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Re: Counseling of Multi-Racial Students (Article)

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  • mulatta_loca
    Wow! Thanks for sharing this article. I ve found that very little research has been done on multi-racial issues, so I m glad to learn about initiatives such
    Message 1 of 3 , Oct 1, 2007
    • 0 Attachment
      Wow! Thanks for sharing this article.

      I've found that very little research has been done
      on multi-racial issues, so I'm glad to learn about
      initiatives such as that described below.

      Hopefully school personnel will be more sensitive to
      future generations than they were when I was a kid!
      I remember one occassion when I was in middle
      school the principal, two deans, and one of my
      teachers all called me into a meeting to try
      to figure out how to racially classify me.
      They asked me where my parents were from,
      what languages we spoke at home, and so on.
      I was standing in the middle of the room
      while they bombarded me with questions.
      I remember feeling confused and
      even violated by this interaction.
      They finally decided to classify me as Hispanic,
      I think b/c that's what I most look like.



      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
      "multiracialbookclub" <soaptalk@...> wrote:



      Multi-Racial Students:
      What School Counselors
      Need To Know.



      ERIC Digest.


      Multi-Racial individuals represent an expanding
      population of America's diverse society …

      This digest provides school counselors with basic
      information necessary to gain a better understanding
      of students from Multi-Racial backgrounds.

      It also will address stereotypes commonly associated
      with Multi-Racial students, their unique needs,
      and how school counselors can better
      respond to this growing population.


      STEREOTYPES AND MYTHS REGARDING
      MULTI-RACIAL INDIVIDUALS


      Historically, Multi-Racial individuals have
      been stereotyped as socially inept individuals
      who lack culture and are destined to have
      social and psychological problems associated
      with racial `identity' (Stonequist, 1937),
      thus leading a "confused" life because they
      "will never fit in or gain acceptance to any"
      racial group (Nakashima, 1992).

      Too often we hear cliches such as,

      "I have nothing against Inter-Racial marriages,
      I just feel sorry for the children because they will
      not be accepted or know who to identify with."

      According to Brown (1990),
      to automatically suggest that Multi-Racial
      individuals will likely have `identity'
      problems as a result of their background
      typically refers to the view that these individuals do
      not "fit neatly into socially defined racial categories"
      and as a result they have trouble determining
      their position, role, and status in society.

      It is important for school counselors to treat
      Multi-Racial students as individuals first and
      avoid making false assumptions about them
      based upon characteristics associated
      with Multi-Racial group membership.

      Another stereotype associated with [some] Multi-Racial
      individuals is the belief that they are more accepted in
      the minority community and should therefore identify
      with the parent Of-Color (Kerwin & Ponterotto, 1995).

      This perspective is associated with elements of the
      "One Drop Rule" which originated from the belief that
      each race had its own specific blood type and just `one
      drop' of "Negro blood" provided enough evidence
      to classify that person as Black, regardless
      of their physical appearance (Valentine, 1995).
      The ultimate goal behind the "One Drop Rule"
      was to promote segregation and discourage
      social interaction between Blacks and Whites.

      However, when Multi-Racial individuals do not
      culturally identify with both parents, Sebring (1985)
      contends this may cause them to experience
      feelings of disloyalty and enormous guilt over
      their rejection of one parent for the other.

      Therefore it is crucial for Multi-Racial
      children to assume a Multi-Racial identity.

      Finally, some believe that Multi-Racial individuals
      do not like to discuss their racial heritage.

      On the contrary, Kerwin and Ponterotto (1995)
      indicated that when Multi-Racial individuals are
      approached in a genuine and caring manner, they
      do not mind such inquiries and may associate
      this interest with acceptance and support.


      HOW SCHOOL COUNSELORS SHOULD RESPOND


      School counselors should first develop an awareness
      of their own personal feelings toward Multi-Racial
      individuals and Multi-Racial families (Nishimura, 1995).

      If erroneous or preconceived notions exist about
      Multi-Racial children or Multi-Racial families, they
      must be confronted and emotionally resolved if
      school counselors are to maximize their effectiveness.

      School counselors should also strive to educate
      themselves about the emotional needs of
      Multi-Racial children by reading literature, attending
      workshops, and talking with Multi-Racial families.

