to be able to choose.  I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by.  I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.
       
      It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry.  I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on.  I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage.  I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage. 
       
      Tonya

      --- On Sat, 10/3/09, AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:

      From: AP Gifts <soaptalk@...>
      Subject: [MGM-Mixed] The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'
      To: MGM-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
      Date: Saturday, October 3, 2009, 3:00 PM

       


      Passing: how "posing" 
      became 
      a choice for 
      many Americans 


      (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for 
      the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

      ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

        

      Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone 
      she was `White'*, people see her porcelain 
      skin and her silky hair and assume she is. 

      But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg, 
      is a 53-year-old 
      "black"^^ woman. 

      She could "pass" for 
      `White'* 
      but she has never tried, she said 


      "Growing up, I knew of people who did, 
      and I was even instructed not to say, 
      at that time, that they were 
      'Colored'**

      In order to get their jobs, they 
      had to say they were 
      `White'*"

      [[[

          Note: 

                     **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to 
                     
      person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that 
                     also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

                     ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is 
                     a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals 
                     who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who 
                     *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term 
       "black"^^.

                               This categorization would have arisen either as a result of 
                               the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of  taking 
                               on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late 
                               1960's, has come to be referred to by the term 
       "black"^^.

                               These terms  "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference 
                               to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied 
                               largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset 
                               that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who 
                               were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

                               ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,  
                               anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s; 

                               ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's 
                               `Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful"; 

                               ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making 
                               sure that equal rights would become granted to those 
                               people who suffered discrimination due to having 
                               `Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial, 
                               ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

                               As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms 
                               
      "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to 
                               entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' ) 
                               as instructed by the western media and politicians.

                     The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who 
                     are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little 
                     to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

                     
                               The  "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as 
                               the Socio-Political-`Identification' of  "black"^^.

                     *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who 
                     has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

                     The terms `Pass' and `Passing'
       – as used here – is 
                     reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to 
                     have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro') 
                     ancestry
       and / or who would simply choose to 
      `remain 
                     silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their 
                     own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

      ]]]

      Thelma Marshall knows that routine. 

      During the 1950s and early '60s, she did 
      what her mother before her had done. 
      What her grandmother and aunts had done. 

      She "passed" for 
      `White'*

      "One time I told a woman I was  
       "black"^^'Colored'** in those days," 
      Marshall recalled. 

      "She said, 'You won't get the job 
      unless you "pass" for 
      `White'*."

      So that's what Marshall did. 
      "I "passed" for 
      `White'* on lots of jobs," 
      she said. 
      "I had to be 
      `White'* to get the jobs." 

      It's what many fair-skinned 
      "blacks"^^ did during those times.

      Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse. 
      She felt she did what she had to do. 

      Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not 
      want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used. 

      [The act of] "passing" for 
      `White'* offered not only opportunities, 
      but also the opportunities [that only] 
      `White'* people received. 

      During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom. 
      There are many documented instances of fair-skinned 
      slaves who posed as [
      `White'* [in order] to escape. 

      In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South. 
      It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office. 
      It meant schools with the latest equipment and books, 
      instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts. 
      It often meant better housing. 

      It meant being treated with respect, not disdain. 


      Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between 
      going out with her 
      `White'* college friends 
      vs. her 
       "black"^^ college friends. 

      "We went to a show, about 
      six of us [
      "black"^^ students]. 

      The manager came and sat behind us.
      I asked him 
      'Why are you sitting behind us?' 
      He said, 
      'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' " 

      Douglass said she told the manager that 
      he had never sat behind her before. 

      His response was, 
      "You never came with these people before." 

      Douglass, who the manager had assumed 
      was 
      `White'*, encouraged her friends to 
      leave the theater rather than be insulted …

      Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass 
      of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never 
      tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

      When she was a young child, her parents 
      didn't emphasize racial differences. 
      "I just figured people came in 
      different shades," she said. 

      But when the subject came up in her 
      dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass 
      approached her mother, who explained 
      to her abou't"race" and 'racism.' 

      "We are `a child of God' first. 
      We are `human beings' first," 
      Douglass remembered her mother saying. 

      In fifth grade, she learned that the United States 
      is a melting pot, and she declared to her 
      mother that she would be a melting pot. 

      Her mother decided it was the perfect definition, 
      seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee, 
      `Black', Dutch, German and Irish. 

      Maybe all 
       "blacks"^^ would have defined 
      themselves that way given the chance. 

      Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came 
      to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and 
      Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

      It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who 
      can lay claim to that melting pot definition. 

      Those 
      "blacks"^^ who have the mark of 
      Africa in their features and skin tone 
      also have multicultural ancestry.

      They just can't pass.

      Most 
      "blacks"^^ were never afforded 
      the luxury of defining themselves. 

                After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this 
                swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to 
                keep the [false notion of the] 
      `White'* "race" 
                as [being] pure, instituted a rule that 
                anyone with "one drop" of `Black 
                / Negro' blood was 
      `Black' [race].

                          That spurred even more fair-skinned 
      "blacks"^^ 
                          to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept 

      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • rosanna_armendariz
      I agree. I have met many, MANY, White people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent
      Message 2 of 12 , Oct 4, 2009
      • 0 Attachment
        I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.



        --- In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



        In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

        It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

        Tonya



        --- In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



        Passing: how "posing"
        became a choice for
        many Americans


        (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
        the 'Post-Gazette', Sunday, October 26, 2003

        ********************************************************************

        Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
        she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
        skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

        But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
        is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

        She could "pass" for `White'*
        but she has never tried, she said

        "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
        and I was even instructed not to say,
        at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

        In order to get their jobs, they
        had to say they were `White'*"

        [[[

        Note:

        **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
        a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
        also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

        ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
        a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
        who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
        *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

        This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
        the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
        on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
        1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

        These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
        to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
        largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
        that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
        were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

        ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
        anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

        ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
        'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

        ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
        sure that equal rights would become granted to those
        people who suffered discrimination due to having
        'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
        ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

        As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
        "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
        entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase')
        as instructed by the western media and politicians.

        The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
        are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
        to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

        The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
        the Socio-Political-`Identification' of "black"^^.

        *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
        has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

        The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
        reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
        have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
        ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
        silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
        own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

        ]]]

        Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

        During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
        what her mother before her had done.
        What her grandmother and aunts had done.

        She "passed" for `White'*

        "One time I told a woman I was
        "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
        Marshall recalled.

        "She said, 'You won't get the job
        unless you "pass" for `White'*."

        So that's what Marshall did.
        "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
        she said.
        "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

        It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

        Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
        She felt she did what she had to do.

        Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
        want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

        [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
        but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

        During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
        There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
        slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

        In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
        It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
        It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
        instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
        It often meant better housing.

        It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

        Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
        going out with her `White'* college friends
        vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

        "We went to a show, about
        six of us ["black"^^ students].

        The manager came and sat behind us.
        I asked him
        'Why are you sitting behind us?'
        He said,
        'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

        Douglass said she told the manager that
        he had never sat behind her before.

        His response was,
        "You never came with these people before."

        Douglass, who the manager had assumed
        was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
        leave the theater rather than be insulted …

        Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
        of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
        tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

        When she was a young child, her parents
        didn't emphasize racial differences.
        "I just figured people came in
        different shades," she said.

        But when the subject came up in her
        dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
        approached her mother, who explained
        to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

        "We are `a child of God' first.
        We are `human beings' first,"
        Douglass remembered her mother saying.

        In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
        is a melting pot, and she declared to her
        mother that she would be a melting pot.

        Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
        seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
        `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

        Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
        themselves that way given the chance.

        Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
        to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
        Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

        It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
        can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

        Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
        Africa in their features and skin tone
        also have multicultural ancestry.

        They just can't pass.

        Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
        the luxury of defining themselves.

        After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
        swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
        keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
        as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
        anyone with "one drop" of `Black
        / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

        That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
        to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
        "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

        Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
        their blood line or had their DNA tested,
        would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

        In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
        a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
        and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

        The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
        Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
        15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

        The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
        million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
        "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

        Stuckert predicted that the numbers
        would grow in subsequent decades.

        Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
        although she had family members who did.

        Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
        and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
        [simply married] others with fair skin ...

        "For generations, my mother's side and my
        father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
        Marshall said.

        "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
        and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
        only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

        State decides for you

        Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
        complexion -- not for personal gain but
        -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

        For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
        helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

        Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
        had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
        buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

        But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
        homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
        darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

        Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
        allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

        White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
        remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

        For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
        categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
        depended upon what state that person was in.

        Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
        period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
        every state had its own racial designation,
        said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
        instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

        Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
        in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
        part of study she conducted on that subject.

        A person could be born white in one state
        and be designated "black"^^ in another
        depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
        said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
        candidate at New York University.

        ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
        [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

        ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
        … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

        ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
        with European features', 'light with African
        features' and everything in between.

        "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
        of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
        Gaudin explained.
        "Society had `a place' for them."

        Some were slave owners,
        others staunch abolitionists...

        However, after the "one drop"
        rule was instituted and Jim Crow
        [`Segregation] became the law of
        the land in the South, things changed.

        Often, they would move and cut ties
        with family members, especially
        the ones who could not "pass".

        The law aimed at these "White-Negroes",
        as they were sometimes called, actually forced
        more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

        "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
        more sense, and it became more necessary,"
        Gaudin said.

        Some who passed

        In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
        Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
        a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

        When she was 16 and about to go off to
        college, her mother told her about her father.

        "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
        "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
        shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

        A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
        Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

        Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
        New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
        for decades because he did not want to be labeled
        as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

        Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
        history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
        brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
        essay that was included in his 1997 book,
        "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

        For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
        ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
        very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

        Even in the waning days of his life, his body
        withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
        request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

        They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
        for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

        No identity crisis

        Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
        never sought the advantages of `White'*
        his complexion could have provided him.

        He's a retired staff member of Western
        Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
        chief of medical services and acting
        director of professional services at
        the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
        Center on Highland Drive, and he has
        taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
        University, the University of Pittsburgh
        and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

        Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
        father, William J. Hale, founding president of
        Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
        College, now known as Tennessee State University.

        Hale had come from a family
        that had accomplished much
        by living as "black"^^ people.

        His goal was to do the same.

        "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
        adored and respected my father," Hale said.
        "He chose to remain "black"^^.

        He got to be a college president."
        His mother, a graduate of Fisk
        University, headed up the business
        department at Tennessee State.
        She, too, was fair enough to
        "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

        Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
        the example of his parents,
        accomplished educators
        Harriet and William J. Hale….

        The proud son says, "He chose
        to remain "black"^^ [identified].

        His sister, who earned a master's in
        French from Columbia University, married
        a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

        "But they had a very positive marriage as
        "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

        His brother "used to float back and forth
        between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
        he said.
        "He did that for work."

        Why didn't Hale?

        "I chose "black"^^ because
        I have a "black"^^ identity...

