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The U.S.C.B.'s role in the O.D.R.

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  • multiracialbookclub
    THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE The Data shown below clearly demonstrates how the United States Census Bureau (USCB) has used a form of
    Message 1 of 7 , Oct 21, 2006

      THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
      THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


      The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
      how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
      has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in
      an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
      of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
      and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
      lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

      (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
      people changed with each census -- until the
      term was finally eliminated altogether – with
      the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
      groupings altogether mis-categorized.

      Notice also how –without any explanation –
      it is simply and continually decided that ---
      anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
      group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
      Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
      true "racial-admixture" may, in fact,  actually be.)

      Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
      Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
      the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
      and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
      eventually removed from the Forms.

      From then on, Mixed-Race people
      became silenced by One-Droppism.

      Historical racial classification and the census:

      Year:
                              1900
      Category:                White, Black, Indian,
      Chinese, and Japanese

      Year:                         1910
      Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, 
                                         
      Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

      Year:                         1920
      Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
                                         
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
                                         
      Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

      Year:                         1930
      Category:                White, Negro
      , Indian, Mexican, 
                                         
      Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                         
      Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year:                         1940
      Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, 
                                         
      Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean 
                                         
      (Other races, spell out in full)

      Year:                         1950 
      Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, 
                                         
      Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

      Year:                         1960
      Category:                White, Negro, American Indian, 
                                         
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
                                         
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

      Year:                         1970
      Category:                White, Negro or Black, Indian
                                          (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, 
                                         
      Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

      Year:                         1980
      Category:                White, Negro, Indian (American), 
                                         
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, 
                                         
      Vietnamese, Asian Indian,  Hawaiian, 
                                         
      Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, 
                                         
      Other (specify); each person 
                                         
      can also be Hispanic or Latino.

      Year:                         1990
      Category:                White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese, 
                                         
      Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo, 
                                         
      Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan, 
                                         
      Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, 
                                         
      Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

      SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html


      1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

      Color:

      Be particularly careful in
      reporting the class Mulatto.
       
      The word is here generic
      , and includes
      quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
      having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

      Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
      determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

      4.  Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
      Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
      —
      Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
      Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
      the color or race of the person enumerated.

      Be particularly careful to distinguish between
      Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

      The word "mulatto," [should be used to
      describe] those persons who have from
      three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;

      "quadroon," those persons who have
      one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
      "those persons who have one-eighth
      or `any trace' of Black blood"

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race:

      Write "W" for white;
      "B" for black;
      "Mu" for mulatto;
      "In" for Indian;
      "Ch" for Chinese;
       "Jp" for Japanese;
      For all persons not falling within one
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
      Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
      while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
      other persons having "some proportion
      or perceptible trace of Negro blood".
       

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

      Color or Race.—

      Write "W" for white;
      "B" for black;
      "Mu" for mulatto;
      "In" for Indian;

      "Ch" for Chinese;
       "Jp" for Japanese;
      For all persons not falling within one
      of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

      … the term "black" (B) includes all persons
      who are evidently full-blooded negroes,
      while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all
      other persons having some proportion
      or perceptible trace of negro blood.
       

      SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

      Race in 1930

      Someone who was part Indian and
      part Negro was to be reported as Negro

      unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
      was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

      SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm

      1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Color or Race

      Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
      "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
      "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

      For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

      455. Negroes

      A person of mixed White and Negro blood
      should be returned as Negro, no matter
      how small a percentage of Negro blood.

      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
      returned as Negroes, without distinction.
      A person of mixed Indian and Negro
      blood should be returned as a Negro,

      unless
      the Indian blood very definitely
      predominates
      -- AND -- he is
      `universally
      accepted'
      in the community as an Indian. 

      457. Mixed Races

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
      according to the race of the father, except that
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro. 

      SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml

      1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

      Personal Characteristics

      Item 9. Race

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.

      Write "W" for white; "Neg"
      for Negro;
      " Ind " for
      American Indian;

      "Chi" for
      Chinese; "Jap" for
      Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.

      For a person of any other
      race, write the race in full.

      Assume that the race of
      related persons living in the
      household is the same as the
      race of your respondent,
      unless you learn otherwise.

      For unrelated persons
      (employees, hired hands,
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
      race, because knowledge of the
      housewife's race (for example)
      tells nothing of the maid's race.

      116. Negroes.-

      Report "Negro" (Neg)
      for Negroes and for
      persons of Mixed White
      -And-Negro-Parentage.

      A person of Mixed-Indian-
      and-Negro-Blood should
      be returned as a Negro,

      unless
      the Indian blood very
      definitely predominates

      -- AND -- he is `accepted'
      in the community as an Indian.

      (Note, however, the exceptions
      described in par. l18 below.)

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian" 
      (Ind) for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-
      Indian-Blood
      -- if enrolled
      on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
      if not so enrolled, they should
      still be reported as Indian
      if
      the proportion of Indian blood
      is One-Fourth or more, or if
      they are `regarded' as Indians
      in the community where they live.
      (See par. 116 for persons of
      Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
      Blood and also exceptions
      noted in par. 118.)

      In those counties where there
      are many Indians living outside
      of reservations, special care
      should be taken to obtain
      accurate answers to item 9.

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of Mixed-White-
      Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry
      `living in certain communities'
      in the Eastern United State 's
      in terms of The Name By
      Which They Are Locally Known.

      The communities in question
      are of long standing and are
      locally recognized by special
      names, such as '"Croatian,"
      "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
      Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes
      `not living in such communities'
      should be returned as
      "Negro" (see par. 116).

      When in doubt, describe
      the situation in a footnote.

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report Race of Nonwhite
      parent for persons of Mixed-
      White-And-Nonwhite-Races.


      Mixtures of Nonwhite races
      should be reported according
      to the race of the father.

      (Note, however, exceptions detailed
      in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

      SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

      CENSUS :                             1850, 1860
      RACE QUESTION:           Color
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                 
      White, Black, or Mulatto.

      CENSUS :                             1870, 1880
      RACE QUESTION:           Color
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                            
      White (W), Black (B), Mulatto 
                            
      (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

      CENSUS:                              1900
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR 
      `Of-Negro-Descent');
      "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
      Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be. 

      CENSUS :                             1910
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      108.
      Write
      "W" for white; "B"
      for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto
      ;
      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.  109.

      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
      includes all persons who are evidently
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood
      .

      CENSUS:                              1920
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
       

      120.
      Write
      "W" for white, "B" for Black;
      "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian
      ;
      "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
      Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
      For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
      write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
      of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
      For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
      includes all persons who are evidently
      Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
      (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
      Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

      CENSUS :                             1940
      RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS: 

      453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
      for Negro; "In" for Indian;
      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
      Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

      454.
      Mexicans.

      Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless
      definitely
      of Indian or other nonwhite race.
       

      455.
      Negroes.

      A person of mixed white and Negro blood
      should be returned as Negro, no matter

      how small a percentage of Negro blood.
      Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
      returned as Negroes, without distinction.

      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
      should be returned as a Negro,
      unless the Indian
      blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
      accepted in the community as an Indian. 

      456.
      Indians.

      A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood
      should be returned as an Indian
      , if enrolled
      on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
      so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
      One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
      as an Indian in the community where he lives. 

      457. Mixed Races.

      Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
      be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

      Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
      according to the race of the father, except that
      Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

      Note that Mulattos no longer have
      their own category from this point
      forward, but they were also
      without a separate category in 1900.

      CENSUS :                             1950
      RACE QUESTION:           Race:
      ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

      White (W); Negro (Neg);
      American Indian (Ind ) ;

      Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
      Filipino (Fil) ;
      Other race – spell out

      114. Item 9.

      Determining and entering race.-
      Write
      "W" for white; "Neg" for
      Negro; " Ind " for American Indian
      ;

      "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
      For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

      Assume that the race of related persons living
      in the household is the same as the race of your
      respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

      For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
      lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
      knowledge of the housewife's race (for
      example) tells nothing f the maid's race. 

      115. Mexicans.

      Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
      definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race. 


      116.
      Negroes.

      Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for
      persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.


      A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
      should be returned as a Negro
      , unless the
      Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
      AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
      (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.) 

      117. American Indians.

      Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
      Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an
      Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
      they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
      of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
      regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

      (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and
      Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)


      In those counties where there are many Indians
      living outside of reservations, special care should
      be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9. 

      118. Special communities.

      Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
      living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
      in terms of the name by which they are locally known. 
      The communities in question are of long standing and
      are locally recognized by special names, such as '
      "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

      Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
      Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such
      communities' should be returned as "Negro"


      (see par. 116). When in doubt,
      describe the situation in a footnote. 

      119. Mixed parentage.

      Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
      of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races
      .
      Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
      reported according to the race of the father.
      (Note, however, exceptions
      detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.) 

      CENSUS :                             1960
      RACE QUESTION:

      Is this person –
      White, Negro, American Indian,
      Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
      Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

      (Starting in 1970 there were
      no enumerator instructions
      because people WERE THEN
      ALLOWED To choose their
      own "racial" categories.)


      CENSUS :                             1970
      COLOR OR RACE  

      Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
      also give tribe.
      If "Other," also give race.
      O White
      O Negro or Black
      O Indian (Amer.)

      Print tribe ____________________
      O Japanese
      O Chinese
      O Filipino
      O Hawaiian
      O Korean
      O Other -
      Print race ____________________
      [On the questionnaires used in Alaska ,
      the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
      were substituted for "Hawaiian"
      and "Korean" in question 4.] 


