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Great Britain's: Queen Charlotte

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  • multiracialbookclub
    Great Britain s Mixed-Race Queen: Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd) With features as conspicuously negroid as they were reputed to be by her contemporaries,
    Message 1 of 7 , Oct 7, 2006
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      Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
      Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)

               
                 
      With features as conspicuously negroid as they were
      reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
      that the "black" community, both in the U.S. and
      throughout the British Commonwealth , have rallied
      around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

      They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
      identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
      glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
      is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 

      Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
      was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
      a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Charlotte.jpg

      The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
      solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
      black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

      Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
      must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
      (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
      been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
      bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
      which these figures invariably represented)

      Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
      the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
      members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
      (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
      Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
      Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
      Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

      Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
      Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
      gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
      already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
      unmistakable "African" appearance.

      Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

      The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
      certainly had political significance since artists of that
      period were expected to play down, soften or even
      obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 
      Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
      of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
      her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
       

      Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

      He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
      judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
      rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire.

      It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
      was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
      he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
      Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 

      Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
      and political activism at that level of English society,
      it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
      was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.

      Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
      example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
      of at least two formal full sized portraits.

      Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
      to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
      the celebrated friendship between herself
      and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
      another member of the Mansfield family.


      One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
      the court painter to the royal family, for whom
      the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 

      It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
      propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
      that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
      of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
      a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
      by that circle of the English intelligencia to
      which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

      For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
      a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
      McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
      Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
      British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
      Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
      the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
      (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
      contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

      Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
      of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
      one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
      personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
      described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

      Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
      African appearance, however, can be found in the
      poem penned to her on the occasion of her
      wedding to George III and the Coronation
      celebration that immediately followed. 

      Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
      She still preserves that title in her face.
      Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
      And and Alusian fields their name retain;
      They but subdued the southern world with arms,
      She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
      O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
      The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

      Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
      itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
      referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
      in an apologia it published defending her
      position as head of the Commonwealth.

      More about Research into the Black Magi: 

      In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
      Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
      black de Sousas had been utilized as
      both religious and political propaganda to
      support Portugal's expansion into Africa.

      In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
      from a vocabulary of blackness which,
      probably due to the Reformation and the
      Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.

      There was a wealth of positive symbolism
      that had been attributed to the black
      African figure during the Middle Ages.

      Incredible as it would seem to us today,
      such images had been used to represent
      not only Our Lady - evidence of which
      can be found in the cult of the Black
      Madonna that once proliferated in
      Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
      Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

      Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
      y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 

      Some of these articles in the series are
      from the
      spartacus educational web site.
      They first appeared, and are
      currently present, on the PBS Web site.
      For more articles see the
      PBS Web site.

      http://www.ipoaa.com/queen_charlotte.htm

      http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/charlotte/english_intro.html

      http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/charlotte/char1.jpg

    • j s
      I m currently reading a book called Nature knows no color line by J.A.Rogers. it goes into detail about this and other black europeans from the middle
      Message 2 of 7 , Oct 8, 2006
      • 0 Attachment
        I'm currently reading a book called "Nature knows no color line" by J.A.Rogers. it goes into detail about this and
        other "black" europeans from the middle ages, showing "blacks" prominantly displayed on coats-of-arms etc.

        It also talks about how there were thousands of slaves, many of whom were raised and educated by nobles, who went on to
        become more or less the adopted offspring. These people married and had children - so where did their gene lines go to ? ;) 
         
        Really execellent book, but I'd also suggest any of his books, though many are out of print
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Augustus_Rogers

        multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:
        Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
        Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)

                 
                   
        With features as conspicuously negroid as they were
        reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
        that the "black" community, both in the U.S. and
        throughout the British Commonwealth , have rallied
        around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

        They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
        identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
        glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
        is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 

        Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
        was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
        a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


        http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Image:Charlotte. jpg

        The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
        solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
        black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

        Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
        must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
        (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
        been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
        bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
        which these figures invariably represented)

        Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
        the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
        members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
        (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
        Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
        Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
        Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

        Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
        Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
        gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
        already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
        unmistakable "African" appearance.

        Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

        The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
        certainly had political significance since artists of that
        period were expected to play down, soften or even
        obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 
        Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
        of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
        her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
         
        Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

        He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
        judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
        rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire.

        It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
        was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
        he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
        Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 
        Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
        and political activism at that level of English society,
        it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
        was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.
        Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
        example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
        of at least two formal full sized portraits.

        Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
        to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
        the celebrated friendship between herself
        and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
        another member of the Mansfield family.


        One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
        the court painter to the royal family, for whom
        the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 
        It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
        propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
        that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
        of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
        a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
        by that circle of the English intelligencia to
        which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

        For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
        a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
        McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
        Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
        British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
        Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
        the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
        (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
        contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

        Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
        of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
        one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
        personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
        described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

        Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
        African appearance, however, can be found in the
        poem penned to her on the occasion of her
        wedding to George III and the Coronation
        celebration that immediately followed. 
        Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
        She still preserves that title in her face.
        Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
        And and Alusian fields their name retain;
        They but subdued the southern world with arms,
        She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
        O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
        The greatest monarch of the north must bow.
        Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
        itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
        referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
        in an apologia it published defending her
        position as head of the Commonwealth.

        More about Research into the Black Magi: 

        In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
        Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
        black de Sousas had been utilized as
        both religious and political propaganda to
        support Portugal's expansion into Africa.

        In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
        from a vocabulary of blackness which,
        probably due to the Reformation and the
        Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.
        There was a wealth of positive symbolism
        that had been attributed to the black
        African figure during the Middle Ages.

        Incredible as it would seem to us today,
        such images had been used to represent
        not only Our Lady - evidence of which
        can be found in the cult of the Black
        Madonna that once proliferated in
        Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
        Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

        Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
        y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 
        Some of these articles in the series are
        from the
        spartacus educational web site.
        They first appeared, and are
        currently present, on the PBS Web site.
        For more articles see the
        PBS Web site.
        http://www.ipoaa. com/queen_ charlotte. htm

        http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ english_intro. html

        http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ char1.jpg



        Talk is cheap. Use Yahoo! Messenger to make PC-to-Phone calls. Great rates starting at 1¢/min.

      • tlbaker1
        WOW, this is really something, how did you find this?? Lynne _____ From: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf
        Message 3 of 7 , Oct 8, 2006
        • 0 Attachment

          WOW, this is really something, how did you find this??

           

          Lynne

           


          From: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com [mailto: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com ] On Behalf Of multiracialbookclub
          Sent: Saturday, October 07, 2006 9:36 PM
          To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
          Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Great Britain 's: Queen Charlotte

           

          Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
          Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)


                   
                     
          With features as conspicuously negroid as they were
          reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
          that the "black" community, both in the U.S. and
          throughout the British Commonwealth , have rallied
          around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

          They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
          identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
          glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
          is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 


          Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
          was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
          a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


          http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Image:Charlotte. jpg

          The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
          solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
          black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

          Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
          must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
          (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
          been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
          bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
          which these figures invariably represented)

          Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
          the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
          members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
          (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
          Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
          Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
          Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

          Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
          Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
          gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
          already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
          unmistakable "African" appearance.

          Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

          The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
          certainly had political significance since artists of that
          period were expected to play down, soften or even
          obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 

          Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
          of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
          her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
           

          Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

          He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
          judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
          rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire .

          It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
          was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
          he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
          Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 

          Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
          and political activism at that level of English society,
          it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
          was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.

          Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
          example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
          of at least two formal full sized portraits.

          Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
          to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
          the celebrated friendship between herself
          and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
          another member of the Mansfield family.


          One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
          the court painter to the royal family, for whom
          the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 

          It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
          propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
          that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
          of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
          a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
          by that circle of the English intelligencia to
          which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

          For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
          a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
          McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
          Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
          British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
          Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
          the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
          (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
          contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

          Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
          of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
          one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
          personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
          described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

          Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
          African appearance, however, can be found in the
          poem penned to her on the occasion of her
          wedding to George III and the Coronation
          celebration that immediately followed. 

          Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
          She still preserves that title in her face.
          Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia 's plain,
          And and Alusian fields their name retain;
          They but subdued the southern world with arms,
          She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
          O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
          The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

          Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
          itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
          referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
          in an apologia it published defending her
          position as head of the Commonwealth.

          More about Research into the Black Magi: 

          In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
          Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
          black de Sousas had been utilized as
          both religious and political propaganda to
          support Portugal 's expansion into Africa .

          In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
          from a vocabulary of blackness which,
          probably due to the Reformation and the
          Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.

          There was a wealth of positive symbolism
          that had been attributed to the black
          African figure during the Middle Ages.

          Incredible as it would seem to us today,
          such images had been used to represent
          not only Our Lady - evidence of which
          can be found in the cult of the Black
          Madonna that once proliferated in
          Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
          Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

          Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
          y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 

          Some of these articles in the series are
          from the
          spartacus educational web site.
          They first appeared, and are
          currently present, on the PBS Web site.
          For more articles see the
          PBS Web site.

          http://www.ipoaa. com/queen_ charlotte. htm

          http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ english_intro. html

          http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ char1.jpg

        • multiracialbookclub
          Wow -- the book sounds fascinating Jeff!! Thanks for recommending it -- as well as recommending that we try to get access to other Joel Augustus Rogers
          Message 4 of 7 , Oct 8, 2006
          • 0 Attachment

            Wow -- the book sounds fascinating Jeff!!

            Thanks for recommending it -- as well as
            recommending that we try to get access
            to other
            Joel Augustus Rogers books !!

            Even if some of them are out-of-print, it always
            surprises me how often a local County or College
            Library can obtain access to various books -- either
            through inter-library loans or directly purchasing them.


            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            j s <creolescience@...> wrote:


            Re: [Generation-Mixed] Great Britain's: Queen Charlotte

            I'm currently reading a book called
            "Nature knows no color line" by J.A.Rogers.

            It goes into detail about this and other "black"
            europeans from the middle ages, showing "blacks"
            prominantly displayed on coats-of-arms etc.

            It also talks about how there were thousands of slaves,
            many of whom were raised and educated by nobles, who
            went on to become more or less the adopted offspring.

            These people married and had children
            - so where did their gene lines go to ? ;) 
             
            Really execellent book, but I'd also suggest
            any of his books, though many are out of print
            http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joel_Augustus_Rogers


            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            <soaptalk@...> wrote:


            Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
            Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)

                     
                       
            With features as conspicuously
            negroid as they were reputed to be
            by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
            that the "black" community, both in
            the U.S. and throughout the British
            Commonwealth , have rallied around
            pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

            They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
            identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
            glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
            is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 

            Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
            was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
            a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


            http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Image:Charlotte. jpg

            The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
            solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
            black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

            Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
            must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
            (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
            been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
            bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
            which these figures invariably represented)

            Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
            the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
            members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
            (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
            Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
            Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
            Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

            Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
            Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
            gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
            already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
            unmistakable "African" appearance.

            Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

            The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
            certainly had political significance since artists of that
            period were expected to play down, soften or even
            obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 
            Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
            of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
            her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
             
            Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

            He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
            judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
            rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire.

            It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
            was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
            he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
            Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 
            Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
            and political activism at that level of English society,
            it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
            was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.
            Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
            example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
            of at least two formal full sized portraits.

            Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
            to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
            the celebrated friendship between herself
            and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
            another member of the Mansfield family.


            One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
            the court painter to the royal family, for whom
            the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 
            It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
            propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
            that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
            of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
            a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
            by that circle of the English intelligencia to
            which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

            For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
            a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
            McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
            Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
            British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
            Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
            the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
            (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
            contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

            Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
            of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
            one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
            personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
            described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

            Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
            African appearance, however, can be found in the
            poem penned to her on the occasion of her
            wedding to George III and the Coronation
            celebration that immediately followed. 
            Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
            She still preserves that title in her face.
            Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
            And and Alusian fields their name retain;
            They but subdued the southern world with arms,
            She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
            O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
            The greatest monarch of the north must bow.
            Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
            itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
            referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
            in an apologia it published defending her
            position as head of the Commonwealth.