        "We had a heritage, and it
        was something important."

        His parents emphasized being proud of
        who he was, excelling at something,
        making a contribution to society.

        After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
        State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
        Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

        Two years later, he earned a master's in
        physiology from the University of Illinois.

        "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
        but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
        look into your background," Hale said.

        When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
        as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
        knew people would assume he was `White'*.

        They soon learned differently through his stand
        on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

        Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
        formed the Gateway Medical Group,
        now called Gateway Medical Society.

        He was active in the National Medical Association
        and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

        "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
        let people know who I was," Hale said.

        Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
        light-skinned people to take what is considered
        the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

        Poor, uneducated folks with the same
        complexion faced a different reality.

        "These were people who used their
        physical appearances because, in
        many cases, that's all they had,"
        Gaudin said.

        "They weren't wealthy.

        In many cases, they felt this was
        their greatest, most valuable resource."

        Unbreakable family ties

        Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
        when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
        about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

        In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
        husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
        young man and should have reached the same career peak.

        Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
        "You've got nothing to complain about;
        you could have [lived as] `White'*".

        Theoretically, yes.

        Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
        swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

        Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
        "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

        "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
        "My family ties were so great."

        Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
        up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

        Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
        lawyer and civil rights activist,
        never considered "passing" as
        `White'^, although he witnessed
        others passing to get into
        barred theaters or stores.
        "That was just casual passing,"
        Freeland says.
        "I knew people who crossed over."

        As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
        West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
        or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

        "That was just casual-"passing","
        Freeland said.
        "I knew people who crossed-over." …

        Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
        lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
        numerous social and civil rights causes.

        He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
        League and was a member of the search committee that
        selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

        He's been on any number of boards, including those of
        Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
        of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
        of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
        Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

        As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
        said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

        "I'm more proud of my great-great-grandmother's
        manumission [emancipation] papers than
        any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

        "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
        I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
        Freeland said,

        … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
        had a life that was more successful and happy.

        I'm successful and happy, too."

        SOURCE:

        hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp


        RELATED LINKS:

        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

        http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=20070527201834AAIhzhM&show=7#profile-info-CiC2JY9Maa

        http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN&show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

        http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

        http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14.

        .
      • NatashaA
        And I have met many black people who say they have native blood but that s as far as the conversation goes. In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        Message 3 of 12 , Oct 4, 2009
        • 0 Attachment
          And I have met many black people who say they have native blood
          but that's as far as the conversation goes.



          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
          "rosanna_armendariz" <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



          I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.



          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
          quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



          In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

          It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

          Tonya



          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
          AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



          Passing: how "posing"
          became a choice for
          many Americans


          (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
          the 'Post-Gazette', Sunday, October 26, 2003

          ********************************************************************

          Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
          she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
          skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

          But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
          is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

          She could "pass" for `White'*
          but she has never tried, she said

          "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
          and I was even instructed not to say,
          at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

          In order to get their jobs, they
          had to say they were `White'*"

          [[[

          Note:

          **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
          a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
          also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

          ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
          a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
          who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
          *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

          This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
          the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
          on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
          1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

          These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
          to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
          largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
          that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
          were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

          ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
          anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

          ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
          'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

          ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
          sure that equal rights would become granted to those
          people who suffered discrimination due to having
          'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
          ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

          As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
          "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
          entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase')
          as instructed by the western media and politicians.

          The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
          are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
          to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

          The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
          the Socio-Political-`Identification' of "black"^^.

          *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
          has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

          The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
          reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
          have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
          ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
          silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
          own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

          ]]]

          Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

          During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
          what her mother before her had done.
          What her grandmother and aunts had done.

          She "passed" for `White'*

          "One time I told a woman I was
          "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
          Marshall recalled.

          "She said, 'You won't get the job
          unless you "pass" for `White'*."

          So that's what Marshall did.
          "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
          she said.
          "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

          It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

          Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
          She felt she did what she had to do.

          Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
          want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

          [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
          but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

          During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
          There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
          slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

          In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
          It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
          It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
          instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
          It often meant better housing.

          It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

          Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
          going out with her `White'* college friends
          vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

          "We went to a show, about
          six of us ["black"^^ students].

          The manager came and sat behind us.
          I asked him
          'Why are you sitting behind us?'
          He said,
          'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

          Douglass said she told the manager that
          he had never sat behind her before.

          His response was,
          "You never came with these people before."

          Douglass, who the manager had assumed
          was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
          leave the theater rather than be insulted …

          Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
          of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
          tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

          When she was a young child, her parents
          didn't emphasize racial differences.
          "I just figured people came in
          different shades," she said.

          But when the subject came up in her
          dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
          approached her mother, who explained
          to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

          "We are `a child of God' first.
          We are `human beings' first,"
          Douglass remembered her mother saying.

          In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
          is a melting pot, and she declared to her
          mother that she would be a melting pot.

          Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
          seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
          `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

          Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
          themselves that way given the chance.

          Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
          to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
          Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

          It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
          can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

          Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
          Africa in their features and skin tone
          also have multicultural ancestry.

          They just can't pass.

          Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
          the luxury of defining themselves.

          After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
          swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
          keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
          as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
          anyone with "one drop" of `Black
          / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

          That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
          to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
          "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

          Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
          their blood line or had their DNA tested,
          would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

          In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
          a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
          and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

          The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
          Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
          15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

          The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
          million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
          "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

          Stuckert predicted that the numbers
          would grow in subsequent decades.

          Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
          although she had family members who did.

          Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
          and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
          [simply married] others with fair skin ...

          "For generations, my mother's side and my
          father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
          Marshall said.

          "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
          and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
          only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

          State decides for you

          Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
          complexion -- not for personal gain but
          -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

          For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
          helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

          Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
          had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
          buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

          But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
          homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
          darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

          Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
          allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

          White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
          remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

          For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
          categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
          depended upon what state that person was in.

          Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
          period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
          every state had its own racial designation,
          said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
          instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

          Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
          in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
          part of study she conducted on that subject.

          A person could be born white in one state
          and be designated "black"^^ in another
          depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
          said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
          candidate at New York University.

          ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
          [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

          ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
          … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

          ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
          with European features', 'light with African
          features' and everything in between.

          "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
          of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
          Gaudin explained.
          "Society had `a place' for them."

          Some were slave owners,
          others staunch abolitionists...

          However, after the "one drop"
          rule was instituted and Jim Crow
          [`Segregation] became the law of
          the land in the South, things changed.

          Often, they would move and cut ties
          with family members, especially
          the ones who could not "pass".

          The law aimed at these "White-Negroes",
          as they were sometimes called, actually forced
          more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

          "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
          more sense, and it became more necessary,"
          Gaudin said.

          Some who passed

          In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
          Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
          a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

          When she was 16 and about to go off to
          college, her mother told her about her father.

          "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
          "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
          shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

          A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
          Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

          Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
          New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
          for decades because he did not want to be labeled
          as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

          Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
          history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
          brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
          essay that was included in his 1997 book,
          "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

          For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
          ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
          very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

          Even in the waning days of his life, his body
          withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
          request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

          They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
          for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

          No identity crisis

          Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
          never sought the advantages of `White'*
          his complexion could have provided him.

          He's a retired staff member of Western
          Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
          chief of medical services and acting
          director of professional services at
          the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
          Center on Highland Drive, and he has
          taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
          University, the University of Pittsburgh
          and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

          Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
          father, William J. Hale, founding president of
          Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
          College, now known as Tennessee State University.

          Hale had come from a family
          that had accomplished much
          by living as "black"^^ people.

          His goal was to do the same.

          "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
          adored and respected my father," Hale said.
          "He chose to remain "black"^^.

          He got to be a college president."
          His mother, a graduate of Fisk
          University, headed up the business
          department at Tennessee State.
          She, too, was fair enough to
          "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

          Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
          the example of his parents,
          accomplished educators
          Harriet and William J. Hale….

          The proud son says, "He chose
          to remain "black"^^ [identified].

          His sister, who earned a master's in
          French from Columbia University, married
          a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

          "But they had a very positive marriage as
          "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

          His brother "used to float back and forth
          between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
          he said.
          "He did that for work."

          Why didn't Hale?

          "I chose "black"^^ because
          I have a "black"^^ identity...

          "We had a heritage, and it
          was something important."

          His parents emphasized being proud of
          who he was, excelling at something,
          making a contribution to society.

          After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
          State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
          Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

          Two years later, he earned a master's in
          physiology from the University of Illinois.

          "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
          but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
          look into your background," Hale said.

          When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
          as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
          knew people would assume he was `White'*.

          They soon learned differently through his stand
          on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

          Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
          formed the Gateway Medical Group,
          now called Gateway Medical Society.

          He was active in the National Medical Association
          and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

          "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
          let people know who I was," Hale said.

          Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
          light-skinned people to take what is considered
          the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

          Poor, uneducated folks with the same
          complexion faced a different reality.

          "These were people who used their
          physical appearances because, in
          many cases, that's all they had,"
          Gaudin said.

          "They weren't wealthy.

          In many cases, they felt this was
          their greatest, most valuable resource."

          Unbreakable family ties

          Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
          when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
          about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

          In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
          husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
          young man and should have reached the same career peak.

          Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
          "You've got nothing to complain about;
          you could have [lived as] `White'*".

          Theoretically, yes.

          Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
          swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

          Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
          "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

          "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
          "My family ties were so great."

          Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
          up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

          Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
          lawyer and civil rights activist,
          never considered "passing" as
          `White'^, although he witnessed
          others passing to get into
          barred theaters or stores.
          "That was just casual passing,"
          Freeland says.
          "I knew people who crossed over."

          As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
          West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
          or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

          "That was just casual-"passing","
          Freeland said.
          "I knew people who crossed-over." …

          Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
          lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
          numerous social and civil rights causes.

          He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
          League and was a member of the search committee that
          selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

          He's been on any number of boards, including those of
          Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
          of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
          of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
          Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

          As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
          said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

          "I'm more proud of my great-great-grandmother's
          manumission [emancipation] papers than
          any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

          "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
          I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
          Freeland said,

          … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
          had a life that was more successful and happy.

          I'm successful and happy, too."

          SOURCE:

          hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp


          RELATED LINKS:

          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

          http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=20070527201834AAIhzhM&show=7#profile-info-CiC2JY9Maa

          http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN&show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

          http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

          http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14.

          .
        • pierre jefferson
           I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because white people know how racist views could
          Message 4 of 12 , Oct 4, 2009
          • 0 Attachment
             I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
            than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
            white people know how racist views could strip them of
            their white privilege and value. The only race that really
            doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
            part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
            as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
            it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
            Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
            always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
            [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
            drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
            call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
            purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
            the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
            no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
            black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
            is also felt between white people and black people` because
            race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
            is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
            WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
            by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
            them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
            out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.
             
             
            Pierre


            From: rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...>
            To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Sunday, October 4, 2009 1:38:50 PM
            Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

             

            I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.