      CENSUS :                                         1980

      COLOR OR RACE

      Is this person --
      Fill one circle.
      O White                  
      O Asian Indian
      O Black or Negro
         
      O Hawaiian
      O Japanese             
      O Guamanian
      O Chinese               
      O Samoan
      O Filipino                
      O Eskimo
      O Korean               
      O Aleut
      O Vietnamese         
      O Other -
      Specify __________
      O Indian (Amer.) 
      Print tribe ____________
      "Fill the circle for the category with
      which the person most closely identifies.
      If you fill the Indian (American) or
      Other circle, be sure to print the name
      of the specific Indian tribe or specific group." 

      CENSUS :                             1990
      COLOR OR RACE

      Fill ONE circle for the race that the
      person considers himself/herself to be.
      If Indian (Amer.), print the name
      of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

      If Other Asian or Pacific Islander
      (API), print one group, for example:

      Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan,
      Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
      If Other race, print race.
      O White
      O Black or Negro
      O Indian (Amer.)
      (Print the name of the enrolled
       or principal tribe.)
      _______________
      O Eskimo
      O Aleut
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
      O Chinese          
      O Japanese
      O Filipino          
      O Asian Indian
      O Hawaiian  
      O Samoan
      O Korean           
      O Guamanian
      O Vietnamese     
      O Other API ­
      ____________________
      O Other race (Print race) ­
      ____________________

      "Fill ONE circle for the race each person
      considers himself/herself to be.
      If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle,
      print the name of the Tribe or Tribes
      in which the person is enrolled.
      If the person is not enrolled in a tribe,
      print the name of the principal tribe(s).
      If you fill the Other API circle [under
      Asian or Pacific Islander (API)],
      only print the name of the group
      to which the person belongs.
      For example, the Other API category
      includes persons who identify as Burmese,
      Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian,
      Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai,
      Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on.
      If you fill the Other race circle, be
      sure to print the name of the race.

      If the person considers himself/herself to
      be
      White, Black or Negro, Eskimo
      or Aleut, fill one circle only.

      Please do not print the race in the boxes.

      The Black or Negro category
      also includes persons who
      identify as African-American
      Afro-American, Haitian, Jamaican,
      West Indian, Nigerian, and so on.

      All persons, regardless of citizenship
      status, should answer this question."


      CENSUS :                             2000

       
      COLOR OR RACE

      What is this person's race? 
      Mark one or more races to indicate what
      this person considers himself/herself to be.
      White
      Black, African American, or Negro
      American Indian or Alaska Native
      ______________
      (print name of enrolled or principal tribe)
      Asian Indian
      Native Hawaiian
      Japanese
      Korean
      Vietnamese
      Guamanian or Chomorro
      Samoan
      Other Pacific Islander
      ______________________
      Some Other Race
      _______________________

      New standards, issued in 1997, made for
      5 minimum racial categories instead of 4.
      ("Asian or Pacific Islander" is now
      "Asian" and "Hawaiian or Pac

      (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

    • j s
      I suppose the real question is what was the deciding factor in the change in the 1940 s census from Mulatto to Negro. Was it a desire for a greater black unity
      Message 2 of 7 , Oct 22, 2006
        I suppose the real question is what was the deciding factor
        in the change in the 1940's census from Mulatto to Negro.
        Was it a desire for a greater black unity and therefore a rejection
        of the mulatto designation ("We are all black" like in the 60's)
        or a desire by whites to categorize them all as the same,
        perhaps even as a backlash against greater acceptance by
        whites of "Negro" culture ( Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?

        multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:
        THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
        THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"

        The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
        how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
        has used a form of "documentary- genocide" in
        an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
        of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
        and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
        lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage. :

        (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
        people changed with each census -- until the
        term was finally eliminated altogether – with
        the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
        groupings altogether mis-categorized.

        Notice also how –without any explanation –
        it is simply and continually decided that ---
        anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
        group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
        Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
        true "racial-admixture" may, in fact,  actually be.)

        Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
        Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
        the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
        and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
        eventually removed from the Forms.

        From then on, Mixed-Race people
        became silenced by One-Droppism.

        Historical racial classification and the census:

        Year:
                                1900
        Category:                White, Black, Indian,
        Chinese, and Japanese
        Year:                         1910
        Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, 
                                           
        Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

        Year:                         1920
        Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
                                           
        Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
                                           
        Korean, and Other (plus write-in)
        Year:                         1930
        Category:                White, Negro
        , Indian, Mexican, 
                                           
        Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                           
        Korean (Other races, spell out in full)
        Year:                         1940
        Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, 
                                           
        Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean 
                                           
        (Other races, spell out in full)
        Year:                         1950 
        Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, 
                                           
        Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)
        Year:                         1960
        Category:                White, Negro, American Indian, 
                                           
        Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
                                           
        Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo
        Year:                         1970
        Category:                White, Negro or Black, Indian
                                            (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, 
                                           
        Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)
        Year:                         1980
        Category:                White, Negro, Indian (American), 
                                           
        Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, 
                                           
        Vietnamese, Asian Indian,  Hawaiian, 
                                           
        Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, 
                                           
        Other (specify); each person 
                                           
        can also be Hispanic or Latino.
        Year:                         1990
        Category:                White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese, 
                                           
        Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo, 
                                           
        Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan, 
                                           
        Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, 
                                           
        Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

        SOURCE: https://www. amherst.edu/ library/research /courserelated/ spring06/ hist10.html


        1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals
        Color:
        Be particularly careful in
        reporting the class Mulatto.
         
        The word is here generic
        , and includes
        quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
        having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

        Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
        determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.
        1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators
        "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE
        4.  Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
        Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
        —
        Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
        Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
        the color or race of the person enumerated.

        Be particularly careful to distinguish between
        Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.
        The word "mulatto," [should be used to
        describe] those persons who have from
        three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;

        "quadroon," those persons who have
        one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
        "those persons who have one-eighth
        or `any trace' of Black blood"
        SOURCE: http://www.ipums. umn.edu/% 7Epipums/ voliii/inst1930. html

        1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

        PERSONAL DESCRIPTION
        Color or Race:
        Write "W" for white;
        "B" for black;
        "Mu" for mulatto;
        "In" for Indian;
        "Ch" for Chinese;
         "Jp" for Japanese;
        For all persons not falling within one
        of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…
        … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
        Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
        while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
        other persons having "some proportion
        or perceptible trace of Negro blood".
         
        1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators
        PERSONAL DESCRIPTION
        Color or Race.—
        Write "W" for white;
        "B" for black;
        "Mu" for mulatto;
        "In" for Indian;

        "Ch" for Chinese;
         "Jp" for Japanese;
        For all persons not falling within one
        of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…
        … the term "black" (B) includes all persons
        who are evidently full-blooded negroes,
        while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all
        other persons having some proportion
        or perceptible trace of negro blood.
         
        Race in 1930
        Someone who was part Indian and
        part Negro was to be reported as Negro

        unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
        was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.
        SOURCE: http://genealogy. about.com/ library/print/ nuchinckley1a. htm

        1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators
        Color or Race
        Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
        "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
        "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

        For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 
        455. Negroes
        A person of mixed White and Negro blood
        should be returned as Negro, no matter
        how small a percentage of Negro blood.

        Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
        returned as Negroes, without distinction.
        A person of mixed Indian and Negro
        blood should be returned as a Negro,

        unless
        the Indian blood very definitely
        predominates
        -- AND -- he is
        `universally
        accepted'
        in the community as an Indian. 
        457. Mixed Races
        Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
        be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
        Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
        according to the race of the father, except that
        Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro. 
        SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/ usa/voliii/ inst1940. shtml

        1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

        Personal Characteristics
        Item 9. Race
        114. Item 9.
        Determining and entering race.
        Write "W" for white; "Neg"
        for Negro;
        " Ind " for
        American Indian;

        "Chi" for
        Chinese; "Jap" for
        Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.

        For a person of any other
        race, write the race in full.

        Assume that the race of
        related persons living in the
        household is the same as the
        race of your respondent,
        unless you learn otherwise.

        For unrelated persons
        (employees, hired hands,
        lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
        race, because knowledge of the
        housewife's race (for example)
        tells nothing of the maid's race.

        116. Negroes.-

        Report "Negro" (Neg)
        for Negroes and for
        persons of Mixed White
        -And-Negro-Parentag e.

        A person of Mixed-Indian-
        and-Negro-Blood should
        be returned as a Negro,

        unless
        the Indian blood very
        definitely predominates

        -- AND -- he is `accepted'
        in the community as an Indian.

        (Note, however, the exceptions
        described in par. l18 below.)
        117. American Indians.
        Report "American Indian" 
        (Ind) for persons of
        Mixed-White- And-
        Indian-Blood
        -- if enrolled
        on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
        if not so enrolled, they should
        still be reported as Indian
        if
        the proportion of Indian blood
        is One-Fourth or more, or if
        they are `regarded' as Indians
        in the community where they live.
        (See par. 116 for persons of
        Mixed-Indian- And-Negro-
        Blood and also exceptions
        noted in par. 118.)

        In those counties where there
        are many Indians living outside
        of reservations, special care
        should be taken to obtain
        accurate answers to item 9.
        118. Special communities.
        Report persons of Mixed-White-
        Negro-And-Indian- Ancestry
        `living in certain communities'
        in the Eastern United State 's
        in terms of The Name By
        Which They Are Locally Known.

        The communities in question
        are of long standing and are
        locally recognized by special
        names, such as '"Croatian,"
        "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

        Persons of Mixed-Indian- And-
        Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes
        `not living in such communities'
        should be returned as
        "Negro" (see par. 116).
        When in doubt, describe
        the situation in a footnote.
        119. Mixed parentage.
        Report Race of Nonwhite
        parent for persons of Mixed-
        White-And-Nonwhite- Races.


        Mixtures of Nonwhite races
        should be reported according
        to the race of the father.