      The American Academy of Child and Adolescent
      Psychiatry (AACAP, 1999) reports that research
      focusing Multi-Racial individuals has shown that:

      1) Multi-Racial children have similar self-esteem
      levels and experience psychiatric problems at no
      greater rate when compared to other children;

      2) the racial identity of children from the same
      Multi-Racial family can vary because identity is
      influenced by factors including family attachments,
      family support, experiences with diverse racial and
      Ethnic groups, and individual physical features;

      3) Multi-Racial children may develop a public
      identity with the minority race yet also hold a
      private Multi-Racial identity with family and
      friends as a way to cope with societal prejudice;

      4) Multi-Racial children may encounter obstacles that
      make it more difficult for them to accept and value the
      culture of both parents when parents divorce; and

      5) Multi-Racial individuals who possess a true
      Multi-Racial identity are raised in an environment
      incorporating the values and beliefs of both racial
      groups and are generally happier than Multi-Racial
      individuals who identify with the race of
      only one parent (AACAP, 1999).

      Multi-Racial individuals, because of their
      unique developmental history, will typically
      possess more insight and sensitivity to
      both racial groups than single race children
      because they have the opportunity to personally
      experience what the racial identity of each implies.


      RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
      FOR MULTI-RACIAL INDIVIDUALS


      School counselors should become knowledgeable
      about the different developmental aspects of
      racial identity for Multi-Racial individuals.

      Models developed by Poston (1990) and
      Kerwin and Ponterotto (1995) are helpful
      resources to school counselors as they
      learn about this population of students.

      Learning how to promote the racial identity
      development of Multi-Racial children
      is also a common issue for parents.

      Parents tend to:

      (1) deny or minimize the significance
      of race as an important factor
      in identity development,

      (2) incorporate the identity of only one
      parent by immersing the family solely in
      that parent's particular community, or

      (3) encourage Multi-Racial children to embrace
      all aspects of their Multi-Racial heritage.

      McRoy and Zurcher (1983) identified a number of
      significant factors that help facilitate the positive
      development of racial identity of Multi-Racial children:

      * Multi-Racial children should be encouraged
      to acknowledge and discuss their racial
      heritage with their parents, extended family members,
      and other important individuals in their lives.

      * Parents must be able to perceive their child's
      racial heritage as being different from their own.
      They should be willing to make changes
      that will contribute to the development
      of a positive racial identity in the child.

      * Multi-Racial children should be given the
      opportunity to develop relationships with
      people from culturally diverse backgrounds.
      This can be accomplished by attending
      a culturally diverse school and by living
      in a culturally diverse neighborhood.

      * The family should form an
      identity as a Multi-Racial unit.

      These factors are significant because even though
      societal attitudes towards Multi-Racial families and
      Multi-Racial individuals have improved, stereotypes
      and prejudice are still likely to be confronted.

      Harris (2002) found that school
      counselors validated this perspective.

      They strongly believed that schools are
      a microcosm of a society that does not
      genuinely accept Multi-Racial children,
      thus the question follows: how genuinely
      are Multi-Racial children accepted in schools?

      The Multi-Racial population in the school
      setting will continue to increase as our
      nation's population becomes more diverse.
      Therefore it is important for school counselors
      to have an accurate understanding of
      Multi-Racial individuals and their families.

      School counselors should work to create a cultural
      environment in their school setting that embraces
      diversity because, as Harris (2002) found:

      * School counselors who were employed in schools
      that actively promoted cultural diversity and
      awareness programs held more accurate
      perceptions of Multi-Racial children.

      * School counselors who were in schools that did not
      actively promote cultural diversity and awareness
      programs were more likely to inaccurately:

      1) believe that racial identity issues were the major
      cause of emotional problems for Multi-Racial children,

      2) support the perception that Multi-Racial children
      should identify primarily with the minority parent, and

      3) categorize Multi-Racial children
      with the minority parent.


      * School counselors in school settings that actively
      promoted cultural diversity and awareness programs
      believed living in a racially diverse neighborhood
      was helpful in facilitating positive development
      of racial identity for Multi-Racial children.


      CONCLUSION


      This digest has introduced some of the
      issues that Multi-Racial students face.

      The school counselor can help to create a positive
      environment for these students by promoting cultural
      diversity and awareness programs that debunk
      myths associated with Multi-Racial individuals.

      Further, school counselors should be
      aware of differences between Multi-Racial
      students and treat them as individuals first.

      Finally, school counselors should recognize
      the unique heritage of Multi-Racial individuals
      and some of the problems they may
      encounter as a result of their heritage.

