Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

(Article) Who Chooses to Choose

Expand Messages
  • multiracialbookclub
    Who Chooses to Choose two? by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill The following excerpt is from the report Who Chooses to Choose Two? Multiracial
    Message 1 of 2 , Apr 5, 2007
    • 0 Attachment


      Who Chooses to Choose two?

      by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill


      The following excerpt is from the report "Who Chooses to
      Choose Two? Multiracial Identification and Census 2000,"
      by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill, and published by
      the Russell Sage Foundation and the Population Reference Bure
      au.

      This report is one of several in the new series The American People,
      which sets the results of Census 2000 in context and collectively
      provides a portrait of the American people in a new century.

      (June 2004) Racial identity in the United States
      is first established within the context of families.
      In the census, parents report the
      "racial" 'identity' of their children.

      To what extent do parents of different races
      identify their children as Multi-Racial?
      Do patterns of Multi-Racial reporting depend
      on the specific race of each parent?

      In the most common intermarriage case where one parent
      is White and one is non-White, does reporting depend on
      whether it is the mother or the father who is non-White?

      One of the most striking results of the 2000 Census is that most
      Inter-Racial couples do not report their children as Multi-Racial.
      Overall, we estimated that less than half (44 percent) of children
      living with parents of different races are identified as Multi-Racial.

      The proportions are especially low for two of the largest
      biracial groups, with only 13 percent of American Indian
      /White couples and only 3 percent of Latino SOR/White
      couples identifying their children as biracial (see Table 1).

      (SOR denotes "Some Other Race."
      A "/" denotes the racial identification of married couples.
      For example, a couple in which one partner is Black and the
      other partner is Asian is described as a Black/Asian couple.)

       Table 1

      Children Identified
      as Multi-Racial, by
      Parent's Race, 2000

      Parent's race

      Percent

      Black / White
      parents

      49

      AIAN / White
      parents

      13

      Asian / White
      parents

      52

      SOR, Hispanic / White
      parents

      3

      Both parents
      Multi-Racial

      83

      Note: Predicted percentages based
      on author's regression models.

      Source:  Author's calculations using
      Census 2000 1 % Public Use
      Microdata Sample (PUMS).

      The likelihood of reporting a child
      as Multi-Racial depends very
      much on the specific "racial"
      combination of the parents.

      Children of Asian/White and Black
      / White interracial couples are far
      more likely to report their child
      as Multi-Racial than American-Indian
      / White, non-Latino SOR / White,
      and Latino SOR / White parents.

      However, even among Asian/White and
      Black/White couples, only about half
      report their children as Multi-Racial.

      Among Black/White couples, most
      who do not report their children as
      Multi-Racial report them as "
      black".

      Among Asian/White and Latino
      SOR / White couples, most who
      do not report their children as
      Multi-Racial report them as White.

      American-Indian/White couples
      are about evenly divided between
      reporting 
      their children as only
      American-Indian or only-White.

      Just as the levels of Multi-Racial reporting vary
      between the racial combinations of the parents,
      we believe that the reasons for Multi-Racial
      reporting are particular to each
      combination of multiracial parents.

      The very low levels of Multi-Racial reporting among
      American-Indian / White couples may be due to the nature
      of the American-Indian population in the United States.

      That population includes a large number of people of Mixed-Ancestry
      with varying degrees of strength in an AIAN identity.1

      Those who strongly identify as American-Indian
      are likely to report their children as Mono-Racial
      American-Indian, even if one parent is White.

      Most American-Indian tribes allow as members individuals
      who have only one "full-blooded" grandparent.2

      Thus, an AIAN parent who has strong ancestral
      connections to a tribe is likely to report his or her
      child as American-Indian regardless of spouse ethnicity.

      Those who do not strongly identify as AIAN, an apparently large and
      perhaps growing share of the AIAN population in the United States,
      and who have a child with a White spouse, report the child as White.

      The low levels of Multi-Racial reporting among Latino
      Mixed-Race SOR/White couples can be attributed to the
      prominence of Latino ' identity' rather than "racial" 'identity'.

      For many Latinos, the "racial" categories
      on the census are 'not meaningful'.

      Large proportions of Latinos respond that they are SOR, and
      even slightly larger proportions respond that they are White.