        (Note, however, exceptions detailed
        in pars. 116 and 118 above.)
        CENSUS :                             1850, 1860
        RACE QUESTION:           Color
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                   
        White, Black, or Mulatto.
        CENSUS :                             1870, 1880
        RACE QUESTION:           Color
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                              
        White (W), Black (B), Mulatto 
                              
        (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).
        CENSUS:                              1900
        RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
         
        Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR 
        `Of-Negro-Descent' );
        "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
        Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be. 
        CENSUS :                             1910
        RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
         
        108.
        Write
        "W" for white; "B"
        for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto
        ;
        "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
        For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
        write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
        of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.  109.

        For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
        includes all persons who are evidently
        Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
        (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
        Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood
        .
        CENSUS:                              1920
        RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
         
        120.
        Write
        "W" for white, "B" for Black;
        "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian
        ;
        "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
        Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
        For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
        write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
        of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
        For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
        includes all persons who are evidently
        Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
        (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
        Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.
        CENSUS :                             1940
        RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS: 
        453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
        for Negro; "In" for Indian;
        "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
        Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
        For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

        454.
        Mexicans.

        Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless
        definitely
        of Indian or other nonwhite race.
         

        455.
        Negroes.

        A person of mixed white and Negro blood
        should be returned as Negro, no matter

        how small a percentage of Negro blood.
        Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
        returned as Negroes, without distinction.

        A person of Mixed-Indian- And-Negro- Blood
        should be returned as a Negro,
        unless the Indian
        blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
        accepted in the community as an Indian. 

        456.
        Indians.

        A person of Mixed-White- And-Indian- Blood
        should be returned as an Indian
        , if enrolled
        on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
        so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
        One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
        as an Indian in the community where he lives. 

        457. Mixed Races.

        Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
        be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

        Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
        according to the race of the father, except that
        Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.
        Note that Mulattos no longer have
        their own category from this point
        forward, but they were also
        without a separate category in 1900.

        CENSUS :                             1950
        RACE QUESTION:           Race:
        ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
        White (W); Negro (Neg);
        American Indian (Ind ) ;

        Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
        Filipino (Fil) ;
        Other race – spell out

        114. Item 9.

        Determining and entering race.-
        Write
        "W" for white; "Neg" for
        Negro; " Ind " for American Indian
        ;

        "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
        For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

        Assume that the race of related persons living
        in the household is the same as the race of your
        respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

        For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
        lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
        knowledge of the housewife's race (for
        example) tells nothing f the maid's race. 

        115. Mexicans.

        Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
        definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race. 


        116.
        Negroes.

        Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for
        persons of Mixed-White- And-Negro- Parentage.


        A person of Mixed-Indian- And-Negro- Blood
        should be returned as a Negro
        , unless the
        Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
        AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
        (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.) 

        117. American Indians.

        Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
        Mixed-White- And-Indian- Blood if enrolled on an
        Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
        they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
        of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
        regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

        (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and
        Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)


        In those counties where there are many Indians
        living outside of reservations, special care should
        be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9. 

        118. Special communities.

        Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
        living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
        in terms of the name by which they are locally known. 
        The communities in question are of long standing and
        are locally recognized by special names, such as '
        "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

        Persons of Mixed-Indian- And-Negro-
        Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such
        communities' should be returned as "Negro"


        (see par. 116). When in doubt,
        describe the situation in a footnote. 

        119. Mixed parentage.

        Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
        of Mixed-White- And-Nonwhite races
        .
        Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
        reported according to the race of the father.
        (Note, however, exceptions
        detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.) 
        CENSUS :                             1960
        RACE QUESTION:
        Is this person –
        White, Negro, American Indian,
        Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
        Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?
        (Starting in 1970 there were
        no enumerator instructions
        because people WERE THEN
        ALLOWED To choose their
        own "racial" categories.)


        CENSUS :                             1970
        COLOR OR RACE  
        Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
        also give tribe.
        If "Other," also give race.
        O White
        O Negro or Black
        O Indian (Amer.)

        Print tribe ____________ ________
        O Japanese
        O Chinese
        O Filipino
        O Hawaiian
        O Korean
        O Other -
        Print race ____________ ________
        [On the questionnaires used in Alaska ,
        the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
        were substituted for "Hawaiian"
        and "Korean" in question 4.] 

        CENSUS :                                         1980
        COLOR OR RACE
        Is this person --
        Fill one circle.
        O White                  
        O Asian Indian
        O Black or Negro
           
        O Hawaiian
        O Japanese             
        O Guamanian
        O Chinese               
        O Samoan
        O Filipino                
        O Eskimo
        O Korean               
        O Aleut
        O Vietnamese         
        O Other -
        Specify __________
        O Indian (Amer.) 
        Print tribe ____________
        "Fill the circle for the category with
        which the person most closely identifies.
        If you fill the Indian (American) or
        Other circle, be sure to print the name
        of the specific Indian tribe or specific group." 
        CENSUS :                             1990
        COLOR OR RACE
        Fill ONE circle for the race that the
        person considers himself/herself to be.
        If Indian (Amer.), print the name
        of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

        If Other Asian or Pacific Islander
        (API), print one group, for example:

        Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan,
        Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
        If Other race, print race.
        O White
        O Black or Negro
        O Indian (Amer.)
        (Print the name of the enrolled
         or principal tribe.)
        ____________ ___
        O Eskimo
        O Aleut
        Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
        O Chinese          
        O Japanese
        O Filipino          
        O Asian Indian
        O Hawaiian  
        O Samoan
        O Korean           
        O Guamanian
        O Vietnamese     
        O Other API ­
        ____________ ________
        O Other race (Print race) ­
        ____________ ________

        "Fill ONE circle for the race each person
        considers himself/herself to be.
        If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle,
        print the name of the Tribe or Tribes
        in which the person is enrolled.
        If the person is not enrolled in a tribe,
        print the name of the principal tribe(s).
        If you fill the Other API circle [under
        Asian or Pacific Islander (API)],
        only print the name of the group
        to which the person belongs.
        For example, the Other API category
        includes persons who identify as Burmese,
        Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian,
        Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai,
        Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on.
        If you fill the Other race circle, be
        sure to print the name of the race.

        If the person considers himself/herself to
        be
        White, Black or Negro, Eskimo
        or Aleut, fill one circle only.

        Please do not print the race in the boxes.

        The Black or Negro category
        also includes persons who
        identify as African-American
        Afro-American, Haitian, Jamaican,
        West Indian, Nigerian, and so on.

        All persons, regardless of citizenship
        status, should answer this question."

        CENSUS :                             2000
         
        COLOR OR RACE
        What is this person's race? 
        Mark one or more races to indicate what
        this person considers himself/herself to be.
        White
        Black, African American, or Negro
        American Indian or Alaska Native
        ____________ __
        (print name of enrolled or principal tribe)
        Asian Indian
        Native Hawaiian
        Japanese
        Korean
        Vietnamese
        Guamanian or Chomorro
        Samoan
      • multiracialbookclub
        [[ j s wrote: I suppose the real question is What was the deciding factor in the change in the 1940 s Census from Mulatto to Negro? . Was
        Message 3 of 7 , Oct 22, 2006

          [[ j s <creolescience@...> wrote:

          I suppose the real question is "What was
          the deciding factor in the change in the
          1940's Census from Mulatto to Negro?".


          Was it a desire for a greater "black" unity and
          therefore a rejection of the Mulatto designation
          ("We are all 'black' " like in the 60's) or a desire
          by 'Whites' to categorize them all as the same,
          perhaps even as a backlash against greater
          acceptance by 'Whites' of "Negro" culture
          (Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?
          ]]

          My Response:

          Those are excellent premises that you have proposed
          as potential `reasons' behind the racist actions of the
          USCB,  Jeff and they really provide some great
          `food for thought' and `points to ponder' :-? ---and
          I am particularly intrigued with your theories on
          possible "backlash" and "categorizing all as the same"
          being possible reasons behind this clear act of racism.


          Related to said theories -- it seems to me to be a very
          "interesting coincidence" that the decision to remove
          the Mulatto / Mixed-Race Category from the United
          States Census Bureau Form occurred around the same
          time that people like the
          infamously racist Walter Plecker 
          and
          Naomi Drake  were (just by coincidence?) serving
          in the roles of being The Registrars #-o in The Bureaus
          of Vital Statistics
          in the States which had very huge, and 
          (formerly) openly "accepted", Mixed-Race people and
          population groups (Virginia and Louisiana, respectively).

          In addition, during this time, individuals such as
          Plecker 
          and
          Drake, and others who believed in false concepts
          like Racial-Purity and Racial-Supremacy, were also
          working to both create and enforce such racist
          measures as a so-called `Racial Integrity Act'
          -– an `Act' which -- (via what was really nothing
          less than a form of "Documentary-Genocide")
          -– actually managed to annihilated, `on-paper',
          even the fact of the existence of Multi-Racial /
          Mixed-Race people and also then gave the false
          impression that the people groupings found within
          the United States of America were thus, could fit
          "comfortably"
          into the limited and false categories
          of be quite easily declared as being Mono-Racial 8-|
          ("Pure") Whites, Blacks or Asians/ Amerindians.

          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1406
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1385
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1385 

          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.
          com
          , j s <creolescience@...> wrote:

          I suppose the real question is "What was
          the deciding factor in the change in the
          1940's Census from Mulatto to Negro?".


          Was it a desire for a greater "black" unity and
          therefore a rejection of the Mulatto designation
          ("We are all 'black' " like in the 60's) or a desire
          by 'Whites' to categorize them all as the same,
          perhaps even as a backlash against greater
          acceptance by 'Whites' of "Negro" culture
          (Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?
          ]]

          multiracialbookclub <soap
          talk@...>
          wrote:

          THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
          THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


          The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
          how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
          has used a form of "documentary- genocide" in
          an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
          of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
          and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
          lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage. :

          (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
          people changed with each census -- until the
          term was finally eliminated altogether – with
          the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
          groupings altogether mis-categorized.

