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Re: African American's Mixed Heritage

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  • multiracialbookclub
    It should also be noted that `the majority of the people who actually are of `the African-American (AA) Ethnicity -- whose opinions often seem to be largely
    Message 1 of 13 , May 3 1:28 PM
    • 0 Attachment

      It should also be noted that `the majority' of the people who
      actually are
      of `the African-American' (AA) Ethnicity -- whose
      opinions often seem to be largely ignored on these matters --
      ALSO
      find it just as offensive  (if not even more so) when the
      people who are not of the African-American Ethnic grouping  
      (ex. Caribbeans, South Americans and Africans) are falsely
      referred to as being and representing the 'African-Americans' 
      ...
      particularly – when it comes to issues of `statistics' and `polls').

      In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
      j s <creolescience@...> wrote:

      I don't use the term African American because I work with alot of caribbean, south american
      and african people who are of african descent and they find the term AA offensive and
      presumptuous,  like everyone who is of African descent is an african american.

      Peter Barrett <barac1998@...> wrote:

      I have viewed some of the previous post from this group.

      I noticed about the term African American (AA) as a misnomer.
      I understand the tri-racial heritage of the AA group.
      I found it also interesting how Black American was used to describe
      the more recent African group such as Nigerians for example.

      My question is do you think the term African American
      needs to be correctly understood or a different term?
      I'm just wondering what thoughts the members might have on this.

      I have never seen Africans referred to as Black
      Americans, except when they become Americanized.
      I personally was around Africans during my childhood.

      I have been on other sites where people refuse to believe that
      [the majority of] AAs are tri-racial and I have always known that.
      It is good to see this site embrace that fact.

       

      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/169
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/183
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/14
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/236
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/196
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/1
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/2

    • multiracialbookclub
      Peter Barrett inquired: I have viewed some of the previous post from this group. I noticed about the term African American (AA) as a
      Message 2 of 13 , May 3 1:43 PM
      • 0 Attachment

        Peter Barrett <barac1998@...> inquired:

        I have viewed some of the previous post from this group.

        I noticed about the term African American (AA) as a misnomer.
        I understand the tri-racial heritage of the AA group.

        My question is do you think the term African American
        needs to be correctly understood or a different term?
        I'm just wondering what thoughts the members might have on this.

        I have been on other sites where people refuse to believe that
        [the majority of] AAs are tri-racial and I have always known that.
        It is good to see this site embrace that fact.


        My response:

        In my opinion, without question, next to the misnomer of
        `American-Indian' (AI), the term `African-American' (AA)
        is actually the one of the most misleading terms ever placed
        (or should I say, `forced') on any Ethnic grouping of people--
        particularly when one considers that is common knowledge
        and also has been scientifically proven that the majority of
        the AAs (+70%, in fact) are of a tri-racially admixed-ancestry.

        Between the demand by Jesse Jackson (circa 1990) that "any
        and every citizen or resident of the United States of America
        who was of any part or amount African descent" also be referred
        to by the term `African-American' AND the subsequent and
        hopelessly-flawed `revised' "racial statistics" form that was
        created by the United States Census Bureau / USCB (also, circa
        1990) ... the term `African-American' has become and continues
        to remain one which is of complete controversy and misapplication.

        In addition … (as a result of the semantic problem of
        trying to broadly and erroneously apply, as well as force
        others to falsely perceive, a term as being synonymous
        or interchangeable with another) … one of the major
        problems encountered --- in trying to help people in
        their having a full understanding of the fact that this
        particular `Ethnic' grouping of people is actually a
        `Type' of `Multi-`Racial / Mixed-Race group (and is not
        even a `type' of `mono'-racial "Black" group at all) ----
        seems to stem largely from the "politically-correct" (and,
        thus `culturally-incompetent') selection of the misapplied
        term `African-American' even being used to refer to this
        Ethnic group from the start -– as well as it's later expanded
        application to include `anyone' of any part-African descent.

        Originally the phase `African-American' was used merely as a
        descriptive term regarding the route of the horrific Voyage of
        the `Middle-Passage Experience' (i.e. from-`Africa'-to-`America') --- 
        then it was later selected for use to describe the largely `Multi'-Racial
        / Mixed-Race `Ethnic' grouping of people who were
        The "Descendents
        of the Survivors
        " of the `Middle-Passage `Voyage' and also of the
        `
        One-Drop Rule-Enforced'/Matrilineal-Based, Chattel-Slavery `System'
         -- that took place thereafter (specifically on the continental
        United States of America during the periods of the Antebellum,
        Reconstruction and "Jim Crow" / Segregation eras that followed).