            --- In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
            quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:

            In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

            It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

            Tonya

            --- In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
            AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:

            Passing: how "posing"
            became a choice for
            many Americans

            (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
            the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

            ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

            Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
            she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
            skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

            But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
            is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

            She could "pass" for `White'*
            but she has never tried, she said

            "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
            and I was even instructed not to say,
            at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

            In order to get their jobs, they
            had to say they were `White'*"

            [[[

            Note:

            **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
            a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
            also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

            ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
            a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
            who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
            *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

            This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
            the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
            on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
            1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

            These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
            to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
            largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
            that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
            were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

            ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
            anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

            ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
            'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

            ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
            sure that equal rights would become granted to those
            people who suffered discrimination due to having
            'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
            ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

            As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
            "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
            entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
            as instructed by the western media and politicians.

            The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
            are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
            to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

            The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
            the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

            *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
            has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

            The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
            reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
            have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
            ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
            silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
            own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

            ]]]

            Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

            During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
            what her mother before her had done.
            What her grandmother and aunts had done.

            She "passed" for `White'*

            "One time I told a woman I was
            "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
            Marshall recalled.

            "She said, 'You won't get the job
            unless you "pass" for `White'*."

            So that's what Marshall did.
            "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
            she said.
            "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

            It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

            Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
            She felt she did what she had to do.

            Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
            want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

            [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
            but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

            During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
            There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
            slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

            In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
            It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
            It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
            instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
            It often meant better housing.

            It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

            Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
            going out with her `White'* college friends
            vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

            "We went to a show, about
            six of us ["black"^^ students].

            The manager came and sat behind us.
            I asked him
            'Why are you sitting behind us?'
            He said,
            'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

            Douglass said she told the manager that
            he had never sat behind her before.

            His response was,
            "You never came with these people before."

            Douglass, who the manager had assumed
            was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
            leave the theater rather than be insulted …

            Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
            of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
            tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

            When she was a young child, her parents
            didn't emphasize racial differences.
            "I just figured people came in
            different shades," she said.

            But when the subject came up in her
            dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
            approached her mother, who explained
            to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

            "We are `a child of God' first.
            We are `human beings' first,"
            Douglass remembered her mother saying.

            In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
            is a melting pot, and she declared to her
            mother that she would be a melting pot.

            Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
            seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
            `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

            Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
            themselves that way given the chance.

            Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
            to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
            Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

            It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
            can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

            Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
            Africa in their features and skin tone
            also have multicultural ancestry.

            They just can't pass.

            Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
            the luxury of defining themselves.

            After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
            swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
            keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
            as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
            anyone with "one drop" of `Black
            / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

            That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
            to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
            "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

            Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
            their blood line or had their DNA tested,
            would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

            In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
            a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
            and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

            The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
            Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
            15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

            The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
            million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
            "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

            Stuckert predicted that the numbers
            would grow in subsequent decades.

            Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
            although she had family members who did.

            Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
            and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
            [simply married] others with fair skin ...

            "For generations, my mother's side and my
            father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
            Marshall said.

            "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
            and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
            only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

            State decides for you

            Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
            complexion -- not for personal gain but
            -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

            For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
            helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

            Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
            had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
            buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

            But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
            homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
            darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

            Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
            allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

            White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
            remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

            For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
            categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
            depended upon what state that person was in.

            Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
            period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
            every state had its own racial designation,
            said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
            instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

            Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
            in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
            part of study she conducted on that subject.

            A person could be born white in one state
            and be designated "black"^^ in another
            depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
            said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
            candidate at New York University.

            ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
            [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

            ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
            … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

            ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
            with European features', 'light with African
            features' and everything in between.

            "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
            of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
            Gaudin explained.
            "Society had `a place' for them."

            Some were slave owners,
            others staunch abolitionists. ..

            However, after the "one drop"
            rule was instituted and Jim Crow
            [`Segregation] became the law of
            the land in the South, things changed.

            Often, they would move and cut ties
            with family members, especially
            the ones who could not "pass".

            The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
            as they were sometimes called, actually forced
            more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

            "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
            more sense, and it became more necessary,"
            Gaudin said.

            Some who passed

            In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
            Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
            a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

            When she was 16 and about to go off to
            college, her mother told her about her father.

            "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
            "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
            shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

            A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
            Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

            Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
            New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
            for decades because he did not want to be labeled
            as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

            Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
            history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
            brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
            essay that was included in his 1997 book,
            "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

            For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
            ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
            very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

            Even in the waning days of his life, his body
            withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
            request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

            They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
            for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

            No identity crisis

            Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
            never sought the advantages of `White'*
            his complexion could have provided him.

            He's a retired staff member of Western
            Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
            chief of medical services and acting
            director of professional services at
            the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
            Center on Highland Drive, and he has
            taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
            University, the University of Pittsburgh
            and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

            Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
            father, William J. Hale, founding president of
            Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
            College, now known as Tennessee State University.

            Hale had come from a family
            that had accomplished much
            by living as "black"^^ people.

            His goal was to do the same.

            "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
            adored and respected my father," Hale said.
            "He chose to remain "black"^^.

            He got to be a college president."
            His mother, a graduate of Fisk
            University, headed up the business
            department at Tennessee State.
            She, too, was fair enough to
            "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

            Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
            the example of his parents,
            accomplished educators
            Harriet and William J. Hale….

            The proud son says, "He chose
            to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

            His sister, who earned a master's in
            French from Columbia University, married
            a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

            "But they had a very positive marriage as
            "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

            His brother "used to float back and forth
            between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
            he said.
            "He did that for work."

            Why didn't Hale?

            "I chose "black"^^ because
            I have a "black"^^ identity...

            "We had a heritage, and it
            was something important."

            His parents emphasized being proud of
            who he was, excelling at something,
            making a contribution to society.

            After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
            State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
            Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

            Two years later, he earned a master's in
            physiology from the University of Illinois.

            "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
            but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
            look into your background," Hale said.

            When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
            as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
            knew people would assume he was `White'*.

            They soon learned differently through his stand
            on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

            Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
            formed the Gateway Medical Group,
            now called Gateway Medical Society.

            He was active in the National Medical Association
            and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

            "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
            let people know who I was," Hale said.

            Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
            light-skinned people to take what is considered
            the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

            Poor, uneducated folks with the same
            complexion faced a different reality.

            "These were people who used their
            physical appearances because, in
            many cases, that's all they had,"
            Gaudin said.

            "They weren't wealthy.

            In many cases, they felt this was
            their greatest, most valuable resource."

            Unbreakable family ties

            Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
            when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
            about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

            In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
            husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
            young man and should have reached the same career peak.

            Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
            "You've got nothing to complain about;
            you could have [lived as] `White'*".

            Theoretically, yes.

            Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
            swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

            Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
            "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

            "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
            "My family ties were so great."

            Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
            up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

            Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
            lawyer and civil rights activist,
            never considered "passing" as
            `White'^, although he witnessed
            others passing to get into
            barred theaters or stores.
            "That was just casual passing,"
            Freeland says.
            "I knew people who crossed over."

            As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
            West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
            or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

            "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
            Freeland said.
            "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

            Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
            lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
            numerous social and civil rights causes.

            He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
            League and was a member of the search committee that
            selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

            He's been on any number of boards, including those of
            Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
            of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
            of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
            Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

            As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
            said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

            "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
            manumission [emancipation] papers than
            any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

            "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
            I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
            Freeland said,

            … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
            had a life that was more successful and happy.

            I'm successful and happy, too."

            SOURCE:

            hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

            RELATED LINKS:

            http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

            http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

            http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

            http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

            http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

            .


          • rosanna_armendariz
            I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not
            Message 5 of 12 , Oct 5, 2009
            • 0 Attachment
              I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.



              In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
              pierre jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



              I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
              than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
              white people know how racist views could strip them of
              their white privilege and value. The only race that really
              doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
              part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
              as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
              it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
              Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
              always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
              [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
              drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
              call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
              purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
              the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
              no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
              black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
              is also felt between white people and black people` because
              race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
              is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
              WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
              by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
              them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
              out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


              Pierre



              In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
              rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



              I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.



              In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
              quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:



              In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

              It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

              Tonya



              In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
              AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:



              Passing: how "posing"
              became a choice for
              many Americans

              (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
              the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

              ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

              Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
              she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
              skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

              But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
              is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

              She could "pass" for `White'*
              but she has never tried, she said

              "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
              and I was even instructed not to say,
              at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

              In order to get their jobs, they
              had to say they were `White'*"

              [[[

              Note:

              **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
              a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
              also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

              ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
              a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
              who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
              *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

              This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
              the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
              on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
              1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

              These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
              to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
              largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
              that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
              were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

              ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
              anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

              ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
              'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

              ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
              sure that equal rights would become granted to those
              people who suffered discrimination due to having
              'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
              ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

              As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
              "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
              entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
              as instructed by the western media and politicians.

              The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
              are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
              to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

              The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
              the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

              *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
              has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

              The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
              reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
              have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
              ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
              silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
              own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

              ]]]

              Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

              During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
              what her mother before her had done.
              What her grandmother and aunts had done.

              She "passed" for `White'*

              "One time I told a woman I was
              "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
              Marshall recalled.

              "She said, 'You won't get the job
              unless you "pass" for `White'*."

              So that's what Marshall did.
              "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
              she said.
              "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

              It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

              Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
              She felt she did what she had to do.

              Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
              want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

              [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
              but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

              During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
              There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
              slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

              In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
              It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
              It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
              instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
              It often meant better housing.

              It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

              Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
              going out with her `White'* college friends
              vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

              "We went to a show, about
              six of us ["black"^^ students].

              The manager came and sat behind us.
              I asked him
              'Why are you sitting behind us?'
              He said,
              'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

              Douglass said she told the manager that
              he had never sat behind her before.

              His response was,
              "You never came with these people before."

              Douglass, who the manager had assumed
              was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
              leave the theater rather than be insulted …

              Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
              of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
              tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

              When she was a young child, her parents
              didn't emphasize racial differences.
              "I just figured people came in
              different shades," she said.

              But when the subject came up in her
              dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
              approached her mother, who explained
              to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

              "We are `a child of God' first.
              We are `human beings' first,"
              Douglass remembered her mother saying.

              In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
              is a melting pot, and she declared to her
              mother that she would be a melting pot.

              Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
              seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
              `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

              Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
              themselves that way given the chance.

              Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
              to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
              Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

              It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
              can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

              Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
              Africa in their features and skin tone
              also have multicultural ancestry.

              They just can't pass.

              Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
              the luxury of defining themselves.

              After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
              swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
              keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
              as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
              anyone with "one drop" of `Black
              / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

              That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
              to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
              "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

              Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
              their blood line or had their DNA tested,
              would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

              In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
              a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
              and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

              The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
              Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
              15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

              The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
              million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
              "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

              Stuckert predicted that the numbers
              would grow in subsequent decades.

              Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
              although she had family members who did.

              Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
              and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
              [simply married] others with fair skin ...

              "For generations, my mother's side and my
              father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
              Marshall said.

              "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
              and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
              only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

              State decides for you

              Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
              complexion -- not for personal gain but
              -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

              For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
              helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

              Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
              had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
              buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

              But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
              homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
              darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

              Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
              allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

              White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
              remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

              For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
              categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
              depended upon what state that person was in.

              Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
              period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
              every state had its own racial designation,
              said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
              instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

              Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
              in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
              part of study she conducted on that subject.

              A person could be born white in one state
              and be designated "black"^^ in another
              depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
              said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
              candidate at New York University.

              ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
              [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

              ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
              … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

              ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
              with European features', 'light with African
              features' and everything in between.

              "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
              of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
              Gaudin explained.
              "Society had `a place' for them."

              Some were slave owners,
              others staunch abolitionists. ..

              However, after the "one drop"
              rule was instituted and Jim Crow
              [`Segregation] became the law of
              the land in the South, things changed.

              Often, they would move and cut ties
              with family members, especially
              the ones who could not "pass".

              The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
              as they were sometimes called, actually forced
              more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

              "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
              more sense, and it became more necessary,"
              Gaudin said.

              Some who passed

              In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
              Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
              a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

              When she was 16 and about to go off to
              college, her mother told her about her father.

              "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
              "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
              shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

              A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
              Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

              Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
              New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
              for decades because he did not want to be labeled
              as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

              Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
              history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
              brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
              essay that was included in his 1997 book,
              "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

              For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
              ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
              very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

              Even in the waning days of his life, his body
              withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
              request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

              They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
              for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

              No identity crisis

              Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
              never sought the advantages of `White'*
              his complexion could have provided him.

              He's a retired staff member of Western
              Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
              chief of medical services and acting
              director of professional services at
              the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
              Center on Highland Drive, and he has
              taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
              University, the University of Pittsburgh
              and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

              Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
              father, William J. Hale, founding president of
              Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
              College, now known as Tennessee State University.

              Hale had come from a family
              that had accomplished much
              by living as "black"^^ people.

              His goal was to do the same.

              "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
              adored and respected my father," Hale said.
              "He chose to remain "black"^^.

              He got to be a college president."
              His mother, a graduate of Fisk
              University, headed up the business
              department at Tennessee State.
              She, too, was fair enough to
              "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

              Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
              the example of his parents,
              accomplished educators
              Harriet and William J. Hale….

              The proud son says, "He chose
              to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

              His sister, who earned a master's in
              French from Columbia University, married
              a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

              "But they had a very positive marriage as
              "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

              His brother "used to float back and forth
              between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
              he said.
              "He did that for work."

              Why didn't Hale?

              "I chose "black"^^ because
              I have a "black"^^ identity...

              "We had a heritage, and it
              was something important."

              His parents emphasized being proud of
              who he was, excelling at something,
              making a contribution to society.

              After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
              State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
              Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

              Two years later, he earned a master's in
              physiology from the University of Illinois.

              "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
              but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
              look into your background," Hale said.

              When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
              as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
              knew people would assume he was `White'*.

              They soon learned differently through his stand
              on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

              Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
              formed the Gateway Medical Group,
              now called Gateway Medical Society.

              He was active in the National Medical Association
              and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

              "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
              let people know who I was," Hale said.

              Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
              light-skinned people to take what is considered
              the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

              Poor, uneducated folks with the same
              complexion faced a different reality.

              "These were people who used their
              physical appearances because, in
              many cases, that's all they had,"
              Gaudin said.

              "They weren't wealthy.

              In many cases, they felt this was
              their greatest, most valuable resource."

              Unbreakable family ties

              Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
              when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
              about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

              In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
              husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
              young man and should have reached the same career peak.

              Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
              "You've got nothing to complain about;
              you could have [lived as] `White'*".

              Theoretically, yes.

              Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
              swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

              Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
              "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

              "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
              "My family ties were so great."

              Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
              up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

              Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
              lawyer and civil rights activist,
              never considered "passing" as
              `White'^, although he witnessed
              others passing to get into
              barred theaters or stores.
              "That was just casual passing,"
              Freeland says.
              "I knew people who crossed over."

              As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
              West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
              or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

              "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
              Freeland said.
              "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

              Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
              lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
              numerous social and civil rights causes.

              He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
              League and was a member of the search committee that
              selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

              He's been on any number of boards, including those of
              Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
              of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
              of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
              Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

              As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
              said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

              "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
              manumission [emancipation] papers than
              any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

              "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
              I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
              Freeland said,

              … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
              had a life that was more successful and happy.

              I'm successful and happy, too."

              SOURCE:

              hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

              RELATED LINKS:

              http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

              http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

              http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

              http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

              http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

              .
            • pierre jefferson
              I agree Rosanna, Most people are really not aware consciously what they are saying or even thinking concerning this matter. Its so ingrained into our society
              Message 6 of 12 , Oct 5, 2009
              • 0 Attachment
                I agree Rosanna,
                 
                Most people are really not aware consciously what
                they are saying or even thinking concerning this
                matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
                automatically respond to the images before us. A
                white person tries to add a little color to their
                family by claiming a Indian ancestor` and a black
                person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
                a European or other light skin race.

                 


                From: rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...>
                To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Monday, October 5, 2009 1:17:41 PM
                Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The Long-Passed Days of "Passing" and 'Posing'

                 

                I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.

                In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
                pierre jefferson <pierrejefferson200 7@...> wrote:

                I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
                than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
                white people know how racist views could strip them of
                their white privilege and value. The only race that really
                doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
                part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
                as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
                it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
                Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
                always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
                [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
                drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
                call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
                purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
                the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
                no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
                black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
                is also felt between white people and black people` because
                race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
                is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
                WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
                by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
                them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
                out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


                Pierre

                In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
                rosanna_armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@ yahoo.com> wrote

                I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.

                In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
                quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@ ...> wrote:

                In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

                It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

                Tonya

                In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
                AP Gifts <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:

                Passing: how "posing"
                became a choice for
                many Americans

                (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
                the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003

                ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* ********* **

                Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
                she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
                skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

                But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
                is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

                She could "pass" for `White'*
                but she has never tried, she said

                "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
                and I was even instructed not to say,
                at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

                In order to get their jobs, they
                had to say they were `White'*"

                [[[

                Note:

                **The term 'Colored'** – as used here – is a reference to
                a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
                also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

                ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ – as used here – is
                a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
                who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
                *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

                This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
                the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
                on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
                1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

                These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^– when in reference
                to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
                largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
                that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
                were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

                ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
                anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

                ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
                'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

                ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
                sure that equal rights would become granted to those
                people who suffered discrimination due to having
                'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
                ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

                As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' – the terms
                "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
                entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
                as instructed by the western media and politicians.

                The term `Black' – as used here – is in reference those who
                are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
                to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

                The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
                the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

                *The term `White'* – as used here – is a reference to a person who
                has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

                The terms `Pass' and `Passing' – as used here – is
                reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
                have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
                ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
                silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
                own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

                ]]]

                Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

                During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
                what her mother before her had done.
                What her grandmother and aunts had done.

                She "passed" for `White'*

                "One time I told a woman I was
                "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
                Marshall recalled.

                "She said, 'You won't get the job
                unless you "pass" for `White'*."

                So that's what Marshall did.
                "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
                she said.
                "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

                It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

                Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
                She felt she did what she had to do.

                Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
                want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

                [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
                but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

                During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
                There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
                slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

                In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
                It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
                It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
                instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
                It often meant better housing.

                It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

                Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
                going out with her `White'* college friends
                vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

                "We went to a show, about
                six of us ["black"^^ students].

                The manager came and sat behind us.
                I asked him
                'Why are you sitting behind us?'
                He said,
                'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

                Douglass said she told the manager that
                he had never sat behind her before.

                His response was,
                "You never came with these people before."

                Douglass, who the manager had assumed
                was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
                leave the theater rather than be insulted …

                Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
                of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
                tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

                When she was a young child, her parents
                didn't emphasize racial differences.
                "I just figured people came in
                different shades," she said.

                But when the subject came up in her
                dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
                approached her mother, who explained
                to her abou't"race" and 'racism.'

                "We are `a child of God' first.
                We are `human beings' first,"
                Douglass remembered her mother saying.

                In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
                is a melting pot, and she declared to her
                mother that she would be a melting pot.

                Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
                seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
                `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

                Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
                themselves that way given the chance.

                Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
                to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
                Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

                It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
                can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

                Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
                Africa in their features and skin tone
                also have multicultural ancestry.

                They just can't pass.

                Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
                the luxury of defining themselves.

                After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
                swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
                keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
                as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
                anyone with "one drop" of `Black
                / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

                That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
                to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
                "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

                Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
                their blood line or had their DNA tested,
                would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

                In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
                a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
                and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

                The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
                Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
                15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

                The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
                million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
                "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

                Stuckert predicted that the numbers
                would grow in subsequent decades.

                Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
                although she had family members who did.

                Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
                and "keen features" did not "pass" but …
                [simply married] others with fair skin ...

                "For generations, my mother's side and my
                father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
                Marshall said.

                "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
                and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
                only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

                State decides for you

                Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
                complexion -- not for personal gain but
                -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

                For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
                helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

                Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
                had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
                buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

                But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
                homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
                darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

                Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
                allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

                White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
                remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

                For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
                categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
                depended upon what state that person was in.

                Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
                period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
                every state had its own racial designation,
                said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
                instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

                Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
                in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
                part of study she conducted on that subject.

                A person could be born white in one state
                and be designated "black"^^ in another
                depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
                said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
                candidate at New York University.

                ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
                [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

                ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
                … who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

                ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
                with European features', 'light with African
                features' and everything in between.

                "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
                of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
                Gaudin explained.
                "Society had `a place' for them."

                Some were slave owners,
                others staunch abolitionists. ..

                However, after the "one drop"
                rule was instituted and Jim Crow
                [`Segregation] became the law of
                the land in the South, things changed.

                Often, they would move and cut ties
                with family members, especially
                the ones who could not "pass".

                The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
                as they were sometimes called, actually forced
                more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

                "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
                more sense, and it became more necessary,"
                Gaudin said.

                Some who passed

                In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
                Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
                a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

                When she was 16 and about to go off to
                college, her mother told her about her father.

                "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
                "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
                shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

                A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
                Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

                Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
                New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
                for decades because he did not want to be labeled
                as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

                Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
                history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
                brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
                essay that was included in his 1997 book,
                "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

                For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
                ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
                very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

                Even in the waning days of his life, his body
                withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
                request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

                They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
                for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

                No identity crisis

                Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
                never sought the advantages of `White'*
                his complexion could have provided him.