      Multi-Racial individuals need to feel genuinely
      valued, supported, and understood and school
      counselors can play an influential role
      in helping to communicate this message.


      REFERENCES


      American Academy of Child and
      Adolescent Psychiatry (1999).
      Facts for families: Multi-Racial children. No. 71,
      www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/71.htm
      <http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/71.htm> .
      Brown, P. M. (1990).

      Bi-Racial identity and social marginality.
      Child and Adolescent Social Work, 7, 319-337.
      Harris, H. L. (2002).

      School counselors' perceptions of Bi-Racial children:
      A pilot study. Professional School Counseling, 6, 120-129.
      Kerwin, K., & Ponterotto, J. G. (1995).

      Bi-Racial identity development.
      In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A.
      Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.),

      Handbook of multicultural counseling
      (pp. 199-217). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
      McRoy, R. G., & Zurcher, L. A. (1983).

      Transracial and inracial adoptees:
      The adolescent years.
      Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
      Nakashima, C. L. (1992).

      An invisible monster:
      The creation and denial of Racially-Mixed people in America.
      In Maria P. P. Root (Ed.), Racially-Mixed people in
      America (pp. 162-180). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
      Nishimura, N. (1995).

      Addressing the needs of Bi-Racial children:
      An issue for school counselors in a
      multicultural school environment.
      The School Counselor, 43, 52-57.
      Poston, W. S. C. (1990).

      The Bi-Racial identity development model:
      A needed addition.
      Journal of Counseling and Development, 69,152-155.
      Sebring, D. L. (1985).

      Considerations in counseling Inter-Racial children.
      Journal of Non-White Concerns, 13, 3-9.
      Stonequist, E. V. (1937).

      The marginal man:
      A study in personality and culture and conflict.
      New York: Russell & Russell.
      U.S. Bureau of Census. (2001).

      Mapping census 2000:
      The geography of U.S. diversity.
      Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
      Valentine, G. (1995).

      Shades of gray: The conundrum of color categories.
      Teaching Tolerance, 49, 47.

      SOURCE:
      http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/Multi-Racial.html
      <http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/multiracial.html>
    • kier22_2
      Wow, Mulatta Loca I am so sorry you had to go thru that. It s bad enough being in the principals office than they bring in deans & you find out it s because
      Message 2 of 3 , Oct 2, 2007
      • 0 Attachment
        Wow,
        Mulatta Loca I am so sorry you had to go thru that.
        It's bad enough being in the principals office than
        they bring in deans & you find out it's because
        they want to classify you? What kind of crap is that!
        It makes me angry at them & sorry that you had to go thru that...



        "mulatta_loca" <rosanna_armendariz@...> wrote:



        Wow! Thanks for sharing this article.

        I've found that very little research has been done
        on multi-racial issues, so I'm glad to learn about
        initiatives such as that described below.

        Hopefully school personnel will be more sensitive to
        future generations than they were when I was a kid!
        I remember one occassion when I was in middle
        school the principal, two deans, and one of my
        teachers all called me into a meeting to try
        to figure out how to racially classify me.
        They asked me where my parents were from,
        what languages we spoke at home, and so on.
        I was standing in the middle of the room
        while they bombarded me with questions.
        I remember feeling confused and
        even violated by this interaction.
        They finally decided to classify me as Hispanic,
        I think b/c that's what I most look like.



        In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
        "multiracialbookclub" <soaptalk@...> wrote:



        Multi-Racial Students:
        What School Counselors
        Need To Know.



        ERIC Digest.


        Multi-Racial individuals represent an expanding
        population of America's diverse society …

        This digest provides school counselors with basic
        information necessary to gain a better understanding
        of students from Multi-Racial backgrounds.

        It also will address stereotypes commonly associated
        with Multi-Racial students, their unique needs,
        and how school counselors can better
        respond to this growing population.


        STEREOTYPES AND MYTHS REGARDING
        MULTI-RACIAL INDIVIDUALS


        Historically, Multi-Racial individuals have
        been stereotyped as socially inept individuals
        who lack culture and are destined to have
        social and psychological problems associated
        with racial `identity' (Stonequist, 1937),
        thus leading a "confused" life because they
        "will never fit in or gain acceptance to any"
        racial group (Nakashima, 1992).

        Too often we hear cliches such as,

        "I have nothing against Inter-Racial marriages,
        I just feel sorry for the children because they will
        not be accepted or know who to identify with."