        Then -- thanks to various politically-motivated people such as
        Jesse Jackson and also the key administrators at the USCB --
        the term was later inexplicably-expanded (circa 1990) to
        also refer to and include "any American of African descent".

        It should also be remembered that this oddly inexplicable act
        is just one of the many reasons that almost all of the so-called
        government "statistics" that are allegedly in regards to the
        people of the AA Ethnicity are so completely and unbearably
        both inaccurate and also totally skewered toward "the negative".

        [[For instance, few people anywhere in the world are aware
        of the fact that -- there are *not* more `AA' men in prison
        rather than college; 1/4 of `AA' men are *not* in prison
        nor are they likely to die before the age of 25; and 70%
        of `AA' children are *not* born out of wedlock, etc.

        When "any American (citizen or resident) of African descent"
        is erroneously listed as being an AA, however, naturally the
        "statistics" (ranging from --- educational grades, diplomas and
        degrees; to data on welfare rolls, recipients and amounts; to
        employment ratings; to socio-political-economic status and
        opinions; to family structure and environment; to crime, to STD/
        HIV/ AIDS and so on) which falsely claim to be in regards to the
        AA Ethnicity are then going to erroneously show "negative" results.

        In fact, two excellent books on this subject are
        "Black Robes, White Justice" (written by FGM-Mixed
        New York Supreme Court Justice, Bruce Wright) and
        also "Don't Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural
        Misinformation about the African-Americans" (written
        by FGM-Mixed, Reporter / Researcher, Ferai Chideya).

        http://gpn.unl.edu/cml/cml_product.asp?catalog_name=GPN&category_name=Don't+Believe+the+Hype&product_id=1501  
        http://www.powerbooksearch.com/booksearch0758201109.html]]

        Like the socio-political "identification" of "black"
        (which has been utilized since the late 1960's wherein
        the largely very successful `Civil Rights Movement'
        was replaced, via media and political manipulation,
        by the short-lived and rather divisive `Black Power /
        Pan-Africanism Movement') --- the term AA is so
        unbearably misleading ... and it's common misuse
        seems to be one of the main reasons that so
        very few people seem to realize that the AA's:

        1) Are not a `mono'-racial "race" grouping
        (or even a `racial' grouping of any sort at all);

        2) Are actually a largely `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race
        `Ethnic' grouping … as more that 70% of people
        born to two parents who are both members of the
        AA Ethnic grouping (i.e. full AAs) -- are actually
        and have always remained of a continually
        MGM-Mixed lineage and racial-admixture;

        3) Are a very `specific' grouping of people (and not
        just `any' or `every' grouping of people who happen
        to be of `some part' Black-admixture -- as one cannot
        be a member of this particular `Ethnic' group – unless
        one is actually a "Descendent of the Survivors"
        of the Historical-Voyage (the Middle Passage)
        which led to an
        Historical-Experience
        (The 'One-Drop Rule'-Enforced / Matrilineal-Based
        Chattel-Slavery `System') which took place in a
        specific geographical-location (the Continental
        United States of America' during a
        specific
        historical-period
        (the Antebellum era – and
        Reconstruction and the "Jim Crow" /
        Segregationist period which followed).

        Personally, I feel that words such as
        `African-American' and "black" are
        BOTH completely erroneous terms
        to use in describing this largely MGM
        Tri-racially "Mixed" Ethnic group of people.

        Use of the word `African-American', to describe this
        group -- generally leads the hearer to naturally make
        the neuro-linguistic assumption-based error that the
        term is indicative of it's subject being someone who
        is either "sole or predominantly" of a `mono'-racially
        Black ancestry (which is not even remotely the
        case for the majority -- +70% -- of the people who
        belong to this largely tri-racial `Ethnic' grouping).

        In reality, researchers, geneticists, historians and
        anthropologists have repeatedly proven, detailed
        and documented that the majority of those people
        who born to two parents who are both members
        multi-racial Ethnic grouping (more than 70%, in fact)
        have about 20-30% `white' "racial" admixture and
        even more than 25% 'Amerindian' "racial" admixture.