            More about Research into the Black Magi: 

            In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
            Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
            black de Sousas had been utilized as
            both religious and political propaganda to
            support Portugal's expansion into Africa.

            In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
            from a vocabulary of blackness which,
            probably due to the Reformation and the
            Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.
            There was a wealth of positive symbolism
            that had been attributed to the black
            African figure during the Middle Ages.

            Incredible as it would seem to us today,
            such images had been used to represent
            not only Our Lady - evidence of which
            can be found in the cult of the Black
            Madonna that once proliferated in
            Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
            Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

            Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
            y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 
            Some of these articles in the series are
            from the
            spartacus educational web site.
            They first appeared, and are
            currently present, on the PBS Web site.
            For more articles see the
            PBS Web site.
            http://www.ipoaa. com/queen_ charlotte. htm

            http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ english_intro. html

            http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ char1.jpg

          • j s
            Yes, all of his stuff is quite fascinating reading, and he backs it up with true research unlike alot of today s more emotionally based afrocentric history
            Message 5 of 7 , Oct 8, 2006
            • 0 Attachment
              Yes, all of his stuff is quite fascinating reading, and he
              backs it up with true research unlike alot of today's more
              emotionally based afrocentric history which seems quite
              often to be more opinion or wishful thinking instead of fact.

              Rogers takes quotes from the actual writers of the
              times and shows the logical conclusions as well
              as obvious ommissions by future white writers that
              must have been uncomfortable with the truth.  color


              multiracialbookclub <soaptalk@...> wrote:
              Wow -- the book sounds fascinating Jeff!!

              Thanks for recommending it -- as well as
              recommending that we try to get access
              to other
              Joel Augustus Rogers books !!

              Even if some of them are out-of-print, it always
              surprises me how often a local County or College
              Library can obtain access to various books -- either
              through inter-library loans or directly purchasing them.


              In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
              j s <creolescience@ ...> wrote:


              Re: [Generation- Mixed] Great Britain's: Queen Charlotte

              I'm currently reading a book called
              "Nature knows no color line" by J.A.Rogers.

              It goes into detail about this and other "black"
              europeans from the middle ages, showing "blacks"
              prominantly displayed on coats-of-arms etc.

              It also talks about how there were thousands of slaves,
              many of whom were raised and educated by nobles, who
              went on to become more or less the adopted offspring.

              These people married and had children
              - so where did their gene lines go to ? ;) 
               
              Really execellent book, but I'd also suggest
              any of his books, though many are out of print
              http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Joel_Augustus_ Rogers


              In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
              <soaptalk@hotmail. com> wrote:


              Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
              Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)

                       
                         
              With features as conspicuously
              negroid as they were reputed to be
              by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
              that the "black" community, both in
              the U.S. and throughout the British
              Commonwealth , have rallied around
              pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

              They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
              identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
              glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
              is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 

              Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
              was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
              a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


              http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Image:Charlotte. jpg

              The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
              solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
              black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

              Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
              must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
              (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
              been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
              bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
              which these figures invariably represented)

              Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
              the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
              members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
              (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
              Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
              Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
              Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

              Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
              Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
              gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
              already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
              unmistakable "African" appearance.

              Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

              The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
              certainly had political significance since artists of that
              period were expected to play down, soften or even
              obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 
              Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
              of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
              her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
               
              Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

              He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
              judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
              rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire.

              It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
              was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
              he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
              Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 
              Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
              and political activism at that level of English society,
              it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
              was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.
              Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
              example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
              of at least two formal full sized portraits.

              Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
              to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
              the celebrated friendship between herself
              and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
              another member of the Mansfield family.