        According to Brown (1990),
        to automatically suggest that Multi-Racial
        individuals will likely have `identity'
        problems as a result of their background
        typically refers to the view that these individuals do
        not "fit neatly into socially defined racial categories"
        and as a result they have trouble determining
        their position, role, and status in society.

        It is important for school counselors to treat
        Multi-Racial students as individuals first and
        avoid making false assumptions about them
        based upon characteristics associated
        with Multi-Racial group membership.

        Another stereotype associated with [some] Multi-Racial
        individuals is the belief that they are more accepted in
        the minority community and should therefore identify
        with the parent Of-Color (Kerwin & Ponterotto, 1995).

        This perspective is associated with elements of the
        "One Drop Rule" which originated from the belief that
        each race had its own specific blood type and just `one
        drop' of "Negro blood" provided enough evidence
        to classify that person as Black, regardless
        of their physical appearance (Valentine, 1995).
        The ultimate goal behind the "One Drop Rule"
        was to promote segregation and discourage
        social interaction between Blacks and Whites.

        However, when Multi-Racial individuals do not
        culturally identify with both parents, Sebring (1985)
        contends this may cause them to experience
        feelings of disloyalty and enormous guilt over
        their rejection of one parent for the other.

        Therefore it is crucial for Multi-Racial
        children to assume a Multi-Racial identity.

        Finally, some believe that Multi-Racial individuals
        do not like to discuss their racial heritage.

        On the contrary, Kerwin and Ponterotto (1995)
        indicated that when Multi-Racial individuals are
        approached in a genuine and caring manner, they
        do not mind such inquiries and may associate
        this interest with acceptance and support.


        HOW SCHOOL COUNSELORS SHOULD RESPOND


        School counselors should first develop an awareness
        of their own personal feelings toward Multi-Racial
        individuals and Multi-Racial families (Nishimura, 1995).

        If erroneous or preconceived notions exist about
        Multi-Racial children or Multi-Racial families, they
        must be confronted and emotionally resolved if
        school counselors are to maximize their effectiveness.

        School counselors should also strive to educate
        themselves about the emotional needs of
        Multi-Racial children by reading literature, attending
        workshops, and talking with Multi-Racial families.

        The American Academy of Child and Adolescent
        Psychiatry (AACAP, 1999) reports that research
        focusing Multi-Racial individuals has shown that:

        1) Multi-Racial children have similar self-esteem
        levels and experience psychiatric problems at no
        greater rate when compared to other children;

        2) the racial identity of children from the same
        Multi-Racial family can vary because identity is
        influenced by factors including family attachments,
        family support, experiences with diverse racial and
        Ethnic groups, and individual physical features;

        3) Multi-Racial children may develop a public
        identity with the minority race yet also hold a
        private Multi-Racial identity with family and
        friends as a way to cope with societal prejudice;

        4) Multi-Racial children may encounter obstacles that
        make it more difficult for them to accept and value the
        culture of both parents when parents divorce; and

        5) Multi-Racial individuals who possess a true
        Multi-Racial identity are raised in an environment
        incorporating the values and beliefs of both racial
        groups and are generally happier than Multi-Racial
        individuals who identify with the race of
        only one parent (AACAP, 1999).

        Multi-Racial individuals, because of their
        unique developmental history, will typically
        possess more insight and sensitivity to
        both racial groups than single race children
        because they have the opportunity to personally
        experience what the racial identity of each implies.


        RACIAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT
        FOR MULTI-RACIAL INDIVIDUALS


        School counselors should become knowledgeable
        about the different developmental aspects of
        racial identity for Multi-Racial individuals.

        Models developed by Poston (1990) and
        Kerwin and Ponterotto (1995) are helpful
        resources to school counselors as they
        learn about this population of students.

        Learning how to promote the racial identity
        development of Multi-Racial children
        is also a common issue for parents.

        Parents tend to:

        (1) deny or minimize the significance
        of race as an important factor
        in identity development,

        (2) incorporate the identity of only one
        parent by immersing the family solely in
        that parent's particular community, or

        (3) encourage Multi-Racial children to embrace
        all aspects of their Multi-Racial heritage.

        McRoy and Zurcher (1983) identified a number of
        significant factors that help facilitate the positive
        development of racial identity of Multi-Racial children:

        * Multi-Racial children should be encouraged
        to acknowledge and discuss their racial
        heritage with their parents, extended family members,
        and other important individuals in their lives.