          Notice also how –without any explanation –
          it is simply and continually decided that ---
          anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
          group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
          Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
          true "racial-admixture" may, in fact,  actually be.)

          Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
          Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
          the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
          and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
          eventually removed from the Forms.

          From then on, Mixed-Race people
          became silenced by One-Droppism.

          Historical racial classification and the census
          :

          Year:
                                  1900
          Category:                White, Black, Indian,
          Chinese, and Japanese

          Year:                         1910
          Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese, 
                                             
          Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

          Year:                         1920
          Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
                                             
          Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
                                             
          Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

          Year:                         1930
          Category:                White, Negro
          , Indian, Mexican, 
                                             
          Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                             
          Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

          Year:                         1940
          Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Chinese, 
                                             
          Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean 
                                             
          (Other races, spell out in full)

          Year:                         1950 
          Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, 
                                             
          Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

          Year:                         1960
          Category:                White, Negro, American Indian, 
                                             
          Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
                                             
          Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

          Year:                         1970
          Category:                White, Negro or Black, Indian
                                              (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, 
                                             
          Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

          Year:                         1980
          Category:                White, Negro, Indian (American), 
                                             
          Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, 
                                             
          Vietnamese, Asian Indian,  Hawaiian, 
                                             
          Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, 
                                             
          Other (specify); each person 
                                             
          can also be Hispanic or Latino.

          Year:                         1990
          Category:                White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese, 
                                             
          Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo, 
                                             
          Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan, 
                                             
          Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, 
                                             
          Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

          SOURCE: https://www. amherst.edu/ library/research /courserelated/ spring06/ hist10.html


          1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

          Color:

          Be particularly careful in
          reporting the class 'Mulatto'.
           
          The word is here generic
          , and includes
          quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
          having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

          Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
          determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

          SOURCE: http://www.ipums. umn.edu/% 7Epipums/ voliii/inst1930. html

          1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

          COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

          4.  Whether White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon,
          Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
          —
          Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
          Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
          the color or race of the person enumerated.

          Be particularly careful to distinguish between
          'Blacks', 'Mulattos', 'Quadroons', and 'Octoroons'.

          The word "Mulatto," [should be used to
          describe] those persons who have from
          three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;

          "Quadroon," those persons who have
          one-fourth black blood; and "Octoroon,
          "those persons who have one-eighth
          or `any trace' of Black blood". 

          SOURCE: http://www.ipums. umn.edu/% 7Epipums/ voliii/inst1930. html

          1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

          PERSONAL DESCRIPTION


          Color or Race:

          Write "W" for White;
          "B" for Black;
          "Mu" for Mulatto;
          "In" for Indian;
          "Ch" for Chinese;
           "Jp" for Japanese;
          For all persons not falling within one
          of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

          … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
          Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
          while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
          other persons having "some proportion
          or perceptible trace of Negro blood
          ".
           

          SOURCE: http://www.ipums. umn.edu/% 7Epipums/ voliii/inst1930. html

          1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

          PERSONAL DESCRIPTION


          Color or Race.

          Write "W" for White;
          "B" for Black;
          "Mu" for Mulatto;
          "In" for Indian;

          "Ch" for Chinese;
           "Jp" for Japanese;
          For all persons not falling within one
          of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

          … the term "Black" (B) includes all persons
          who are evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
          while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
          other persons "having some proportion
          or perceptible trace of Negro blood"
          .
           

          SOURCE: http://usa.ipums. org/usa/voliii/ inst1920. shtml

          Race in 1930

          Someone who was 'part-Indian and
          part-Negro' was to be reported as 'Negro'

          unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
          was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

          SOURCE: http://genealogy. about.com/ library/print/ nuchinckley1a. htm

          1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

          Color or Race

          Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
          "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
          "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

          For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

          455. Negroes

          A person of 'Mixed-White-And-Negro-Blood'
          should be returned as 'Negro', no matter
          how small a percentage of 'Negro' blood.

          Both 'Black' and 'Mulatto' persons are to be
          returned as 'Negroes', without distinction.
          A person of 'Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
          Blood' should be returned as a 'Negro',

          unless
          the Indian blood very definitely
          predominates
          -- AND -- he is
          `universally
          accepted'
          in the community as an Indian. 

          457. Mixed Races

          Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
          be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
          Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
          according to the race of the father, except that
          'Negro-Indian' should be reported as 'Negro'. 

          SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/ usa/voliii/ inst1940. shtml

          1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

          Personal Characteristics


          Item 9. Race

          114. Item 9. Determining and entering race

          Write "W" for white; "Neg"
          for Negro;
          " Ind " for
          American Indian;

          "Chi" for
          Chinese; "Jap" for
          Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.

          For a person of any other
          race, write the race in full.

          Assume that the race of
          related persons living in the
          household is the same as the
          race of your respondent,
          unless you learn otherwise.

          For unrelated persons
          (employees, hired hands,
          lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
          race, because knowledge of the
          housewife's race (for example)
          tells nothing of the maid's race.

          116. Negroes.

          Report "Negro" (Neg)
          for 'Negroes' and for
          persons of 'Mixed-White
          -And-Negro-Parentag e'.

          A person of 'Mixed-Indian-
          and-Negro-Blood' should
          be returned as a 'Negro',

          unless
          the Indian blood very
          definitely predominates

          -- AND -- he is `accepted'
          in the community as an Indian.

          (Note, however, the exceptions
          described in par. l18 below.)
          117. American Indians.
          Report "American Indian" 
          (Ind) for persons of
          'Mixed-White- And-
          Indian-Blood'
          -- if enrolled
          on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
          if not so enrolled, they should
          still be reported as 'Indian'
          if
          the proportion of Indian blood
          is One-Fourth or more, or if
          they are `regarded' as Indians
          in the community where they live.
          (See par. 116 for persons of
          'Mixed-Indian- And-Negro-
          Blood' and also exceptions
          noted in par. 118.)

          In those counties where there
          are many Indians living outside
          of reservations, special care
          should be taken to obtain
          accurate answers to item 9.
          118. Special communities.
          Report persons of 'Mixed-White
          -Negro-And-Indian- Ancestry'
          `living in certain communities'
          in the Eastern United State 's
          in terms of The Name By
          Which They Are Locally Known.

          The communities in question
          are of long standing and are
          locally recognized by special
          names, such as '"Croatian,"
          "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

          Persons of '
          Mixed-Indian- And-
          Negro-Ancestry' and 'Mulattoes'
          `not living in such communities'
          should be returned as
          'Negro' (see par. 116).
          When in doubt, describe
          the situation in a footnote.
          119. Mixed parentage.
          Report Race of Nonwhite
          parent for persons of 'Mixed-
          White-And-Nonwhite- Races'.


          Mixtures of Nonwhite races
          should be reported according
          to the race of the father.

          (Note, however, exceptions detailed
          in pars. 116 and 118 above.)
          CENSUS :                             1850, 1860
          RACE QUESTION:           Color

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                     
          White, Black, or Mulatto.
           
          CENSUS :                             1870, 1880
          RACE QUESTION:           Color

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                
          White (W), Black (B), Mulatto 
                                
          (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).
           
          CENSUS:                              1900
          RACE QUESTION:           Color or race

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
           
          Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR 
          `Of-Negro-Descent' );
          "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
          Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be. 
           
          CENSUS :                             1910
          RACE QUESTION:           Color or race

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
           
          108.
          Write
          "W" for white; "B"
          for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto
          ;
          "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
          For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
          write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
          of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.  109.

          For census purposes, the term "Black" (B)
          includes all persons who are evidently
          'Full-Blooded Negroes', while the term "Mulatto"
          (Mu) includes all other persons having 'Some
          Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood'
          .
           
          CENSUS:                              1920
          RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
           
          120.
          Write
          "W" for white, "B" for Black;
          "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian
          ;
          "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
          Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
          For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
          write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
          of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
          For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
          includes all persons who are evidently
          'Full-Blooded Negroes', while the term "Mulatto"
          (Mu) includes all other persons having 'Some
          Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blo
          od'.
           
          CENSUS :                             1940
          RACE QUESTION:           Color or race

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS: 
          453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
          for Negro; "In" for Indian;
          "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
          Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
          For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

          454.
          Mexicans.

          Mexicans are to be regarded as 'White' unless
          definitely
          of Indian or other Nonwhite race.
           

          455.
          Negroes.

          A person of 'Mixed-White-And-Negro-Blood '
          should be returned as 'Negro', no matter

          how small a percentage of Negro blood.
          Both 'Black' and 'Mulatto' persons are to be
          returned as 'Negroes' -- without distinction.

          A person of 'Mixed-Indian- And-Negro- Blood'
          should be returned as a 'Negro',
          unless the Indian
          blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
          accepted in the community as an Indian. 

          456.
          Indians.

          A person of 'Mixed-White- And-Indian- Blood'
          should be returned as an 'Indian'
          , if enrolled
          on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
          so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
          One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
          as an Indian in the community where he lives. 

          457. Mixed Races.

          Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
          be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

          Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
          according to the race of the father, except that
          'Negro-Indian' should be reported as 'Negro'.
           
          Note that Mulattos no longer have
          their own category from this point
          forward, but they were also
          without a separate category in 1900.


           
          CENSUS :                             1950
          RACE QUESTION:           Race:

          ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
          White (W); Negro (Neg);
          American Indian (Ind ) ;

          Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
          Filipino (Fil) ;
          Other race – spell out

          114. Item 9.

          Determining and entering race.-
          Write
          "W" for white; "Neg" for
          Negro; " Ind " for American Indian
          ;

          "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
          For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

          Assume that the race of related persons living
          in the household is the same as the race of your
          respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

          For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
          lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
          knowledge of the housewife's race (for
          example) tells nothing f the maid's race. 