              One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
              the court painter to the royal family, for whom
              the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 
              It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
              propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
              that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
              of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
              a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
              by that circle of the English intelligencia to
              which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

              For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
              a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
              McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
              Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
              British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
              Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
              the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
              (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
              contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

              Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
              of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
              one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
              personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
              described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

              Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
              African appearance, however, can be found in the
              poem penned to her on the occasion of her
              wedding to George III and the Coronation
              celebration that immediately followed. 
              Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
              She still preserves that title in her face.
              Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
              And and Alusian fields their name retain;
              They but subdued the southern world with arms,
              She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
              O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
              The greatest monarch of the north must bow.
              Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
              itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
              referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
              in an apologia it published defending her
              position as head of the Commonwealth.

              More about Research into the Black Magi: 

              In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
              Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
              black de Sousas had been utilized as
              both religious and political propaganda to
              support Portugal's expansion into Africa.

              In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
              from a vocabulary of blackness which,
              probably due to the Reformation and the
              Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.
              There was a wealth of positive symbolism
              that had been attributed to the black
              African figure during the Middle Ages.

              Incredible as it would seem to us today,
              such images had been used to represent
              not only Our Lady - evidence of which
              can be found in the cult of the Black
              Madonna that once proliferated in
              Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
              Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

              Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
              y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 
              Some of these articles in the series are
              from the
              spartacus educational web site.
              They first appeared, and are
              currently present, on the PBS Web site.
              For more articles see the
              PBS Web site.
              http://www.ipoaa. com/queen_ charlotte. htm

              http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ english_intro. html

              http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ char1.jpg



              Do you Yahoo!?
              Get on board. You're invited to try the new Yahoo! Mail.

            • multiracialbookclub
              Hi Lynne, Thanks for asking. So … here s the scoop … Several years ago – PBS broadcast a documentary called Secret Daughter
              Message 6 of 7 , Oct 9, 2006
              • 0 Attachment

                Hi Lynne,

                Thanks for asking.

                So … here's the scoop …

                Several years ago – PBS broadcast a documentary called
                "
                Secret Daughter" – which was about a Mixed-Race woman
                (June Cross – who is also a Producer for the PBS series,
                `Frontline') who, as a child had been knowingly abandoned
                by her mono-racially white mother ("Norma") who then later
                allowed her back into her life, but then, only under the pretense
                of having been a former foster-child who the woman and her
                mono-racially white-partner had "rescued from child abuse".

                [In reality, the girl was actually left with a very nice, middle-class
                MGM-Mixed family of the African-American ethnicity who raised
                her very well and, once her white mother was comfortable about
                it, she then allowed her daughter to spend various parts of the year
                visiting her  –but, again, only under the condition that the girl would
                agree to the guise of pretending to have been a previous "foster child"
                – from many years back -- of whom the woman had grown "quite fond".

                What was humorous was that the mother ("Norma") ended up
                becoming the live-in girlfriend of Hollywood celebrity, Larry
                Storch (the actor from T.V. comedies like `F-Troop', etc. –
                and whom `June' says was always very kind and even treated her
                in a manner that was "quite fatherly") ... and nearly all of their friends
                actually `suspected' that the girl actually was the biological daughter
                of either "Norma" or "Larry" ... but, ironically, most mistakenly thought
                that she was actually `Larry's' biological daughter (simply because he 
                acted much more "parently" to her than did her mother, "Norma").]


                The documentary was so popular that PBS eventually
                created a web site on the topic of being Mixed-Race
                and the site included historical Mixed-Race figures.


                Added Note:

                June Cross – the subject of the PBS
                Documentary
                `Secret Daughter', has now written a follow-up
                autobiographical
                Book which covers more
                details of events mentioned in the documentary.

                The
                Book is also entitled `Secret Daughter'
                and has been released to rave reviews.

                Have a great day!!

                --AP ("WG")

                P.S.

                If anyone in the group happens to read the
                Book `Secret Daughter' – please feel free
                to submit an online `Book Review'.

                We'd love to know what you think of it.

                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                "tlbaker1" <tlbaker1@...> wrote:

                WOW, this is really something,
                how did you find this??