      A large majority of Latinos would prefer to have
      "Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin" added to
      the list of "racial" categories used in the census.3

      For many Latinos, the choice between
      SOR and White is somewhat 'arbitrary'.

      Choosing both 'identities' for their children would be
      superfluous, since the Latino 'identity' is most salient.

      Couples most likely to identify their
      children as Multi-Racial are those in
      which both parents are Multi-Racial:
      83 percent of such couples report their
      children to be more than one "race".

      Although such couples are a small share of
      all married couples, their children represent
      a substantial share of all Multi-Racial children.


      Indeed, 25 percent of Multi-Racial children
      in the United States have parents that
      both identify as Multi-Racial ...


      Even having only one Multi-Racial parent
      leads to a relatively high probability of a
      child being identified as Multi-Racial.

      Altogether, over half of Multi-Racial children
      have at least one Multi-Raciall parent.

      References

      1. Matthew Snipp, "American Indians: Clues to the Future of Other
        Racial Groups," in
        The New Race Question: How the Census
        Counts Multiracial Individuals
        , ed. Joel Perlmann and Mary
        C. Waters (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002).
      2. Russell Thornton, "Tribal Membership Requirements
        and the Demography of Old and New Native Americans,"
        in Changing Numbers, Changing Needs, ed. Gary D.
        Sandefur, Ronald R. Rindfuss, and Barney Cohen
        (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1996).
      3. Clyde R. Tucker et al., Testing Methods of Collecting
        Racial and Ethnic Information: Results of the Current
        Population Survey Supplement on Race and
        Ethnicity," Statistical Notes, no. 40 (1996).


      Copyright 2006, Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved.



      SOURCE: http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/Content/ContentGrups/04_Articles/Who_Chooses_to_Choose_Two_.htm

    • multiracialbookclub
      Who Chooses to Choose two? by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill The following excerpt is from the report Who Chooses to Choose Two? Multiracial
      Message 2 of 2 , Mar 20 9:10 AM
      • 0 Attachment

        Who Chooses to Choose two?

        by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill

        The following excerpt is from the report "Who Chooses to 
        Choose Two? Multiracial Identification and Census 2000," 
        by Sonya M. Tafoya, Hans Johnson, and Laura E. Hill, and published by 
        the Russell Sage Foundation and the Population Reference Bure
        au.

        This report is one of several in the new series The American People, 
        which sets the results of Census 2000 in context and collectively 
        provides a portrait of the American people in a new century. 

        (June 2004) Racial identity in the United States 
        is first established within the context of families. 
        In the census, parents report the 
        "racial" 'identity' of their children. 

        To what extent do parents of different races 
        identify their children as Multi-Racial? 
        Do patterns of Multi-Racial reporting depend 
        on the specific race of each parent? 

        In the most common intermarriage case where one parent 
        is 'White' and one is 'non-White', does reporting depend on 
        whether it is the mother or the father who is 'non-White?

        One of the most striking results of the 2000 Census is that most 
        Inter-Racial couples do not report their children as Multi-Racial. 

        Overall, we estimated that less than half (44 percent) of children 
        living with parents of different races are identified as Multi-Racial. 

        The proportions are especially low for two of the
        largest [interracial] groups, with only 13 percent
        of American Indian/White couples and only 3
        percent of Latino SOR**/White couples identifying
        their children as [mixed-race] (see Table 1). 

        (NOTE:

        **SOR denotes "Some Other Race." 
        ~~ AIAN denotes "American Indian / Alaskan Native"
        ^^ A slash-mark "</>" denotes the racial identification of married couples. 
        For example, a couple in which one partner is Black and the 
        other partner is Asian is described as a Black/Asian couple.)

         Table 1

        Children Identified 
        as Multi-Racial, by 
        Parent's Race, 2000

        Parent's race

        Percent

        Black / White 
        parents

        49

        AIAN ~~/ White 
        parents

        13

        Asian / White 
        parents

        52

        SOR**,
        Hispanic / White 
        parents

        3

        Both parents 
        Multi-Racial

        83

        Note: 
        Predicted percentages based 
        on author's regression models.