          115. Mexicans.

          Report "White" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
          definitely of Indian or other Nonwhite race. 


          116.
          Negroes.

          Report "Negro" (Neg) for 'Negroes' and for
          persons of 'Mixed-White- And-Negro- Parentage'.


          A person of 'Mixed-Indian- And-Negro- Blood'
          should be returned as a 'Negro'
          , unless the
          Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
          AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
          (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.) 

          117. American Indians.

          Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
          Mixed-White- And-Indian- Blood if enrolled on an
          Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
          they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
          of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
          regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

          (See par. 116 for persons of 'Mixed-
          Indian-And-Negro-Blood' and also
          exceptions noted in par. 118.)


          In those counties where there are many Indians
          living outside of reservations, special care should
          be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9. 

          118. Special communities.

          Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
          living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
          in terms of the name by which they are locally known. 
          The communities in question are of long standing and
          are locally recognized by special names, such as '
          "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

          Persons of 'Mixed-Indian- And-Negro-
          Ancestry' and 'Mulattoes' 'not living in such
          communities' should be returned as "Negro"


          (see par. 116). When in doubt,
          describe the situation in a footnote. 

          119. Mixed parentage.

          Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
          of Mixed-White- And-Nonwhite races
          .
          Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
          reported according to the race of the father.
          (Note, however, exceptions
          detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.) 
           
          CENSUS :                             1960
          RACE QUESTION:
          Is this person –
          White, Negro, American Indian,
          Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
          Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?
           
          (Starting in 1970 there were
          no enumerator instructions
          because people WERE THEN
          ALLOWED To choose their
          own "racial" categories.)


          CENSUS :                             1970
          COLOR OR RACE  
          Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
          also give tribe.
          If "Other," also give race.
          O White
          O Negro or Black
          O Indian (Amer.)

          Print tribe ____________ ________
          O Japanese
          O Chinese
          O Filipino
          O Hawaiian
          O Korean
          O Other -
          Print race ____________ ________
          [On the questionnaires used in Alaska ,
          the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
          were substituted for "Hawaiian"
          and "Korean" in question 4.] 

          CENSUS :                              1980
          COLOR OR RACE
          Is this person --
          Fill one circle.
          O White                  
          O Asian Indian
          O Black or Negro
             
          O Hawaiian
          O Japanese             
          O Guamanian
          O Chinese   

          (Message over 64 KB, truncated)
        • multiracialbookclub
          THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE The Data shown below clearly demonstrates how the United States Census Bureau (USCB) has used a form of
          Message 4 of 7 , Mar 20, 2010


            THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF 
            THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


            The Data shown below clearly demonstrates 
            how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
            has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in 
            an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record 
            of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
            and to also deny said groups the right to be able to 
            lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

            (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race 
            people changed with each census -- until the 
            term was finally eliminated altogether – with 
            the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people 
            groupings altogether mis-categorized.

            Notice also how –without any explanation – 
            it is simply and continually decided that --- 
            anyone who is of the
            'African-American' Ethnic 
            group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially 
            Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's 
            true "racial-admixture" may, in fact,  actually be.)

            Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
            Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under 
            the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks", 
            and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category 
            eventually removed from the Forms.

            From then on, Mixed-Race people 
            became silenced by One-Droppism.

            Historical racial classification and the census:

            Year:
                                     1900
            Category:                White, Black, Indian,
             Chinese, and Japanese

            Year:                         1910
            Category:                White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese,  
                                                
            Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

            Year:                         1920
            Category:                White, BlackMulattoIndian, 
                                                
            Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                                
            Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

            Year:                         1930
            Category:                White, Negro
            , Indian, Mexican, 
                                                
            Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, 
                                                
            Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

            Year:                         1940
            Category:                White, NegroIndian, Chinese, 
                                                
            Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean 
                                                
            (Other races, spell out in full)

            Year:                         1950  
            Category:                White, Negro, Indian, Japanese, 
                                                
            Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

            Year:                         1960
            Category:                White, NegroAmerican Indian, 
                                                
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
                                                
            Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

            Year:                         1970
            Category:                White, Negro or Black, Indian
                                                (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, 
                                                
            Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

            Year:                         1980
            Category:                White, Negro, Indian (American), 
                                                
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, 
                                                
            Vietnamese, Asian Indian,  Hawaiian, 
                                                
            Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut, 
                                                
            Other (specify); each person 
                                                
            can also be Hispanic or Latino.

            Year:                         1990
            Category:                White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese, 
                                                
            Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo, 
                                                
            Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan, 
                                                
            Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander, 
                                                
            Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

            SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html 


            1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

            Color:

            Be particularly careful in 
            reporting the class Mulatto.
             
            The word is here generic
            and includes 
            quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons 
            having any perceptible trace of African blood'

            Important scientific-results depend upon the correct 
            determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

            4.  Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
            Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.
            —
            Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, 
            Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to 
            the color or race of the person enumerated. 

            Be particularly careful to distinguish between 
            Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

            The word "mulatto," [should be used to 
            describe] those persons who have from 
            three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;
             
            "quadroon," those persons who have 
            one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
            "those persons who have one-eighth
            or `any trace' of Black blood"

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html 

            1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

            Color or Race:

            Write "W" for white; 
            "B" for black; 
            "Mu" for mulatto; 
            "In" for Indian;
            "Ch" for Chinese;
             "Jp" for Japanese; 
            For all persons not falling within one 
            of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

            … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons 
            Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes, 
            while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all 
            other persons having "some proportion 
            or perceptible trace of Negro blood".
             

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

            Color or Race.—

            Write "W" for white; 
            "B" for black; 
            "Mu" for mulatto; 
            "In" for Indian;

            "Ch" for Chinese;
             "Jp" for Japanese; 
            For all persons not falling within one 
            of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

            … the term "black" (B) includes all persons 
            who are evidently full-blooded negroes, 
            while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all 
            other persons having some proportion 
            or perceptible trace of negro blood.
             

            SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

            Race in 1930

            Someone who was part Indian and 
            part Negro was to be reported as Negro
             
            unless the Indian blood predominated and the person 
            was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

            SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm 

            1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            Color or Race

            Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian; 
            "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean; 
            "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu; 

            For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

            455. Negroes

            A person of mixed White and Negro blood 
            should be returned as Negro, no matter 
            how small a percentage of Negro blood.
             
            Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be 
            returned as Negroes, without distinction. 
            A person of mixed Indian and Negro 
            blood should be returned as a Negro,
             
            unless
             the Indian blood very definitely 
            predominates
             -- AND -- he is 
            `universally 
            accepted'
             in the community as an Indian. 

            457. Mixed Races

            Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should 
            be reported according to the Nonwhite parent. 
            Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
            according to the race of the father, except that 
            Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro. 

            SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml 

            1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

            Personal Characteristics

            Item 9. Race

            114. Item 9.

            Determining and entering race.

            Write "W" for white; "Neg" 
            for Negro; 
            " Ind " for 
            American Indian;
             
            "Chi" for 
            Chinese; "Jap" for 
            Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino. 

            For a person of any other 
            race, write the race in full. 

            Assume that the race of 
            related persons living in the 
            household is the same as the 
            race of your respondent, 
            unless you learn otherwise. 

            For unrelated persons 
            (employees, hired hands, 
            lodgers, etc.) you must ask the 
            race, because knowledge of the 
            housewife's race (for example) 
            tells nothing of the maid's race.

            116. Negroes.-

            Report "Negro" (Neg) 
            for Negroes and for 
            persons of Mixed White
            -And-Negro-Parentage. 

            A person of Mixed-Indian-
            and-Negro-Blood should 
            be returned as a Negro,
             
            unless
             the Indian blood very 
            definitely predominates
             
            -- AND -- he is `accepted' 
            in the community as an Indian. 

            (Note, however, the exceptions 
            described in par. l18 below.)

            117. American Indians.

            Report "American Indian"  
            (Ind) for persons of 
            Mixed-White-And-
            Indian-Blood
             
            -- if enrolled 
            on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll; 
            if not so enrolled, they should 
            still be reported as Indian 
            if 
            the proportion of Indian blood 
            is One-Fourth or more, or if 
            they are `regarded' as Indians 
            in the community where they live. 
            (See par. 116 for persons of 
            Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
            Blood and also exceptions 
            noted in par. 118.)
             
            In those counties where there 
            are many Indians living outside 
            of reservations, special care 
            should be taken to obtain 
            accurate answers to item 9.

            118. Special communities.

            Report persons of Mixed-White-
            Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry 
            `living in certain communities' 
            in the  Eastern   United   State 's 
            in terms of The Name By 
            Which They Are Locally Known.

            The communities in question 
            are of long standing and are 
            locally recognized by special 
            names, such as '"Croatian," 
            "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc. 

            Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
            Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes 
            `not living in such communities' 
            should be returned as 
            "Negro" (see par. 116).

            When in doubt, describe 
            the situation in a footnote.

            119. Mixed parentage.

            Report Race of Nonwhite 
            parent for persons of
            Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite-Races.
             

            Mixtures of Nonwhite races 
            should be reported according 
            to the race of the father. 

            (Note, however, exceptions detailed 
            in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

            SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

            CENSUS :                             1850, 1860
            RACE QUESTION:           Color 
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                       
            White, Black, or Mulatto.

            CENSUS :                             1870, 1880
            RACE QUESTION:           Color 
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:  
                                  
            White (W), Black (B), Mulatto 
                                  
            (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

            CENSUS:                              1900
            RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
             

            Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR  
            `Of-Negro-Descent');
             "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for 
            Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be. 

            CENSUS :                             1910
            RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
             

            108. 
            Write 
            "W" for white; "B" 
            for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto

            "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian. 
            For all persons not falling within one of these classes, 
            write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin 
            of the schedule the race of the person so indicated.  109.
             