                Lynne

                From: multiracialbookclub
                Sent: Saturday, October 07, 2006 9:36 PM
                To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                Subject:  Great Britain's: Queen Charlotte

                Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
                Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)


                         
                           
                With features as conspicuously negroid as they were
                reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
                that the "black" community, both in the U.S. and
                throughout the British Commonwealth , have rallied
                around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

                They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
                identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
                glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
                is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 

                Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
                was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
                a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Charlotte.jpg

                The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
                solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
                black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

                Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
                must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
                (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
                been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
                bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
                which these figures invariably represented)

                Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
                the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
                members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
                (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
                Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
                Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
                Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

                Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
                Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
                gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
                already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
                unmistakable "African" appearance.

                Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

                The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
                certainly had political significance since artists of that
                period were expected to play down, soften or even
                obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 
                Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
                of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
                her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
                 

                Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

                He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
                judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
                rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire.

                It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
                was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
                he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
                Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 

                Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
                and political activism at that level of English society,
                it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
                was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.

                Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
                example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
                of at least two formal full sized portraits.

                Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
                to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
                the celebrated friendship between herself
                and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
                another member of the Mansfield family.


                One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
                the court painter to the royal family, for whom
                the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 

                It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
                propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
                that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
                of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
                a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
                by that circle of the English intelligencia to
                which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

                For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
                a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
                McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
                Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
                British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
                Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
                the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
                (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
                contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

                Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
                of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
                one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
                personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
                described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

                Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
                African appearance, however, can be found in the
                poem penned to her on the occasion of her
                wedding to George III and the Coronation
                celebration that immediately followed. 

                Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
                She still preserves that title in her face.
                Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
                And and Alusian fields their name retain;
                They but subdued the southern world with arms,
                She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
                O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
                The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

                Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
                itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
                referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
                in an apologia it published defending her
                position as head of the Commonwealth.

                More about Research into the Black Magi: 

                In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
                Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
                black de Sousas had been utilized as
                both religious and political propaganda to
                support Portugal's expansion into Africa.

                In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
                from a vocabulary of blackness which,
                probably due to the Reformation and the
                Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.

                There was a wealth of positive symbolism
                that had been attributed to the black
                African figure during the Middle Ages.

                Incredible as it would seem to us today,
                such images had been used to represent
                not only Our Lady - evidence of which
                can be found in the cult of the Black
                Madonna that once proliferated in
                Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
                Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

                Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
                y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 

                Some of these articles in the series are
                from the
                spartacus educational web site.
                They first appeared, and are
                currently present, on the PBS Web site.
                For more articles see the
                PBS Web site.

                http://www.ipoaa.com/queen_charlotte.htm

                http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/charlotte/english_intro.html

                http://www.lib.virginia.edu/small/exhibits/charlotte/char1.jpg

              • tlbaker1
                Yessssss, I remember reading this somewhere, thanks. Lynne _____ From: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of
                Message 7 of 7 , Oct 10, 2006
                • 0 Attachment

                  Yessssss, I remember reading this somewhere, thanks.

                   

                  Lynne

                   


                  From: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                  [mailto: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com ]
                  On Behalf Of
                  multiracialbookclub
                  Sent: Tuesday, October 10, 2006 1:25 AM
                  To: Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                  Subject: [Generation-Mixed] Re: Great Britain 's: Queen Charlotte

                   

                  Hi Lynne,

                  Thanks for asking.

                  So here's the scoop

                  Several years ago – PBS broadcast a documentary called
                  "Secret Daughter" – which was about a Mixed-Race woman
                  (June Cross – who is also a Producer for the PBS series,
                  `Frontline') who, as a child had been knowingly abandoned
                  by her mono-racially white mother ("Norma") who then later
                  allowed her back into her life, but then, only under the pretense
                  of having been a former foster-child who the woman and her
                  mono-racially white-partner had "rescued from child abuse".