        Source:   
        Author's calculations using 
        Census 2000 1 % Public Use 
        Microdata Sample (PUMS).


             The likelihood of reporting a child 
             as Multi-Racial depends very 
             much on the specific "racial" 
             combination of the parents.

             Children of Asian/White and
             Black / White interracial couples
             are far more likely to report
             their child as Multi-Racial 
             than American-Indian / White,
             non-Latino SOR** / White, and
             Latino SOR** / White parents. 

             However, even among Asian/White and 
             Black/White couples, only about half 
             report their children as Multi-Racial. 

             Among Black/White couples, most 
             who do not report their children as 
             Multi-Racial report them as "black". 

             Among Asian/White and
             Latino SOR** / White couples,
             most who do not report their children
             as Multi-Racial report them as White. 
             American-Indian/White couples 
             are about evenly divided between 
             reporting their children as only 
             American-Indian or only-White. 


        Just as the levels of Multi-Racial reporting
        vary between the racial combinations of the
        parents, we believe that the reasons for
        Multi-Racial reporting are particular to
        each combination of [interracial] parents.

        The very low levels of Multi-Racial reporting among 
        American-Indian / White couples may be due to the
        nature of the American-Indian population in the United States. 

        That population includes a large number of people of Mixed-Ancestry 
        with varying degrees of strength in an AIAN~~ identity.1 

        Those who strongly identify as American-Indian 
        are likely to report their children as Mono-Racial 
        American-Indian, even if one parent is White. 

        Most American-Indian tribes allow as members individuals 
        who have only one "full-blooded" grandparent.2 

        Thus, an AIAN~~ parent who has strong ancestral 
        connections to a tribe is likely to report his or her 
        child as American-Indian regardless of spouse ethnicity. 

        Those who do not strongly identify as AIAN~~, an apparently large and 
        perhaps growing share of the AIAN~~ population in the United States, 
        and who have a child with a White spouse, report the child as White.

        The low levels of Multi-Racial reporting among Latino 
        [Interracial] SOR**/White couples can be attributed to the
        prominence of Latino ' identity' rather than "racial" 'identity'. 

        For many Latinos, the "racial" categories 
        on the census are 'not meaningful'. 

        Large proportions of Latinos respond that they are SOR**, and 
        even slightly larger proportions respond that they are White. 

        A large majority of Latinos would prefer to have 
        "Hispanic, Latino, or of Spanish origin" added to 
        the list of "racial" categories used in the census.3 

        For many Latinos, the choice between 
        SOR** and White is somewhat 'arbitrary'. 

        Choosing both 'identities' for their children would be 
        superfluous, since the Latino 'identity' is most salient.

        Couples most likely to identify their 
        children as Multi-Racial are those in 
        which both parents are Multi-Racial: 
        83 percent of such couples report their 
        children to be more than one "race"...
        their children represent a substantial
        share of all Multi-Racial children.
         

        Indeed, 25 percent of Multi-Racial children 
        in the United States have parents that
        both identify as Multi-Racial ... 


        Even having only one Multi-Racial parent 
        leads to a relatively high probability of a 
        child being identified as Multi-Racial. 


        Altogether, over half of Multi-Racial children 
        have at least one Multi-Racial parent.

        References

        1. Matthew Snipp, "American Indians: Clues to the Future of Other 
          Racial Groups," in 
          The New Race Question: How the Census 
          Counts Multiracial Individuals
          , ed. Joel Perlmann and Mary 
          C. Waters (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002).
        2. Russell Thornton, "Tribal Membership Requirements 
          and the Demography of Old and New Native Americans," 
          in Changing Numbers, Changing Needs, ed. Gary D. 
          Sandefur, Ronald R. Rindfuss, and Barney Cohen 
          (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 1996).
        3. Clyde R. Tucker et al., Testing Methods of Collecting 
          Racial and Ethnic Information: Results of the Current 
          Population Survey Supplement on Race and 
          Ethnicity," Statistical Notes, no. 40 (1996).


        Copyright 2006, Population Reference Bureau. All rights reserved.



        SOURCE: http://www.prb.org/Template.cfm?Section=PRB&template=/Content/ContentGrups/04_Articles/Who_Chooses_to_Choose_Two_.htm

      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.