            For census purposes, the term `Black' (B) 
            includes all persons who are evidently 
            Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto" 
            (Mu) includes all other persons having Some 
            Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood
            .

            CENSUS:                              1920
            RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
             

            120. 
            Write
             "W" for white, "B" for Black; 
            "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian

            "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for 
            Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean. 
            For all persons not falling within one of these classes, 
            write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin 
            of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121. 
            For census purposes, the term `Black' (B) 
            includes all persons who are evidently 
            Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto" 
            (Mu) includes all other persons having Some 
            Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

            CENSUS :                             1940
            RACE QUESTION:           Color or race
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS: 

            453. Write "W" for white; "Neg" 
            for Negro; "In" for Indian; 
            "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for 
            Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean. 
            For a person of any other race, write the race in full.  

            454. 
            Mexicans.

            Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless 
            definitely
             of Indian or other nonwhite race.
              

            455. 
            Negroes.

            A person of mixed white and Negro blood 
            should be returned as Negro, no matter
             
            how small a percentage of Negro blood. 
            Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be 
            returned as Negroes, without distinction.
             
            A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood 
            should be returned as a Negro,
             unless the Indian 
            blood very definitely predominates and he is universally 
            accepted in the community as an Indian.  

            456. 
            Indians.

            A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood 
            should be returned as an Indian
            , if enrolled 
            on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
            so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is 
            One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded 
            as an Indian in the community where he lives.  

            457. Mixed Races.

            Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should 
            be reported according to the Nonwhite parent. 

            Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported 
            according to the race of the father, except that 
            Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

            Note that Mulattos no longer have 
            their own category from this point 
            forward, but they were also 
            without a separate category in 1900.

            CENSUS :                             1950
            RACE QUESTION:           Race: 
            ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

            White (W); Negro (Neg); 
            American Indian (Ind ) ;
             
            Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi); 
            Filipino (Fil) ;
            Other race – spell out

            114. Item 9.

            Determining and entering race.-
            Write 
            "W" for white; "Neg" for 
            Negro; " Ind " for American Indian
            ;
             
            "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino. 
            For a person of any other race, write the race in full. 

            Assume that the race of related persons living 
            in the household is the same as the race of your 
            respondent, unless you learn otherwise. 

            For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands, 
            lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because 
            knowledge of the housewife's race (for 
            example) tells nothing f the maid's race. 

            115. Mexicans.

            Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are 
            definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.  


            116.
             Negroes.

            Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for 
            persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.
             

            A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood 
            should be returned as a Negro
            unless the 
            Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
            AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian. 
            (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)  

            117. American Indians.

            Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of 
            Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an 
            Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled, 
            they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion 
            of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are 
            regarded as Indians in the community where they live. 

            (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and 
            Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)
             

            In those counties where there are many Indians 
            living outside of reservations, special care should 
            be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.  

            118. Special communities.

            Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry 
            living in certain communities in the Eastern United States 
            in terms of the name by which they are locally known.  
            The communities in question are of long standing and 
            are locally recognized by special names, such as '
            "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc. 

            Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro- 
            Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such 
            communities' should be returned as "Negro"
             

            (see par. 116). When in doubt, 
            describe the situation in a footnote.  

            119. Mixed parentage.

            Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons 
            of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races
            . 
            Mixtures of nonwhite races should be 
            reported according to the race of the father. 
            (Note, however, exceptions 
            detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.) 

            CENSUS :                             1960
            RACE QUESTION:

            Is this person – 
            White, Negro, American Indian, 
            Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, 
            Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

            (STARTING IN 1970 THERE WERE 
            NO ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS 
            BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE THEN 
            ALLOWED TO CHOOSE THEIR 
            OWN "RACIAL" CATEGORIES.)


            CENSUS :                             1970
            COLOR OR RACE  

            Fill one circle. If "Indian (American)," 
            also give tribe.
             If "Other," also give race. 
            O White 
            O Negro or Black 
            O Indian (Amer.)
             
            Print tribe ____________________ 
            O Japanese
            O Chinese 
            O Filipino 
            O Hawaiian 
            O Korean 
            O Other - 
            Print race ____________________
            [On the questionnaires used in  Alaska , 
            the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo" 
            were substituted for "Hawaiian" 
            and "Korean" in question 4.] 


            CENSUS :                                         1980
            COLOR OR RACE

            Is this person -- 
            Fill one circle
            O White                   
            O Asian Indian 
            O Black or Negro
                
            O Hawaiian 
            O Japanese              
            O Guamanian 
            O Chinese                
            O Samoan 
            O Filipino                 
            O Eskimo 
            O Korean                
            O Aleut 
            O Vietnamese          
            O Other - 
            Specify __________ 
            O Indian (Amer.)  
            Print tribe ____________
            "Fill the circle for the category with 
            which the person most closely identifies. 
            If you fill the Indian (American) or 
            Other circle, be sure to print the name 
            of the specific Indian tribe or specific group." 

            CENSUS :                             1990
            COLOR OR RACE

            Fill ONE circle for the race that the 
            person considers himself/herself to be.
            If Indian (Amer.), print the name 
            of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

            If Other Asian or Pacific Islander 
            (API), print one group, for example:

            Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan, 
            Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
            If Other race, print race.
            O White
            O Black or Negro
            O Indian (Amer.) 
            (Print the name of the enrolled
             or principal tribe.) 
            _______________
            O Eskimo
            O Aleut
            Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
            O Chinese           
            O Japanese
            O Filipino           
            O Asian Indian
            O Hawaiian  
            O Samoan
            O Korean            
            O Guamanian
            O Vietnamese      
            O Other API  
            ____________________
            O Other race (Print race)  
            ____________________

            "Fill ONE circle for the race each person 
            considers himself/herself to be. 
            If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle, 
            print the name of the Tribe or Tribes 
            in which the person is enrolled. 
            If the person is not enrolled in a tribe, 
            print the name of the principal tribe(s). 
            If you fill the Other API circle [under 
            Asian or Pacific Islander (API)], 
            only print the name of the group 
            to which the person belongs. 
            For example, the Other API category 
            includes persons who identify as Burmese, 
            Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian, 
            Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai, 
            Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on. 
            If you fill the Other race circle, be 
            sure to print the name of the race. 

            If the person considers him

            (Message over 64 KB, truncated)

          • latonyabeatty76
            This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all
            Message 5 of 7 , Mar 27, 2010
              This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all else. His name is even Tsalagi and not English. It just upsets me when I see this. I marked Indian and put the tribe on the census on behalf of my ggrandfather and our heritage. I would be more than happy to show them and explain to them why I did. I also have proof of white ancestry but don't feel connected to the part of my heritage.



              [[[ QUOTE:

              "Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
              be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
              Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
              according to the race of the father, except that
              Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

              CENSUS : 1910" ]]]
            • Philip Arnell
              An interesting story latonya. Dive more into your european background though, You might establish a connection more than you think.
              Message 6 of 7 , Mar 29, 2010
                An interesting story latonya. Dive more into your european background though, You might establish a connection more than you think.


                From: latonyabeatty76 <latonyabeatty76@...>
                To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Sat, March 27, 2010 1:29:38 PM
                Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: The U.S.C.B.'s role in the O.D.R.

                 

                This is the situation that happened to my ggrandfather. His father was black and mother American Indian. His race is the only thing that has contradicted all else. His name is even Tsalagi and not English. It just upsets me when I see this. I marked Indian and put the tribe on the census on behalf of my ggrandfather and our heritage. I would be more than happy to show them and explain to them why I did. I also have proof of white ancestry but don't feel connected to the part of my heritage.

                [[[ QUOTE:

                "Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
                be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
                Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
                according to the race of the father, except that
                Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

                CENSUS : 1910" ]]]


              • ashley717717
                The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very
                Message 7 of 7 , Mar 30, 2010
                  The USA is the only country in this hemisphere that has avoided recognizing mixed people. Canada has Metis, Mexico has Mesitizos, but the USA has been very black and white on the issue and given criteria for being Black (any Negoid blood at all), White (pure), or Native American (on the rolls, with various criteria for being on a particular roll). I think we are putting good pressure on the government to recognize American mixes, and it's driving them crazy! hahahaha


                  In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                  j s <creolescience@...> wrote:


                  I suppose the real question is what was the deciding factor
                  in the change in the 1940's census from Mulatto to Negro.
                  Was it a desire for a greater black unity and therefore a rejection
                  of the mulatto designation ("We are all black" like in the 60's)
                  or a desire by whites to categorize them all as the same,
                  perhaps even as a backlash against greater acceptance by
                  whites of "Negro" culture ( Harlem Renaissance, music etc).?


                  multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:


                  THE USCB ENFORCEMENT OF
                  THE RACIST `ONE-DROP RULE'"


                  The Data shown below clearly demonstrates
                  how the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
                  has used a form of "documentary-genocide" in
                  an attempt to both annihilate the factual-record
                  of the existence of `certain' Mixed-Race groups
                  and to also deny said groups the right to be able to
                  lay claim to and publicly-embrace their full-lineage.:

                  (Notice how the definitions used for Mixed-Race
                  people changed with each census -- until the
                  term was finally eliminated altogether – with
                  the remaining entire `Mixed-Race' people
                  groupings altogether mis-categorized.

                  Notice also how –without any explanation –
                  it is simply and continually decided that ---
                  anyone who is of the 'African-American' Ethnic
                  group is also to be considered as `mono'-racially
                  Black / Negro'Race' – regardless of the person's
                  true "racial-admixture" may, in fact, actually be.)

                  Thanks to groups like the USCB, Mulatto /
                  Mixed-Race people began to be viewed under
                  the oxymoron of "Light-Skinned Blacks",
                  and the Mulatto /Mixed-Race category
                  eventually removed from the Forms.