                  [In reality, the girl was actually left with a very nice, middle-class
                  MGM-Mixed family of the African-American ethnicity who raised
                  her very well and, once her white mother was comfortable about
                  it, she then allowed her daughter to spend various parts of the year
                  visiting her  –but, again, only under the condition that the girl would
                  agree to the guise of pretending to have been a previous "foster child"
                  – from many years back -- of whom the woman had grown "quite fond".

                  What was humorous was that the mother ("Norma") ended up
                  becoming the live-in girlfriend of Hollywood celebrity, Larry
                  Storch (the actor from T.V. comedies like `F-Troop', etc. –
                  and whom `June' says was always very kind and even treated her
                  in a manner that was "quite fatherly") ... and nearly all of their friends
                  actually `suspected' that the girl actually was the biological daughter
                  of either "Norma" or "Larry" ... but, ironically, most mistakenly thought
                  that she was actually `Larry's' biological daughter (simply because he 
                  acted much more "parently" to her than did her mother, "Norma").]


                  The documentary was so popular that PBS eventually
                  created a web site on the topic of being Mixed-Race
                  and the site included historical Mixed-Race figures.


                  Added Note:

                  June Cross – the subject of the PBS
                  Documentary
                  `Secret Daughter', has now written a follow-up
                  autobiographical
                  Book which covers more
                  details of events mentioned in the documentary.

                  The
                  Book is also entitled `Secret Daughter'
                  and has been released to rave reviews.

                  Have a great day!!

                  --AP ("WG")

                  P.S.

                  If anyone in the group happens to read the
                  Book `Secret Daughter' – please feel free
                  to submit an online `Book Review'.

                  We'd love to know what you think of it.

                  In Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com,
                  "tlbaker1" <tlbaker1@...> wrote:

                  WOW, this is really something,
                  how did you find this??

                  Lynne

                  From: multiracialbookclub
                  Sent: Saturday, October 07, 2006 9:36 PM
                  To: Generation-Mixed@ yahoogroups. com
                  Subject:  Great Britain 's: Queen Charlotte

                  Great Britain's Mixed-Race Queen: 
                  Charlotte (wife of George the 3rd)


                           
                             
                  With features as conspicuously negroid as they were
                  reputed to be by her contemporaries, it is no wonder
                  that the "black" community, both in the U.S. and
                  throughout the British Commonwealth , have rallied
                  around pictures of Queen Charlotte for generations.

                  They have pointed out the physiological traits that so obviously
                  identify the ethnic strain of the young woman who, at first
                  glance, looks almost anomalous, portrayed as she usually
                  is, in the sumptuous splendour of her coronation robes. 


                  Queen Charlotte, wife of the English King George III (1738-1820),
                  was directly descended from Margarita de Castro y Sousa,
                  a black branch of the Portuguese Royal House.


                  http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/ Image:Charlotte. jpg

                  The riddle of Queen Charlotte's African ancestry was
                  solved as a result of an earlier investigation into the
                  black magi featured in 15th century Flemish paintings.

                  Two art historians had suggested that the black magi
                  must have been portraits of actual contemporary people
                  (since the artist, without seeing them, would not have
                  been aware of the subtleties in colouring and facial
                  bone structure of quadroons or octoroons
                  which these figures invariably represented)

                  Enough evidence was accumulated to propose that
                  the models for the black magi were, in all probability,
                  members of the Portuguese de Sousa family.
                  (Several de Sousas had in fact traveled to the
                  Netherlands when their cousin, the Princess
                  Isabella went there to marry the Grand Duke,
                  Philip the Good of Burgundy in the year 1429.) 

                  Six different lines can be traced from English Queen
                  Charlotte back to Margarita de Castro y Sousa, in a
                  gene pool which because of royal inbreeding was
                  already minuscule, thus explaining the Queen's
                  unmistakable "African" appearance.

                  Queen Charlotte's Portrait 

                  The "Negroid" characteristics of the Queen's portraits
                  certainly had political significance since artists of that
                  period were expected to play down, soften or even
                  obliterate "undesirable" features in a subjects' face. 