                He's a retired staff member of Western
                Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
                chief of medical services and acting
                director of professional services at
                the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
                Center on Highland Drive, and he has
                taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
                University, the University of Pittsburgh
                and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

                Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
                father, William J. Hale, founding president of
                Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
                College, now known as Tennessee State University.

                Hale had come from a family
                that had accomplished much
                by living as "black"^^ people.

                His goal was to do the same.

                "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
                adored and respected my father," Hale said.
                "He chose to remain "black"^^.

                He got to be a college president."
                His mother, a graduate of Fisk
                University, headed up the business
                department at Tennessee State.
                She, too, was fair enough to
                "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

                Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
                the example of his parents,
                accomplished educators
                Harriet and William J. Hale….

                The proud son says, "He chose
                to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

                His sister, who earned a master's in
                French from Columbia University, married
                a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

                "But they had a very positive marriage as
                "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

                His brother "used to float back and forth
                between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
                he said.
                "He did that for work."

                Why didn't Hale?

                "I chose "black"^^ because
                I have a "black"^^ identity...

                "We had a heritage, and it
                was something important."

                His parents emphasized being proud of
                who he was, excelling at something,
                making a contribution to society.

                After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
                State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
                Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

                Two years later, he earned a master's in
                physiology from the University of Illinois.

                "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
                but … if you got to be too outstanding, people would
                look into your background," Hale said.

                When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
                as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
                knew people would assume he was `White'*.

                They soon learned differently through his stand
                on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

                Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
                formed the Gateway Medical Group,
                now called Gateway Medical Society.

                He was active in the National Medical Association
                and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

                "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
                let people know who I was," Hale said.

                Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
                light-skinned people to take what is considered
                the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

                Poor, uneducated folks with the same
                complexion faced a different reality.

                "These were people who used their
                physical appearances because, in
                many cases, that's all they had,"
                Gaudin said.

                "They weren't wealthy.

                In many cases, they felt this was
                their greatest, most valuable resource."

                Unbreakable family ties

                Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
                when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
                about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

                In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
                husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
                young man and should have reached the same career peak.

                Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
                "You've got nothing to complain about;
                you could have [lived as] `White'*".

                Theoretically, yes.

                Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
                swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

                Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
                "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

                "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
                "My family ties were so great."

                Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
                up in a segregated community in Baltimore…

                Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
                lawyer and civil rights activist,
                never considered "passing" as
                `White'^, although he witnessed
                others passing to get into
                barred theaters or stores.
                "That was just casual passing,"
                Freeland says.
                "I knew people who crossed over."

                As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
                West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
                or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

                "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
                Freeland said.
                "I knew people who crossed-over. " …

                Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
                lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
                numerous social and civil rights causes.

                He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
                League and was a member of the search committee that
                selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

                He's been on any number of boards, including those of
                Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
                of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
                of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
                Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

                As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
                said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

                "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
                manumission [emancipation] papers than
                any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

                "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
                I learn a lot about `White'* people … ,"
                Freeland said,

                … "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
                had a life that was more successful and happy.

                I'm successful and happy, too."

                SOURCE:

                hhttp://www. post-gazette. com/lifestyle/ 20031026stain102 6fnp2.asp

                RELATED LINKS:

                http://groups. yahoo.com/ group/Generation -Mixed/message/ 3331

                http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5 U5qzvEfty6IX? qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

                http://answers. yahoo.com/ question/ index;_ylt= AiebDu.tSshJzQ0w S5fMp7jty6IX? qid=200706232052 06AANUzPN& show=7#profile- info-q1hdwifgaa

                http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070161& postcount; =13

                http://boards. mulatto.org/ post/show_ single_post? pid=34070414& postcount; =14.

                .


              • lauraparkercastoro
                Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don t think so many whites deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person s
                Message 7 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                • 0 Attachment
                  Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed ancestry, black or white.

                  That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced. People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense. We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                  So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let their own members know what was going on.

                  So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't hide what you were never told.

                  I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are learning some surprising things.

                  Laura



                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                  jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                  I agree Rosanna,

                  Most people are really not aware consciously what
                  they are saying or even thinking concerning this
                  matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
                  automatically respond to the images before us. A
                  white person tries to add a little color to their
                  family by claiming a Indian ancestor and a black
                  person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
                  a European or other light skin race.




                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                  armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



                  I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.


                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                  jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                  I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
                  than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
                  white people know how racist views could strip them of
                  their white privilege and value. The only race that really
                  doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
                  part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
                  as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
                  it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
                  Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
                  always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
                  [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
                  drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
                  call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
                  purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
                  the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
                  no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
                  black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
                  is also felt between white people and black people` because
                  race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
                  is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
                  WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
                  by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
                  them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
                  out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


                  Pierre



                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                  armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



                  I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors, although many probably do.




                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                  quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



                  In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint, considering my so-called exotic features.

                  It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

                  Tonya



                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                  AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



                  Passing: how "posing" became
                  a choice for many Americans


                  (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
                  the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003


                  ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* *********


                  Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
                  she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
                  skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

                  But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
                  is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

                  She could "pass" for `White'*
                  but she has never tried, she said

                  "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
                  and I was even instructed not to say,
                  at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

                  In order to get their jobs, they
                  had to say they were `White'*"

                  [[[

                  Note:

                  **The term 'Colored'** as used here is a reference to
                  a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
                  also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

                  ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ as used here is
                  a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
                  who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
                  *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

                  This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
                  the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
                  on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
                  1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

                  These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^ when in reference
                  to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
                  largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
                  that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
                  were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

                  ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
                  anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

                  ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
                  'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

                  ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
                  sure that equal rights would become granted to those
                  people who suffered discrimination due to having
                  'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
                  ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

                  As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' the terms
                  "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
                  entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
                  as instructed by the western media and politicians.

                  The term `Black' as used here is in reference those who
                  are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
                  to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

                  The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
                  the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

                  *The term `White'* as used here is a reference to a person who
                  has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

                  The terms `Pass' and `Passing' as used here is
                  reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
                  have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
                  ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
                  silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
                  own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

                  ]]]

                  Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

                  During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
                  what her mother before her had done.
                  What her grandmother and aunts had done.

                  She "passed" for `White'*

                  "One time I told a woman I was
                  "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
                  Marshall recalled.

                  "She said, 'You won't get the job
                  unless you "pass" for `White'*."

                  So that's what Marshall did.
                  "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
                  she said.
                  "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

                  It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

                  Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
                  She felt she did what she had to do.

                  Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
                  want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

                  [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
                  but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

                  During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
                  There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
                  slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

                  In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
                  It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
                  It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
                  instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
                  It often meant better housing.

                  It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

                  Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
                  going out with her `White'* college friends
                  vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

                  "We went to a show, about
                  six of us ["black"^^ students].

                  The manager came and sat behind us.
                  I asked him
                  'Why are you sitting behind us?'
                  He said,
                  'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

                  Douglass said she told the manager that
                  he had never sat behind her before.

                  His response was,
                  "You never came with these people before."

                  Douglass, who the manager had assumed
                  was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
                  leave the theater rather than be insulted.

                  Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
                  of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
                  tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

                  When she was a young child, her parents
                  didn't emphasize racial differences.
                  "I just figured people came in
                  different shades," she said.

                  But when the subject came up in her
                  dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
                  approached her mother, who explained
                  to her about "race" and 'racism.'

                  "We are `a child of God' first.
                  We are `human beings' first,"
                  Douglass remembered her mother saying.

                  In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
                  is a melting pot, and she declared to her
                  mother that she would be a melting pot.

                  Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
                  seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
                  `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

                  Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
                  themselves that way given the chance.

                  Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
                  to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
                  Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

                  It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
                  can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

                  Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
                  Africa in their features and skin tone
                  also have multicultural ancestry.

                  They just can't pass.

                  Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
                  the luxury of defining themselves.

                  After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
                  swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
                  keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
                  as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
                  anyone with "one drop" of `Black
                  / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

                  That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
                  to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
                  "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

                  Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
                  their blood line or had their DNA tested,
                  would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

                  In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
                  a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
                  and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

                  The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
                  Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
                  15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

                  The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
                  million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
                  "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

                  Stuckert predicted that the numbers
                  would grow in subsequent decades.

                  Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
                  although she had family members who did.

                  Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
                  and "keen features" did not "pass" but
                  [simply married] others with fair skin ...

                  "For generations, my mother's side and my
                  father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
                  Marshall said.

                  "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
                  and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
                  only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

                  State decides for you

                  Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
                  complexion -- not for personal gain but
                  -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

                  For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
                  helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

                  Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
                  had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
                  buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

                  But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
                  homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
                  darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

                  Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
                  allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

                  White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
                  remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

                  For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
                  categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
                  depended upon what state that person was in.

                  Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
                  period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
                  every state had its own racial designation,
                  said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
                  instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

                  Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
                  in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
                  part of study she conducted on that subject.

                  A person could be born white in one state
                  and be designated "black"^^ in another
                  depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
                  said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
                  candidate at New York University.

                  ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
                  [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

                  ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
                  who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

                  ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
                  with European features', 'light with African
                  features' and everything in between.

                  "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
                  of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
                  Gaudin explained.
                  "Society had `a place' for them."

                  Some were slave owners,
                  others staunch abolitionists. ..

                  However, after the "one drop"
                  rule was instituted and Jim Crow
                  [`Segregation] became the law of
                  the land in the South, things changed.

                  Often, they would move and cut ties
                  with family members, especially
                  the ones who could not "pass".

                  The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
                  as they were sometimes called, actually forced
                  more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

                  "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
                  more sense, and it became more necessary,"
                  Gaudin said.

                  Some who passed

                  In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
                  Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
                  a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

                  When she was 16 and about to go off to
                  college, her mother told her about her father.

                  "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
                  "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
                  shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

                  A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
                  Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

                  Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
                  New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
                  for decades because he did not want to be labeled
                  as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

                  Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
                  history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
                  brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
                  essay that was included in his 1997 book,
                  "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

                  For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
                  ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
                  very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

                  Even in the waning days of his life, his body
                  withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
                  request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

                  They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
                  for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

                  No identity crisis

                  Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
                  never sought the advantages of `White'*
                  his complexion could have provided him.

                  He's a retired staff member of Western
                  Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
                  chief of medical services and acting
                  director of professional services at
                  the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
                  Center on Highland Drive, and he has
                  taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
                  University, the University of Pittsburgh
                  and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

                  Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
                  father, William J. Hale, founding president of
                  Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
                  College, now known as Tennessee State University.

                  Hale had come from a family
                  that had accomplished much
                  by living as "black"^^ people.

                  His goal was to do the same.

                  "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
                  adored and respected my father," Hale said.
                  "He chose to remain "black"^^.

                  He got to be a college president."
                  His mother, a graduate of Fisk
                  University, headed up the business
                  department at Tennessee State.
                  She, too, was fair enough to
                  "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

                  Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
                  the example of his parents,
                  accomplished educators
                  Harriet and William J. Hale.