                  From then on, Mixed-Race people
                  became silenced by One-Droppism.


                  Historical racial classification and the census:

                  Year: 1900
                  Category: White, Black, Indian, Chinese, and Japanese

                  Year: 1910
                  Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Chinese,
                  Japanese, Indian, Other (plus write-in)

                  Year: 1920
                  Category: White, Black, Mulatto, Indian,
                  Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
                  Korean, and Other (plus write-in)

                  Year: 1930
                  Category: White, Negro, Indian, Mexican,
                  Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hindu,
                  Korean (Other races, spell out in full)

                  Year: 1940
                  Category: White, Negro, Indian, Chinese,
                  Japanese, Filipino, Hindu, Korean
                  (Other races, spell out in full)

                  Year: 1950
                  Category: White, Negro, Indian, Japanese,
                  Chinese, Filipino (Other races, spell out)

                  Year: 1960
                  Category: White, Negro, American Indian,
                  Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
                  Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo

                  Year: 1970
                  Category: White, Negro or Black, Indian
                  (American), Japanese, Chinese, Filipino,
                  Hawaiian, Korean, Other (print race)

                  Year: 1980
                  Category: White, Negro, Indian (American),
                  Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean,
                  Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Hawaiian,
                  Guamanian, Samoan, Eskimo, Aleut,
                  Other (specify); each person
                  can also be Hispanic or Latino.

                  Year: 1990
                  Category: White, Black, Indian (American), Chinese,
                  Filipino, Hawaiian, Korean, Japanese, Eskimo,
                  Aleut, Vietnamese, Asian Indian, Samoan,
                  Guamanian, Other Asian Pacific Islander,
                  Other race; and Hispanic or Latino.

                  SOURCE: https://www.amherst.edu/library/research/courserelated/spring06/hist10.html


                  1870 Census: Instructions to Assistant Marshals

                  Color:

                  Be particularly careful in
                  reporting the class Mulatto.

                  The word is here generic, and includes
                  quadroons, octoroons, AND `all persons
                  having any perceptible trace of African blood'.

                  Important scientific-results depend upon the correct
                  determination of this class in schedules 1 and 2.

                  SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

                  1890 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

                  "COLOR, SEX, AND AGE

                  4. Whether White, Black, mulatto, Quadroon,
                  Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, or Indian.—
                  Write White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon,
                  Chinese, Japanese, or Indian, according to
                  the color or race of the person enumerated.

                  Be particularly careful to distinguish between
                  Blacks, Mulattos, Quadroons, and Octoroons.

                  The word "mulatto," [should be used to
                  describe] those persons who have from
                  three-eighths to five-eighths black blood;
                  "quadroon," those persons who have
                  one-fourth black blood; and "octoroon,
                  "those persons who have one-eighth
                  or `any trace' of Black blood".

                  SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

                  1910 Census: Instructions to Enumerators


                  PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

                  Color or Race:

                  Write "W" for white;
                  "B" for black;
                  "Mu" for mulatto;
                  "In" for Indian;
                  "Ch" for Chinese;
                  "Jp" for Japanese;
                  For all persons not falling within one
                  of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

                  … the term "Black" (B) includes All persons
                  Who Are Evidently Full-Blooded Negroes,
                  while the term "Mulatto" (Mu) includes all
                  other persons having "some proportion
                  or perceptible trace of Negro blood".

                  SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/%7Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

                  1920 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

                  PERSONAL DESCRIPTION

                  Color or Race.—

                  Write "W" for white;
                  "B" for black;
                  "Mu" for mulatto;
                  "In" for Indian;
                  "Ch" for Chinese;
                  "Jp" for Japanese;
                  For all persons not falling within one
                  of these classes, write "Ot" (for other)…

                  … the term "black" (B) includes all persons
                  who are evidently full-blooded negroes,
                  while the term "mulatto" (Mu) includes all
                  other persons having some proportion
                  or perceptible trace of negro blood.

                  SOURCE: http://usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1920.shtml

                  Race in 1930

                  Someone who was part Indian and
                  part Negro was to be reported as Negro
                  unless the Indian blood predominated and the person
                  was `generally accepted' as an Indian in the community.

                  SOURCE: http://genealogy.about.com/library/print/nuchinckley1a.htm

                  1940 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

                  Color or Race

                  Write "W" for white; "Neg" for Negro;"In" for Indian;
                  "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino; "Kor" for Korean;
                  "Chi" for Chinese; and "Hi" for Hindu;

                  For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

                  455. Negroes

                  A person of mixed White and Negro blood
                  should be returned as Negro, no matter
                  how small a percentage of Negro blood.
                  Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
                  returned as Negroes, without distinction.
                  A person of mixed Indian and Negro
                  blood should be returned as a Negro,
                  unless the Indian blood very definitely
                  predominates -- AND -- he is `universally
                  accepted' in the community as an Indian.

                  457. Mixed Races

                  Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
                  be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.
                  Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
                  according to the race of the father, except that
                  Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

                  SOURCE: http://www.usa.ipums.org/usa/voliii/inst1940.shtml

                  1950 Census: Instructions to Enumerators

                  Personal Characteristics

                  Item 9. Race

                  114. Item 9.

                  Determining and entering race.

                  Write "W" for white; "Neg"
                  for Negro; "Ind" for
                  American Indian;
                  "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for
                  Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
                  For a person of any other
                  race, write the race in full.

                  Assume that the race of
                  related persons living in the
                  household is the same as the
                  race of your respondent,
                  unless you learn otherwise.

                  For unrelated persons
                  (employees, hired hands,
                  lodgers, etc.) you must ask the
                  race, because knowledge of the
                  housewife's race (for example)
                  tells nothing of the maid's race.

                  116. Negroes.-


                  Report "Negro" (Neg)
                  for Negroes and for
                  persons of Mixed White
                  -And-Negro-Parentage.

                  A person of Mixed-Indian-
                  and-Negro-Blood should
                  be returned as a Negro,
                  unless the Indian blood very
                  definitely predominates
                  -- AND -- he is `accepted'
                  in the community as an Indian.

                  (Note, however, the exceptions
                  described in par. l18 below.)

                  117. American Indians.

                  Report "American Indian"
                  (Ind) for persons of
                  Mixed-White-And-
                  Indian-Blood -- if enrolled
                  on an Indian Agency or Reservation roll;
                  if not so enrolled, they should
                  still be reported as Indian if
                  the proportion of Indian blood
                  is One-Fourth or more, or if
                  they are `regarded' as Indians
                  in the community where they live.
                  (See par. 116 for persons of
                  Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
                  Blood and also exceptions
                  noted in par. 118.)
                  In those counties where there
                  are many Indians living outside
                  of reservations, special care
                  should be taken to obtain
                  accurate answers to item 9.

                  118. Special communities.

                  Report persons of Mixed-White-
                  Negro-And-Indian-Ancestry
                  `living in certain communities'
                  in the Eastern United State's
                  in terms of The Name By
                  Which They Are Locally Known.

                  The communities in question
                  are of long standing and are
                  locally recognized by special
                  names, such as '"Croatian,"
                  "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

                  Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-
                  Negro-Ancestry and Mulattoes
                  `not living in such communities'
                  should be returned as
                  "Negro" (see par. 116).

                  When in doubt, describe
                  the situation in a footnote.

                  119. Mixed parentage.

                  Report Race of Nonwhite
                  parent for persons of
                  Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite-Races.

                  Mixtures of Nonwhite races
                  should be reported according
                  to the race of the father.

                  (Note, however, exceptions detailed
                  in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

                  SOURCE: http://www.ipums.umn.edu/Epipums/voliii/inst1930.html

                  CENSUS : 1850, 1860
                  RACE QUESTION: Color
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
                  White, Black, or Mulatto.

                  CENSUS : 1870, 1880
                  RACE QUESTION: Color
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:
                  White (W), Black (B), Mulatto
                  (M), Chinese (C), Indian (I).

                  CENSUS: 1900
                  RACE QUESTION: Color or race
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

                  Write "W" for White; "B" for Black (Negro OR
                  `Of-Negro-Descent'); "Ch" for Chinese; "JP" for
                  Japanese, and "In" for Indian, as the case may be.

                  CENSUS : 1910
                  RACE QUESTION: Color or race
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

                  108.
                  Write "W" for white; "B"
                  for Black; "Mu" for Mulatto;
                  "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "In" for Indian.
                  For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
                  write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
                  of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 109.
                  For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
                  includes all persons who are evidently
                  Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
                  (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
                  Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

                  CENSUS: 1920
                  RACE QUESTION: Color or race
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

                  120.
                  Write "W" for white, "B" for Black;
                  "Mu" for Mulatto; "In" for Indian;
                  "Ch" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
                  Filipino; "Hin" for Hindu; "Kor" for Korean.
                  For all persons not falling within one of these classes,
                  write "Ot" (for other), and write on the left-hand margin
                  of the schedule the race of the person so indicated. 121.
                  For census purposes, the term `Black' (B)
                  includes all persons who are evidently
                  Full-Blooded Negroes, while the term "Mulatto"
                  (Mu) includes all other persons having Some
                  Proportion or Perceptible Trace of Negro Blood.

                  CENSUS : 1940
                  RACE QUESTION: Color or race
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

                  453. Write "W" for white; "Neg"
                  for Negro; "In" for Indian;
                  "Chi" for Chinese; "Jp" for Japanese; "Fil" for
                  Filipino; "Hi" for Hindu; and "Kor" for Korean.
                  For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

                  454. Mexicans.

                  Mexicans are to be regarded as white unless
                  definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

                  455. Negroes.

                  A person of mixed white and Negro blood
                  should be returned as Negro, no matter
                  how small a percentage of Negro blood.
                  Both Black and Mulatto persons are to be
                  returned as Negroes, without distinction.
                  A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
                  should be returned as a Negro, unless the Indian
                  blood very definitely predominates and he is universally
                  accepted in the community as an Indian.