                  Sir Allan Ramsay was the artist responsible for the majority
                  of the paintings of the Queen and his representations of
                  her were the most decidedly African of all her portraits. 
                   

                  Ramsey was an anti-slavery intellectual of his day.

                  He also married the niece of Lord Mansfield, the English
                  judge whose 1772 decision was the first in a series of
                  rulings that finally ended slavery in the British Empire .

                  It should be noted too that by the time Sir Ramsay
                  was commissioned to do his first portrait of the Queen,
                  he was already, by marriage, uncle to Dido Elizabeth
                  Lindsay, the black grand niece of Lord Mansfield. 

                  Thus, from just a cursory look at the social awareness
                  and political activism at that level of English society,
                  it would be surprising if the Queen's negroid physiogomy
                  was of no significance to the Abolitionist movement.



                  Lord Mansfield's black grand niece, for
                  example, Ms. Lindsay, was the subject
                  of at least two formal full sized portraits.

                  Obviously prompted by or meant to appeal
                  to abolitionist sympathies, they depicted
                  the celebrated friendship between herself
                  and her white cousin, Elizabeth Murray,
                  another member of the Mansfield family.


                  One of the artists was none other than Zoffany,
                  the court painter to the royal family, for whom
                  the Queen had sat on a number of occasions. 

                  It is perhaps because of this fairly obvious case of
                  propagandistic portraiture that makes one suspect
                  that Queen Charlotte's coronation picture, copies
                  of which were sent out to the colonies, signified
                  a specific stance on slavery held, at least,
                  by that circle of the English intelligencia to
                  which Allan Ramsay, the painter belonged.

                  For the initial work into Queen Charlotte's genealogy,
                  a debt of gratitude is owed the History Department of
                  McGill University. It was the director of the Burney
                  Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century
                  British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen),
                  Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly,
                  the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte
                  (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her
                  contemporaries regarding her negroid features.

                  Because of its "scientific" source, the most valuable
                  of Dr. Hedley's references would, probably, be the
                  one published in the autobiography of the Queen's
                  personal physician, Baron Stockmar, where he
                  described her as having "...a true mulatto face." 

                  Perhaps the most literary of these allusions to her
                  African appearance, however, can be found in the
                  poem penned to her on the occasion of her
                  wedding to George III and the Coronation
                  celebration that immediately followed. 

                  Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
                  She still preserves that title in her face.
                  Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia 's plain,
                  And and Alusian fields their name retain;
                  They but subdued the southern world with arms,
                  She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
                  O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
                  The greatest monarch of the north must bow.

                  Finally, it should be noted that the Royal Household
                  itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation,
                  referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines
                  in an apologia it published defending her
                  position as head of the Commonwealth.

                  More about Research into the Black Magi: 

                  In the Flemish masterpieces depicting the
                  Adoration of the Magi, the imagery of the
                  black de Sousas had been utilized as
                  both religious and political propaganda to
                  support Portugal 's expansion into Africa .

                  In addition, the Flemish artists had drawn
                  from a vocabulary of blackness which,
                  probably due to the Reformation and the
                  Enlightenment, has long since been forgotten.

                  There was a wealth of positive symbolism
                  that had been attributed to the black
                  African figure during the Middle Ages.

                  Incredible as it would seem to us today,
                  such images had been used to represent
                  not only Our Lady - evidence of which
                  can be found in the cult of the Black
                  Madonna that once proliferated in
                  Europe - but in heraldic traditions, the
                  Saviour and God the Father, Himself. 

                  Researched and Written by Mario de Valdes
                  y Cocom, an historian of the African diaspora. 

                  Some of these articles in the series are
                  from the
                  spartacus educational web site.
                  They first appeared, and are
                  currently present, on the PBS Web site.
                  For more articles see the
                  PBS Web site.

                  http://www.ipoaa. com/queen_ charlotte. htm

                  http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ english_intro. html

                  http://www.lib. virginia. edu/small/ exhibits/ charlotte/ char1.jpg

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