                  The proud son says, "He chose
                  to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

                  His sister, who earned a master's in
                  French from Columbia University, married
                  a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

                  "But they had a very positive marriage as
                  "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

                  His brother "used to float back and forth
                  between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
                  he said.
                  "He did that for work."

                  Why didn't Hale?

                  "I chose "black"^^ because
                  I have a "black"^^ identity...

                  "We had a heritage, and it
                  was something important."

                  His parents emphasized being proud of
                  who he was, excelling at something,
                  making a contribution to society.

                  After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
                  State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
                  Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

                  Two years later, he earned a master's in
                  physiology from the University of Illinois.

                  "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
                  but if you got to be too outstanding, people would
                  look into your background," Hale said.

                  When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
                  as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
                  knew people would assume he was `White'*.

                  They soon learned differently through his stand
                  on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

                  Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
                  formed the Gateway Medical Group,
                  now called Gateway Medical Society.

                  He was active in the National Medical Association
                  and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

                  "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
                  let people know who I was," Hale said.

                  Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
                  light-skinned people to take what is considered
                  the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

                  Poor, uneducated folks with the same
                  complexion faced a different reality.

                  "These were people who used their
                  physical appearances because, in
                  many cases, that's all they had,"
                  Gaudin said.

                  "They weren't wealthy.

                  In many cases, they felt this was
                  their greatest, most valuable resource."

                  Unbreakable family ties

                  Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
                  when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
                  about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

                  In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
                  husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
                  young man and should have reached the same career peak.

                  Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
                  "You've got nothing to complain about;
                  you could have [lived as] `White'*".

                  Theoretically, yes.

                  Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
                  swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

                  Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
                  "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

                  "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
                  "My family ties were so great."

                  Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
                  up in a segregated community in Baltimore.

                  Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
                  lawyer and civil rights activist,
                  never considered "passing" as
                  `White'^, although he witnessed
                  others passing to get into
                  barred theaters or stores.
                  "That was just casual passing,"
                  Freeland says.
                  "I knew people who crossed over."

                  As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
                  West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
                  or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

                  "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
                  Freeland said.
                  "I knew people who crossed-over. "

                  Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
                  lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
                  numerous social and civil rights causes.

                  He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
                  League and was a member of the search committee that
                  selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

                  He's been on any number of boards, including those of
                  Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
                  of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
                  of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
                  Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

                  As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
                  said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

                  "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
                  manumission [emancipation] papers than
                  any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

                  "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
                  I learn a lot about `White'* people,"
                  Freeland said,

                  "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
                  had a life that was more successful and happy.

                  I'm successful and happy, too."

                  SOURCE:

                  hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp

                  RELATED LINKS:

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

                  http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=200705272018 34AAIhzhM& show=7#profile- info-CiC2JY9Maa

                  http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN& show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

                  http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_ single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

                  http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_ single_post?pid=34070414&postcount; =14.

                  .
                • Rodney S
                  I ve heard many stories of family members from Louisiana in decided to cross over to the other side so to speak. There are also a few mysteries that floated
                  Message 8 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                  • 0 Attachment
                    I've heard many stories of family members from Louisiana in decided to

                    "cross over" to the other side so to speak. There are also a few mysteries that floated around my family. One is the story that my great-grandfather had a half-white brother who was taken to Houston by the White fathers sisters and never heard from again. I am also curious or planning to take the genetic admixture DNA test to what numbers show up. I wouldnt be surprised if my results show extensive european ancestry considered many of my ancestors were louisiana creoles of mixed or multi-racial heritage. You can look at a new pic I just posted showing my great-grandmother and her older sister. Look at their appearance. They look almost racially ambigious.

                    Rodney Sam
                  • rosanna_armendariz
                    Good point. I totally agree that some White persons don t know of their mixed heritage. However, I still maintain that some do and prefer not to mention
                    Message 9 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Good point. I totally agree that some "White" persons don't know of their mixed heritage. However, I still maintain that some do and prefer not to mention it. And others are unwilling to even consider the possibility.



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                      "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:


                      Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                      deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                      family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                      they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                      ancestry, black or white.

                      That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                      admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                      by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                      People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                      We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                      choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                      friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                      would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                      the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                      mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                      So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                      likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                      mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                      secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                      their own members know what was going on.

                      So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                      hide what you were never told.

                      I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                      learning some surprising things.

                      Laura



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                      jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                      I agree Rosanna,

                      Most people are really not aware consciously what
                      they are saying or even thinking concerning this
                      matter. Its so ingrained into our society that we
                      automatically respond to the images before us. A
                      white person tries to add a little color to their
                      family by claiming a Indian ancestor and a black
                      person tries to whiten up their family by claiming
                      a European or other light skin race.




                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                      armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



                      I have a White friend now who vaguely refers to her Native American ancestry. I
                      think she does it to color up her family line a bit, but probably would not want
                      to do this by referring to some distant black ancestor (which is really just as
                      likely or more likely than a Nat. Amer. one). However, I don't think she's
                      consciously saying to herself, "Oh, my worth will be devalued if I'm part
                      Black," etc. Rather, these views are so ingrained in society that they have long
                      since become unconscious. Many people of all colors unfortunately don't take the
                      time to really reflect on their attitudes and beliefs.


                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, pierre
                      jefferson <pierrejefferson2007@...> wrote:



                      I agree also, saying your part Mohawk is a lot different
                      than saying your part Watusi as a white person. Because
                      white people know how racist views could strip them of
                      their white privilege and value. The only race that really
                      doesn't matter as being a asset to your whiteness is being
                      part Black. Because the racist will see you instantaneously
                      as being of African decent. There are no in betweens when
                      it comes to being black or white especially in this country.
                      Many whites who know of their black or half black relatives
                      always keep them hidden away like damaged goods. Because
                      [some feel] the power of blackness certainly requires only one
                      drop to make your whiteness invalid. In the old days they would
                      call it being "tainted" which actually meant being impure. White
                      purity fears black purity! because [some feel] black by nature is
                      the genetic code that could eventually wipe out a white family in
                      no less than one generation. That's why most schools still use
                      black boards because the chalk shows up better. This contrast
                      is also felt between white people and black people` because
                      race is still the medium we use to define our selves. Color
                      is the code we still use to classify our selves on a daily basis.
                      WHY? are most people still enslaved to the images created
                      by Race? because race and racism depends on the believer in
                      them in order to survive and cause people to make a difference
                      out of difference, a pure and natural thing created by GOD.


                      Pierre



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, rosanna_
                      armendariz <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote



                      I agree. I have met many, MANY, "White" people over the years who claim to have
                      Native American heritage, but when questioned further, it becomes apparent that
                      they have no idea what tribe/nation or who these supposed "Indian" ancestors
                      were. I think it's just a trendy thing to say. On the other hand, one rarely
                      encounters a supposedly "White" person who mentions having Black ancestors,
                      although many probably do.




                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                      quallagirl <latonyabeatty76@...> wrote:



                      In a way it is good to be able to choose. I guess people had to do what they had
                      to do to get by. I couldn't speak from a white looking person's standpoint,
                      considering my so-called exotic features.

                      It is also amazing at how many white people are clueless about their African
                      ancestry. I also think alot choose to deny that part to avoid being looked down
                      on. I notice that it is more accepting to claim Indian heritage. I don't ever
                      remember meeting a white person that admits to having black heritage.

                      Tonya



                      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                      AP Gifts <soaptalk@...> wrote:



                      Passing: how "posing" became
                      a choice for many Americans


                      (An article written by Monica L. Haynes for
                      the 'Post-Gazette' , Sunday, October 26, 2003


                      ************ ********* ********* ********* ********* *********


                      Although Barbara Douglass never told anyone
                      she was `White'*, people see her porcelain
                      skin and her silky hair and assume she is.

                      But Douglass, who lives in Wilkinsburg,
                      is a 53-year-old "black"^^ woman.

                      She could "pass" for `White'*
                      but she has never tried, she said

                      "Growing up, I knew of people who did,
                      and I was even instructed not to say,
                      at that time, that they were 'Colored'**.

                      In order to get their jobs, they
                      had to say they were `White'*"

                      [[[

                      Note:

                      **The term 'Colored'** as used here is a reference to
                      a person who is of a `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race `lineage that
                      also includes some part or amount of `Black / Negro' ancestry.

                      ^^The term "black"^^ or ""blacks"^^ as used here is
                      a reference to those `Multiracial' / `Mixed-Race' individuals
                      who were both of part-`Black / Negro' ancestry --*and*-- who
                      *also* came to be referred to / categorized by the term "black"^^.

                      This categorization would have arisen either as a result of
                      the racist `One-Drop Rule' and / or as a result of taking
                      on the socio-political `identification' that, since the late
                      1960's, has come to be referred to by the term "black"^^.

                      These terms "black"^^ and / or "blacks"^^ when in reference
                      to a socio-political "identification" -- were originally applied
                      largely as a way of describing the new socio-political mindset
                      that became popular in the late 1960s wherein many who
                      were of at least some-part `Black / Negro' lineage chose to:

                      ------ openly support of the new 'pan-African,
                      anti-colonialist movement' of the late 1960s;

                      ------ refused to hold or see the their or another's
                      'Black / Negro' ancestral lineage as being "shameful";

                      ------ and by providing support for the whole idea of making
                      sure that equal rights would become granted to those
                      people who suffered discrimination due to having
                      'Black / Negro' ancestry in their familial,
                      ethnic, racial or even cultural lineage.

                      As a result of the racist `One-Drop Rule' the terms
                      "black"^^ and "blacks"^^ were broad-brushed applied to
                      entire people groupings (as a `political catch-phrase' )
                      as instructed by the western media and politicians.

                      The term `Black' as used here is in reference those who
                      are of `Black / Negro' lineage and who also have very little
                      to no* known or acknowledged non-`Black / Negro' ancestry.

                      The "Racial"-Term `Black' is *not* the same as
                      the Socio-Political- `Identification' of "black"^^.

                      *The term `White'* as used here is a reference to a person who
                      has no known or acknowledged non-'White / Caucasian' ancestry.

                      The terms `Pass' and `Passing' as used here is
                      reference to a person who hid, denied or pretended to
                      have no known non-White (and particular `Black / Negro')
                      ancestry and / or who would simply choose to `remain
                      silent' on the whole matter and let strangers `draw their
                      own conclusions' based solely on their physical appearance.

                      ]]]

                      Thelma Marshall knows that routine.

                      During the 1950s and early '60s, she did
                      what her mother before her had done.
                      What her grandmother and aunts had done.

                      She "passed" for `White'*

                      "One time I told a woman I was
                      "black"^^, 'Colored'** in those days,"
                      Marshall recalled.

                      "She said, 'You won't get the job
                      unless you "pass" for `White'*."

                      So that's what Marshall did.
                      "I "passed" for `White'* on lots of jobs,"
                      she said.
                      "I had to be `White'* to get the jobs."