                  456. Indians.

                  A person of Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood
                  should be returned as an Indian, if enrolled
                  on an Indian agency or reservation roll, or if not
                  so enrolled, if the proportion of Indian blood is
                  One-Fourth Or More, or if the person is regarded
                  as an Indian in the community where he lives.

                  457. Mixed Races.

                  Any mixture of White and Nonwhite should
                  be reported according to the Nonwhite parent.

                  Mixtures of Nonwhite races should be reported
                  according to the race of the father, except that
                  Negro-Indian should be reported as Negro.

                  Note that Mulattos no longer have
                  their own category from this point
                  forward, but they were also
                  without a separate category in 1900.


                  CENSUS : 1950
                  RACE QUESTION: Race:
                  ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS:

                  White (W); Negro (Neg);
                  American Indian (Ind) ;
                  Japanese (Jap); Chinese (Chi);
                  Filipino (Fil) ;
                  Other race – spell out

                  114. Item 9.

                  Determining and entering race.-
                  Write "W" for white; "Neg" for
                  Negro; "Ind" for American Indian;
                  "Chi" for Chinese; "Jap" for Japanese; "Fil" for Filipino.
                  For a person of any other race, write the race in full.

                  Assume that the race of related persons living
                  in the household is the same as the race of your
                  respondent, unless you learn otherwise.

                  For unrelated persons (employees, hired hands,
                  lodgers, etc.) you must ask the race, because
                  knowledge of the housewife's race (for
                  example) tells nothing f the maid's race.

                  115. Mexicans.

                  Report "white" (W) for Mexicans unless they are
                  definitely of Indian or other nonwhite race.

                  116. Negroes.

                  Report "Negro" (Neg) for Negroes and for
                  persons of Mixed-White-And-Negro-Parentage.

                  A person of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-Blood
                  should be returned as a Negro, unless the
                  Indian blood very `definitely predominates' --
                  AND -- he is `accepted' in the community as an Indian.
                  (Note, however, the exceptions described in par. l18 below.)

                  117. American Indians.

                  Report "American Indian" (Ind) for persons of
                  Mixed-White-And-Indian-Blood if enrolled on an
                  Indian Agency or Reservation roll; if not so enrolled,
                  they should still be reported as Indian if the proportion
                  of Indian blood is One-Fourth Or More, or if they are
                  regarded as Indians in the community where they live.

                  (See par. 116 for persons of mixed Indian and
                  Negro blood and also exceptions noted in par. 118.)

                  In those counties where there are many Indians
                  living outside of reservations, special care should
                  be taken to obtain accurate answers to item 9.

                  118. Special communities.

                  Report persons of mixed white, Negro, and Indian ancestry
                  living in certain communities in the Eastern United States
                  in terms of the name by which they are locally known.
                  The communities in question are of long standing and
                  are locally recognized by special names, such as '
                  "Croatian," "Jackson White," "We-sort," etc.

                  Persons of Mixed-Indian-And-Negro-
                  Ancestry and Mulattoes 'not living in such
                  communities' should be returned as "Negro"

                  (see par. 116). When in doubt,
                  describe the situation in a footnote.

                  119. Mixed parentage.

                  Report race of Nonwhite parent for persons
                  of Mixed-White-And-Nonwhite races.
                  Mixtures of nonwhite races should be
                  reported according to the race of the father.
                  (Note, however, exceptions
                  detailed in pars. 116 and 118 above.)

                  CENSUS : 1960
                  RACE QUESTION:

                  Is this person –
                  White, Negro, American Indian,
                  Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian,
                  Part Hawaiian, Aleut, Eskimo, (etc.)?

                  (STARTING IN 1970 THERE WERE
                  NO ENUMERATOR INSTRUCTIONS
                  BECAUSE PEOPLE WERE THEN
                  ALLOWED TO CHOOSE THEIR
                  OWN "RACIAL" CATEGORIES.)


                  CENSUS : 1970
                  COLOR OR RACE

                  Fill one circle. If "Indian (American),"
                  also give tribe. If "Other," also give race.
                  O White
                  O Negro or Black
                  O Indian (Amer.)
                  Print tribe ____________________
                  O Japanese
                  O Chinese
                  O Filipino
                  O Hawaiian
                  O Korean
                  O Other -
                  Print race ____________________
                  [On the questionnaires used in Alaska,
                  the categories "Aleut" and "Eskimo"
                  were substituted for "Hawaiian"
                  and "Korean" in question 4.]


                  CENSUS : 1980
                  COLOR OR RACE

                  Is this person --
                  Fill one circle.
                  O White
                  O Asian Indian
                  O Black or Negro
                  O Hawaiian
                  O Japanese
                  O Guamanian
                  O Chinese
                  O Samoan
                  O Filipino
                  O Eskimo
                  O Korean
                  O Aleut
                  O Vietnamese
                  O Other -
                  Specify __________
                  O Indian (Amer.)
                  Print tribe ____________
                  "Fill the circle for the category with
                  which the person most closely identifies.
                  If you fill the Indian (American) or
                  Other circle, be sure to print the name
                  of the specific Indian tribe or specific group."

                  CENSUS : 1990
                  COLOR OR RACE

                  Fill ONE circle for the race that the
                  person considers himself/herself to be.
                  If Indian (Amer.), print the name
                  of the enrolled or principal Tribe.

                  If Other Asian or Pacific Islander
                  (API), print one group, for example:

                  Hmong, Fijian, Laotian, Thai, Tongan,
                  Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on.
                  If Other race, print race.
                  O White
                  O Black or Negro
                  O Indian (Amer.)
                  (Print the name of the enrolled
                  or principal tribe.)
                  _______________
                  O Eskimo
                  O Aleut
                  Asian or Pacific Islander (API)
                  O Chinese
                  O Japanese
                  O Filipino
                  O Asian Indian
                  O Hawaiian
                  O Samoan
                  O Korean
                  O Guamanian
                  O Vietnamese
                  O Other API
                  ____________________
                  O Other race (Print race)
                  ____________________

                  "Fill ONE circle for the race each person
                  considers himself/herself to be.
                  If you fill the Indian (Amer.) circle,
                  print the name of the Tribe or Tribes
                  in which the person is enrolled.
                  If the person is not enrolled in a tribe,
                  print the name of the principal tribe(s).
                  If you fill the Other API circle [under
                  Asian or Pacific Islander (API)],
                  only print the name of the group
                  to which the person belongs.
                  For example, the Other API category
                  includes persons who identify as Burmese,
                  Fijian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian,
                  Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Tongan, Thai,
                  Cambodian, Sri Lankan, and so on.
                  If you fill the Other race circle, be
                  sure to print the name of the race.

                  If the person considers himself/herself to
                  be White, Black or Negro, Eskimo
                  or Aleut, fill one circle only.

                  Please do not print the race in the boxes.

                  The Black or Negro category
                  also includes persons who
                  identify as 'African-American'
                  Afro-American, Haitian, Jamaican,
                  West Indian, Nigerian, and so on.

                  All persons, regardless of citizenship
                  status, should answer this question."


                  CENSUS : 2000
                  COLOR OR RACE

                  What is this person's race?
                  Mark one or more races to indicate what
                  this person considers himself/herself to be.
                  White
                  Black, 'African-American', or Negro
                  American Indian or Alaska Native
                  ______________
                  (print name of enrolled or principal tribe)
                  Asian Indian
                  Native Hawaiian
                  Japanese
                  Korean
                  Vietnamese
                  Guamanian or Chomorro
                  Samoan
                  Other Pacific Islander
                  ______________________
                  Some Other Race
                  _______________________

                  New standards, issued in 1997, made for
                  5 minimum racial categories instead of 4.
                  ("Asian or Pacific Islander" is now
                  "Asian" and "Hawaiian or Pacific Islander.)

                  The categories are now American Indian
                  or Alaskan Native, Asian, Black or
                  'African-American', Native Hawaiian
                  and Other Pacific Islander, White.

                  For the first time, people can select more than
                  one when they self-identify, and respondents
                  are instructed to check all races that apply..
                  There were 15 check box response categories
                  and 3 write-in areas (as compared with
                  1990's 16 responses and 2 write-ins.
                  They combined the 3 separate categories
                  of American Indian, Eskimo, or Aleut
                  into one – American Indian or Alaska
                  Native – with instructions to write in the tribe.
                  And "Asian and Pacific Islander" is now two
                  categories, Asian, and "Native Hawaiian
                  and Other Pacific Islander."
                  The categories are meant to be collapsible
                  to the "six basic racial categories"
                  (quoted from the Census Bureau document
                  "Racial and Ethnic Classifications used in
                  Census 2000 and Beyond (2000) found at http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/race/racefactcb.html)

                  SOURCE: www.rci.rutgers.edu/~vbashi/soc108-handout-census.htm

                  Related Links:

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/198
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/199
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/200
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1122
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1050
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/640
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/301
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/285
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/195

                  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


                  http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=35284580&postcount=4

                  http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index;_ylt=AjwuxYj8agKY7yGgqaJ7i.Xty6IX?qid=20070704121228AA7ZMsA&show=7#profile-info-ezQwEaJLaa

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3331

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/2885


                  http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070161&postcount;=13

                  http://mgmix.com/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=879:light-skin-curse-a-different-point-of-view&catid=36:biracial#comment-1271

                  http://boards.mulatto.org/post/show_single_post?pid=34070414&postcount;=14

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/3344

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1399

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1747


                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1402

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1400

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1570

                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1573

                  .
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