        * Parents must be able to perceive their child's
        racial heritage as being different from their own.
        They should be willing to make changes
        that will contribute to the development
        of a positive racial identity in the child.

        * Multi-Racial children should be given the
        opportunity to develop relationships with
        people from culturally diverse backgrounds.
        This can be accomplished by attending
        a culturally diverse school and by living
        in a culturally diverse neighborhood.

        * The family should form an
        identity as a Multi-Racial unit.

        These factors are significant because even though
        societal attitudes towards Multi-Racial families and
        Multi-Racial individuals have improved, stereotypes
        and prejudice are still likely to be confronted.

        Harris (2002) found that school
        counselors validated this perspective.

        They strongly believed that schools are
        a microcosm of a society that does not
        genuinely accept Multi-Racial children,
        thus the question follows: how genuinely
        are Multi-Racial children accepted in schools?

        The Multi-Racial population in the school
        setting will continue to increase as our
        nation's population becomes more diverse.
        Therefore it is important for school counselors
        to have an accurate understanding of
        Multi-Racial individuals and their families.

        School counselors should work to create a cultural
        environment in their school setting that embraces
        diversity because, as Harris (2002) found:

        * School counselors who were employed in schools
        that actively promoted cultural diversity and
        awareness programs held more accurate
        perceptions of Multi-Racial children.

        * School counselors who were in schools that did not
        actively promote cultural diversity and awareness
        programs were more likely to inaccurately:

        1) believe that racial identity issues were the major
        cause of emotional problems for Multi-Racial children,

        2) support the perception that Multi-Racial children
        should identify primarily with the minority parent, and

        3) categorize Multi-Racial children
        with the minority parent.


        * School counselors in school settings that actively
        promoted cultural diversity and awareness programs
        believed living in a racially diverse neighborhood
        was helpful in facilitating positive development
        of racial identity for Multi-Racial children.


        CONCLUSION


        This digest has introduced some of the
        issues that Multi-Racial students face.

        The school counselor can help to create a positive
        environment for these students by promoting cultural
        diversity and awareness programs that debunk
        myths associated with Multi-Racial individuals.

        Further, school counselors should be
        aware of differences between Multi-Racial
        students and treat them as individuals first.

        Finally, school counselors should recognize
        the unique heritage of Multi-Racial individuals
        and some of the problems they may
        encounter as a result of their heritage.

        Multi-Racial individuals need to feel genuinely
        valued, supported, and understood and school
        counselors can play an influential role
        in helping to communicate this message.


        REFERENCES


        American Academy of Child and
        Adolescent Psychiatry (1999).
        Facts for families: Multi-Racial children. No. 71,
        www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/71.htm
        <http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/71.htm> .
        Brown, P. M. (1990).

        Bi-Racial identity and social marginality.
        Child and Adolescent Social Work, 7, 319-337.
        Harris, H. L. (2002).

        School counselors' perceptions of Bi-Racial children:
        A pilot study. Professional School Counseling, 6, 120-129.
        Kerwin, K., & Ponterotto, J. G. (1995).

        Bi-Racial identity development.
        In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A.
        Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.),

        Handbook of multicultural counseling
        (pp. 199-217). Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
        McRoy, R. G., & Zurcher, L. A. (1983).

        Transracial and inracial adoptees:
        The adolescent years.
        Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
        Nakashima, C. L. (1992).

        An invisible monster:
        The creation and denial of Racially-Mixed people in America.
        In Maria P. P. Root (Ed.), Racially-Mixed people in
        America (pp. 162-180). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
        Nishimura, N. (1995).

        Addressing the needs of Bi-Racial children:
        An issue for school counselors in a
        multicultural school environment.
        The School Counselor, 43, 52-57.
        Poston, W. S. C. (1990).

        The Bi-Racial identity development model:
        A needed addition.
        Journal of Counseling and Development, 69,152-155.
        Sebring, D. L. (1985).

        Considerations in counseling Inter-Racial children.
        Journal of Non-White Concerns, 13, 3-9.
        Stonequist, E. V. (1937).

        The marginal man:
        A study in personality and culture and conflict.
        New York: Russell & Russell.
        U.S. Bureau of Census. (2001).

        Mapping census 2000:
        The geography of U.S. diversity.
        Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
        Valentine, G. (1995).

        Shades of gray: The conundrum of color categories.
        Teaching Tolerance, 49, 47.

        SOURCE:
        http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/Multi-Racial.html
        <http://www.ericdigests.org/2005-2/multiracial.html>
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