                      It's what many fair-skinned "blacks"^^ did during those times.

                      Marshall's remarks are without shame or remorse.
                      She felt she did what she had to do.

                      Still, it is a prickly subject, and the 76-year-old woman does not
                      want 'to offend' so she asked that her real name not be used.

                      [The act of] "passing" for `White'* offered not only opportunities,
                      but also the opportunities [that only] `White'* people received.

                      During [the] slavery [era], it could mean freedom.
                      There are many documented instances of fair-skinned
                      slaves who posed as [`White'* [in order] to escape.

                      In modern times, it meant being able to vote in the South.
                      It meant a job in the office rather than a job cleaning the office.
                      It meant schools with the latest equipment and books,
                      instead of dilapidated buildings and out-of-date texts.
                      It often meant better housing.

                      It meant being treated with respect, not disdain.

                      Barbara Douglass recalls the difference between
                      going out with her `White'* college friends
                      vs. her "black"^^ college friends.

                      "We went to a show, about
                      six of us ["black"^^ students].

                      The manager came and sat behind us.
                      I asked him
                      'Why are you sitting behind us?'
                      He said,
                      'I have to make sure you don't destroy anything.' "

                      Douglass said she told the manager that
                      he had never sat behind her before.

                      His response was,
                      "You never came with these people before."

                      Douglass, who the manager had assumed
                      was `White'*, encouraged her friends to
                      leave the theater rather than be insulted.

                      Because of her fair skin, Barbara Douglass
                      of Wilkinsburg often witnessed -- but never
                      tolerated -- racism directed at other people.

                      When she was a young child, her parents
                      didn't emphasize racial differences.
                      "I just figured people came in
                      different shades," she said.

                      But when the subject came up in her
                      dance class, the 8-year-old Douglass
                      approached her mother, who explained
                      to her about "race" and 'racism.'

                      "We are `a child of God' first.
                      We are `human beings' first,"
                      Douglass remembered her mother saying.

                      In fifth grade, she learned that the United States
                      is a melting pot, and she declared to her
                      mother that she would be a melting pot.

                      Her mother decided it was the perfect definition,
                      seeing as how her ancestors were Cherokee,
                      `Black', Dutch, German and Irish.

                      Maybe all "blacks"^^ would have defined
                      themselves that way given the chance.

                      Since [the first, actual] `Black' people first came
                      to the New World in 1619, they've Mingled and
                      Mixed with every Race and Ethnic group here.

                      It is not just the fair-skinned "blacks"^^ who
                      can lay claim to that melting pot definition.

                      Those "blacks"^^ who have the mark of
                      Africa in their features and skin tone
                      also have multicultural ancestry.

                      They just can't pass.

                      Most "blacks"^^ were never afforded
                      the luxury of defining themselves.

                      After the Civil War, Southern whites, not wanting this
                      swirling of races to get out of hand and seeking to
                      keep the [false notion of the] `White'* "race"
                      as [being] pure, instituted a rule that
                      anyone with "one drop" of `Black
                      / Negro' blood was `Black' [race].

                      That spurred even more fair-skinned "blacks"^^
                      to cross over and escape Jim Crow laws that kept
                      "blacks"^^ in the shackles of second-class citizenship.

                      Interestingly, many ``White'*, if they traced
                      their blood line or had their DNA tested,
                      would find they have "black"^^ ancestors.

                      In a 1999 piece for Slate, writer Brent Staples cites
                      a 1940s study by Robert Stuckert, a sociologist
                      and anthropologist from Ohio State University.

                      The study, titled "African Ancestry of the White American
                      Population", indicates that during the 1940s, approximately
                      15,550 fair-skinned "black"^^ per year "crossed the color line".

                      The study estimated that by 1950, about 21 percent or 28
                      million of the 135 million categorized as `White'* had
                      "black"^^ ancestry within the past four generations.

                      Stuckert predicted that the numbers
                      would grow in subsequent decades.

                      Marshall never thought to "pass" permanently,
                      although she had family members who did.

                      Some fair-skinned "black"^^ with "good hair"
                      and "keen features" did not "pass" but
                      [simply married] others with fair skin ...

                      "For generations, my mother's side and my
                      father's side married fair -- so they could get jobs,"
                      Marshall said.

                      "My great-grandfather had a barbershop,
                      and he "passed" for `White'*, and he had
                      only ``White'* customers in his shop." ...

                      State decides for you

                      Sometimes "blacks"^^ used their fair
                      complexion -- not for personal gain but
                      -- to circumvent discriminatory practices.

                      For example, in the 1940s, "blacks"^^ who looked `White'*
                      helped integrate Lewis Place, a neighborhood in St. Louis, Mo.

                      Like many cities during this time, Lewis Place
                      had covenants that prevented "blacks"^^ from
                      buying homes in certain neighborhoods.

                      But in the '40s, fair-skinned "blacks"^^ would purchase
                      homes on Lewis Street and then transfer deeds to [the]
                      darker-skinned "black"^^ people who had actually bought them.

                      Famed NAACP chief executive Walter White's light skin
                      allowed him to investigate lynchings and race riots in the 1920s.

                      White, who was raised in Atlanta, under Jim Crow,
                      remained an NAACP officer until he died in 1955.

                      For nearly a century, just who was [defined or
                      categorized as being either] `White'* or "black"^^
                      depended upon what state that person was in.

                      Between the 1890s and 1950s, the peak
                      period for "black"^^ "passing" as `White'*,
                      every state had its own racial designation,
                      said Wendy Ann Gaudin, a history
                      instructor at Xavier University in Louisiana.

                      Gaudin has interviewed Mixed-Race people
                      in Louisiana who "passed" for `White'* as
                      part of study she conducted on that subject.

                      A person could be born white in one state
                      and be designated "black"^^ in another
                      depending upon the `racial laws' in that state,
                      said Gaudin, who also is a Ph.D.
                      candidate at New York University.

                      ----- During the antebellum period, enslaved `Black'
                      [race] people were referred to as [being] Negroes.

                      ----- Then there were `Free People of Color' [and others],
                      who generally had [a] Mixed "racial" heritage ...

                      ----- [The free] people-of-color could be 'brown
                      with European features', 'light with African
                      features' and everything in between.

                      "They were not looked upon as so-called Negroes and
                      of course they weren't equated with `White'*, either,"
                      Gaudin explained.
                      "Society had `a place' for them."

                      Some were slave owners,
                      others staunch abolitionists. ..

                      However, after the "one drop"
                      rule was instituted and Jim Crow
                      [`Segregation] became the law of
                      the land in the South, things changed.

                      Often, they would move and cut ties
                      with family members, especially
                      the ones who could not "pass".

                      The law aimed at these "White-Negroes" ,
                      as they were sometimes called, actually forced
                      more of the very racial mingling it sought to counter.

                      "Once these laws were [enacted], "passing" made
                      more sense, and it became more necessary,"
                      Gaudin said.

                      Some who passed

                      In her 2002 memoir, "Just Lucky, I Guess," Broadway legend
                      Carol Channing revealed that her father, George Channing, was
                      a light-skinned "black"^^ man who "passed" [as being `White'*] ...

                      When she was 16 and about to go off to
                      college, her mother told her about her father.

                      "My mother announced to me I was part-Negro," Channing writes.
                      "I'm only telling you this because `the Darwinian law'
                      shows that you could easily have a "black"^^ baby."

                      A noted case of passing in recent history is that of Anatole
                      Broyard, longtime literary critic for The New York Times.

                      Born "black"^^ and raised in "black"^^ neighborhoods in
                      New Orleans and Brooklyn, he "passed" for `White'*
                      for decades because he did not want to be labeled
                      as a 'Negro' writer, he had said, but simply a Writer.

                      Henry Louis Gates Jr., chairman of the Afro-American
                      history department at Harvard, chronicled Broyard's
                      brilliant career and secret in a New Yorker
                      essay that was included in his 1997 book,
                      "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a "Black Man."

                      For years, Broyard side-stepped 'rumors' of his
                      ancestry and would credit his skin-tone to a
                      very distant relative who "may" have been "black"^^.

                      Even in the waning days of his life, his body
                      withered by cancer, he denied his wife's
                      request to tell his children of their 'true' heritage.

                      They met Broyard's darker-skinned sister, Shirley,
                      for the first time at his memorial service in 1990.

                      No identity crisis

                      Unlike Broyard, Shadyside's Dr. Edward J. Hale
                      never sought the advantages of `White'*
                      his complexion could have provided him.

                      He's a retired staff member of Western
                      Pennsylvania Hospital, served as
                      chief of medical services and acting
                      director of professional services at
                      the Veterans Affairs Department Medical
                      Center on Highland Drive, and he has
                      taught at the University of Illinois, Howard
                      University, the University of Pittsburgh
                      and Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

                      Hale, 80, said he followed the example of his
                      father, William J. Hale, founding president of
                      Tennessee Agricultural and Industrial State
                      College, now known as Tennessee State University.

                      Hale had come from a family
                      that had accomplished much
                      by living as "black"^^ people.

                      His goal was to do the same.

                      "I've always been fond of my dad, loved and
                      adored and respected my father," Hale said.
                      "He chose to remain "black"^^.

                      He got to be a college president."
                      His mother, a graduate of Fisk
                      University, headed up the business
                      department at Tennessee State.
                      She, too, was fair enough to
                      "pass", as were Hale's siblings.

                      Dr. Edward J. Hale chose to follow
                      the example of his parents,
                      accomplished educators
                      Harriet and William J. Hale.

                      The proud son says, "He chose
                      to remain "black"^^ [identified] .

                      His sister, who earned a master's in
                      French from Columbia University, married
                      a man who could not "pass", Hale said.

                      "But they had a very positive marriage as
                      "black"^^ and they lived happily," he added.

                      His brother "used to float back and forth
                      between being 'White'** and being "black"^^,
                      he said.
                      "He did that for work."

                      Why didn't Hale?

                      "I chose "black"^^ because
                      I have a "black"^^ identity...

                      "We had a heritage, and it
                      was something important."

                      His parents emphasized being proud of
                      who he was, excelling at something,
                      making a contribution to society.

                      After getting his bachelor's degree at Tennessee
                      State, he entered Meharry Medical College in
                      Nashville, graduating third in his class in 1945.

                      Two years later, he earned a master's in
                      physiology from the University of Illinois.

                      "As a fair-skinned "black"^^, I could "pass" for `White'*,
                      but if you got to be too outstanding, people would
                      look into your background," Hale said.

                      When he came to Pittsburgh in 1955 to serve
                      as chief of medicine for the VA Hospital, he
                      knew people would assume he was `White'*.

                      They soon learned differently through his stand
                      on issues and his friendships with other "black"^^.

                      Hale and several other "black"^^ doctors
                      formed the Gateway Medical Group,
                      now called Gateway Medical Society.

                      He was active in the National Medical Association
                      and helped bring their convention to Pittsburgh.

                      "I had to make an "identity" for myself, to
                      let people know who I was," Hale said.

                      Gaudin said it was easy for well-educated
                      light-skinned people to take what is considered
                      the high road by maintaining their "black"^^ identity.

                      Poor, uneducated folks with the same
                      complexion faced a different reality.

                      "These were people who used their
                      physical appearances because, in
                      many cases, that's all they had,"
                      Gaudin said.

                      "They weren't wealthy.

                      In many cases, they felt this was
                      their greatest, most valuable resource."

                      Unbreakable family ties

                      Attorney Wendell Freeland remembers a decade or so ago \
                      when he and his wife were reading in the newspaper
                      about the fast rise of a young man who was `White'*.

                      In the ensuing conversation, Freeland's wife noted that her
                      husband was smarter and much more on the ball than the
                      young man and should have reached the same career peak.

                      Freeland recalls his daughter saying to him,
                      "You've got nothing to complain about;
                      you could have [lived as] `White'*".

                      Theoretically, yes.

                      Freeland says he can fool even those "black"^^ people who
                      swear they can detect another "black"^^, no matter how fair.

                      Consciously, Freeland said he could no more
                      "pass" than his brown-skinned brethren.

                      "I never thought about it," said the 78-year-old attorney.
                      "My family ties were so great."

                      Freeland, who came to Pittsburgh in 1950, grew
                      up in a segregated community in Baltimore.

                      Wendell Freeland, a Squirrel Hill
                      lawyer and civil rights activist,
                      never considered "passing" as
                      `White'^, although he witnessed
                      others passing to get into
                      barred theaters or stores.
                      "That was just casual passing,"
                      Freeland says.
                      "I knew people who crossed over."

                      As a college student, he encountered "black"^^ from the British
                      West Indies and other places who "passed" to go to the movies
                      or to shop in places where "black"^^ were not welcome.

                      "That was just casual-"passing" ,"
                      Freeland said.
                      "I knew people who crossed-over. "

                      Freeland, who lives in Squirrel Hill, has spent a
                      lifetime utilizing his considerable talents for
                      numerous social and civil rights causes.

                      He served as senior vice president of the National Urban
                      League and was a member of the search committee that
                      selected Vernon Jordan to lead that organization in the 1970s.

                      He's been on any number of boards, including those of
                      Westminster College, University of Pittsburgh and University
                      of Pittsburgh Medical Center, and he had been chairman
                      of the board of governors for the Joint Center for
                      Political and Economic Studies in Washington, D.C.

                      As obvious as the European portion of his ancestry is, Freeland
                      said it was never a source of great pride or interest to him.

                      "I'm more proud of my great-great- grandmother' s
                      manumission [emancipation] papers than
                      any drop of `White'* blood," he said.

                      "I have to tell you my complexion has certain advantages.
                      I learn a lot about `White'* people,"
                      Freeland said,

                      "It doesn't bother me if somebody "passed" and
                      had a life that was more successful and happy.

                      I'm successful and happy, too."

                      SOURCE:

                      hhttp://www.post-gazette.com/lifestyle/20031026stain1026fnp2.asp

                      RELATED LINKS:

                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

                      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=Al5eeK2CFwcv4rD5U5qzvEfty6IX?qid=20070527201834AAIhzhM&show=7#profile-info-CiC2JY9Maa

                      http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AiebDu.tSshJzQ0wS5fMp7jty6IX?qid=20070623205206AANUzPN&show=7#profile-info-q1hdwifgaa

                      http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

                      http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14.

                      .
                    • Queen Blues
                      I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what s been on my mind so perfectly. Some people look upon me as being
                      Message 10 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                      • 0 Attachment
                        I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                        "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself as a multiracial woman of color.

                        I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                        As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed" contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                        When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy, knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story, and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I had the gene for albinism.

                        As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young, I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other. It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that I am mixed from both sides.

                        So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious African features.

                        I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that they are also mixed.

                        Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                        Peace



                        In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                        "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                        Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                        deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                        family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                        they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                        ancestry, black or white.

                        That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                        admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                        by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                        People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                        We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                        choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                        friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                        would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                        the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                        mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                        So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                        likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                        mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                        secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                        their own members know what was going on.

                        So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                        hide what you were never told.

                        I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                        learning some surprising things.

                        Laura
                      • Queen Blues
                        Laura, I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what s been on my mind so perfectly. Some people look upon me
                        Message 11 of 12 , Oct 18, 2009
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Laura, I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                          "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself as a multiracial woman of color.

                          I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                          As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed" contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                          When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy, knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story, and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I had the gene for albinism.

                          As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young, I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other. It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that I am mixed from both sides.

                          So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious African features.

                          I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that they are also mixed.

                          Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                          Peace



                          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                          "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                          Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                          deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                          family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                          they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                          ancestry, black or white.

                          That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                          admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                          by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                          People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                          We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                          choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                          friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                          would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                          the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                          mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                          So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                          likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                          mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                          secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                          their own members know what was going on.

                          So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                          hide what you were never told.

                          I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                          learning some surprising things.

                          Laura
                        • rosanna_armendariz
                          Wow, you have a fascinating story. Thank you for sharing here. I never would have thought about people using albinism as a way to pass for White. I wish
                          Message 12 of 12 , Oct 19, 2009
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Wow, you have a fascinating story. Thank you for sharing here. I never would have thought about people using albinism as a way to pass for "White." I wish you the best with your health and just said a prayer for you. Be well & God bless.



                            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                            "Queen Blues" <la_cayena@...> wrote:



                            I have pondered a right way to respond to this topic fairly and you have put a
                            part of what's been on my mind so perfectly.

                            "Some" people look upon me as being "white", however because of the other
                            portion of people who have not, I have never been about pretending that is all
                            that I am and also do not believe there is any realism in not presenting myself
                            as a multiracial woman of color.

                            I have more than one race, a few embellished stories, outright lies and many
                            different cultures running in my lineage. I have had my DNA tested and it showed
                            me more than I expected to see, because it proved I was more than one race from
                            both parents. The majority of my family would rather not acknowledge what I have
                            no way of not accepting. I have one sister who would rather pass herself off as
                            Mexican rather than accept herself as part "black", even tho there is no
                            knowledge of Mexican heritage in our family.

                            As I grow older and wiser, and partly with the valued help of "Generation Mixed"
                            contributions, I am finding it easier to deal with the pain my family's various
                            decisions have caused me. Incidentally, my DNA testing also helped to reveal
                            albinism that was overlooked. Despite the fact that another sister and I had
                            many symptoms of being albino, it had not been considered because we were
                            supposedly "white". But, in fact, the only way that we could have this condition
                            and not have white-blond hair, not be stark-white in complexion and have dark
                            eyes... is that we have African lineage.

                            When I was 20, I ran into a man who was a friend of a friend and looked exactly
                            like my father except he was much darker in skin-color. I was trying not to
                            stare, but I finally broke it down to him that the resemblance was just too much
                            & that my father had been adopted & I was wondering if he was related. The
                            following year, he took me to a light-skinned mixed "black" woman who claimed
                            she had given my father up for adoption as a result of a teenage pregnancy,
                            knowing that he was born light and with "nice hair" and knowing that this
                            happened at least every 2nd or 3rd generation in her family, and she wanted my
                            father to have a good chance in life so she hoped he would pass to be adopted as
                            a "white" baby and that's what happened. My father (who really was adopted and
                            has always had African features) got so mad at me when I told him that story,
                            and said it could not be true, I will never probably know for sure, but I
                            believe it 99% of the time, especially after I had my DNA tested & found that I
                            had the gene for albinism.

                            As it turned out, my father was adopted by people who could give him a fair
                            chance in life. I do not know the stories about what happened with my mother's
                            side of my genes. I suspect at least part of it is related to my mother's
                            mother's mother who is most likely the person on the other side of the family
                            tree who carried the gene for albinism, because at a time when I was very young,
                            I was already perceiving that my grandmother and great-aunt (her daughters) were
                            "different" as in being women of color and both looking "alike" with each other.
                            It didn't matter to me that no one else in my family acknowledged that
                            perception. That was just the way I saw it as a little girl. DNA just made it
                            more meaningful since I am just about sure my father is mixed and now know that
                            I am mixed from both sides.

                            So here I be in 2009 and there are still misconceptions that I feel will forever
                            be made about me in regard to race. But that is not because I go around
                            pretending to be "white" -- It's what other people may see despite my obvious
                            African features.

                            I'm not going around wearing a sign to announce to everyone I am a woman of
                            color, but I am someone who looks so unique that I've had people who knew me as
                            a child, and not seen me for decades, recognize me, I am someone who has
                            experienced so much racism that it is often imperceptible for me when there are
                            other people of color calling me "white", especially if it's obvious to me that
                            they are also mixed.

                            Like I was mentioning earlier though, I am very thankful for the existence of
                            this online group and your various contributions. I haven't done a whole lot of
                            contributing in here, but I have been reading. I've been going through a lot of
                            changes in the past year or so, including things with my health, not sure how
                            long I'm gonna be allowed to stay living on this planet, so I just wanted to
                            give you all a great amount of thanks for being out there.

                            Peace



                            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                            "lauraparkercastoro" <lauraparkercastoro@...> wrote:



                            Just wanted to add another thought to this topic. I don't think so many whites
                            deny their mixed heritage as were never told. I once read that if a person's
                            family has been in the U.S. for five generations or more -- regardless of where
                            they are from originally -- they have a high possibility of having mixed
                            ancestry, black or white.

                            That said, 100 years ago (20yr a generation) 1909, most people weren't going to
                            admit to family and friends if they had been involved, sneaking around, or raped
                            by a person of another race. Not all mixed relationships were brutal or forced.
                            People fall in love, regardless of what the law says, let alone common sense.
                            We have only to look at family and friends today (and maybe even our own
                            choices!) to know people make choices for partners that make no sense to their
                            friends! Anyway, if daddy or grandma had a child--was a mixed child -- NO ONE
                            would have wanted it known. It would reflect on the entire family so keeping
                            the secret had great importance. It didn't help whites to tell, and blacks
                            mostly believed it would only make life harder if the child knew.

                            So, this is a long-winded way of saying ignorance of one's heritage is much more
                            likely than willful omittance in modern society. Their ancestors never
                            mentioned a word. How will you know unless someone tells you? My family kept
                            secrets. I'll bet yours did, too. You can bet money white families didn't let
                            their own members know what was going on.

                            So, don't be so sure people know things and are keeping it a secret. You can't
                            hide what you were never told.

                            I'd be interested to learn what percentage of whites doing DNA testing are
                            learning some surprising things.

                            Laura
                          Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.