        As noted, the use of the term `"black" to describe this
        group also seems very inappropriate – both for the
        reason listed above as well as for the fact that the
        term "black" was only since the late 1960's and 1970's
        as being reflective of what was supposed to have
        been am anti-racist / anti-colonialist socio-political
        "identification" (then referred to as "pan-Africanism")
        that led and expressed by the, now rather phased
        out (and surprisingly even somewhat divisive)
        Afro-centric "Black-Power" movement of that era.

        Few people seem to realize that the term "black"
        was never actually even meant for use as a
        `racial-descriptor' for the people of this Ethnicity
        -- but rather it was actually simply meant to be
        used merely as a way of describing "an emerging
        `political consciousness' and also an attempted
        `cultural connection' being expressed and
        "identified" among some of the younger members
        of this given group at that certain era in history
        for a particular socio-political purpose".

        http://www.nydailynews.com/news/ideas_opinions/v-pfriendly/story/283791p-243138c.html   
        http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/DB/issues/97/09.22/view.tucker.html
         
        The error of using a term such as this (which one
        would normally and traditionally only have associated
        with a very specific `Continent', `Voyage', `Race' or
        even a `Socio-Political "Identification" `), and then
        erroneously applying it to a given `ethnic' group,
        is that it would naturally result in the neuro-linguistic
        reaction of people then instantaneously perceiving
        and associating the "Ethnic" group ONLY within
        the `former representation' of the term as being
        in reference to specific `Continent', `Race' and
        or `Voyage' or a `Socio-Political "Identification.

        The erroneous semantic misapplication of this term
        is often largely why people inaccurately believe that
        it is representative of; synonymous with or used
        interchangeably for the `racial' term "black" –
        rather than in reference to the `voyage' which led
        to the launching of a specific `historical experience'.

        That having been said – the answer to your question
        is (for me)
        … that `No', I do personally *not* feel or
        believe that that the current answer to the issues
        involved with the misnomer of `African-American' --
        is to give this largely `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race
        Ethnic grouping of people – yet another new LABEL.

        As (just as it has been found that, in the case of
        many, if not most Amerindians, they did not like
        the politically-correct / culturally-illiterate term
        of `Native American' being forced on them any
        more than they did the term `American Indian')
        –--- yet another new label never seems
        to be ;the answer' to a complex issue.

        But rather – what seems would be most
        effective would be to simply educate
        people on the following facts:

        *** the `African-Americans' (AAs) and
        the `Black-Americans' (BAs) are *not*
        the same people groupings at all;

        *** the AAs are a largely `Multi'-Racial/
        Mixed-Race `Ethnic' group -- while the
        BAs are a `mono'-racial `Race' group;

        *** the majority of those people who are
        full-AAs are largely "black" *only* in the
        sense of socio-politically "identifying"
        (largely due to the `One-Drop' Rule and
        other forms of Racism) with the struggles
         experienced by those with whom they are
        connected via a part of their tri-racial lineage;  

        *** and most of the "statistics" offered by the U.S.
        government and media about the AAs are extremely
        skewered, biased and completely inaccurate
        (due to a lack of understanding that the terms
        `Black' and `African-American' are *not* actually
        in reference to the same people groupings; they
        are *not* synonymous terms; and should not
        be/ have ever been used interchangeably).


        --- [Submitted by soaptalk@... / 05-03-2006 ©]

        Acronym Key:

        [MGM-Mixed = Multi-Generational-Mutiracially Mixed
        FGM-Mixed= First-Generational-Multiracially Mixed]


        Related Links:

        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/169
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/183
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/14
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/236
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/196
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/1
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/2

      • Peter Barrett
        Can someone also tell me where the 70% of admixture for AA WAS FOUND? Not that I doubt it at all. I had a conversation on another message board and had a hard
        Message 3 of 13 , May 3 6:03 PM
        • 0 Attachment
          Can someone also tell me where the
          70% of admixture for AA WAS FOUND?

          Not that I doubt it at all. I had a conversation on another message
          board and had a hard time proving this point with a credible figure.

          I also had seen a site by Mark Shriver stating that
          --instead of the 20-30% average-- it was more like
          17% european admixture. Which to me didn't seem right.

          If anyone has more information on this it would be appreciated.

          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
          "multiracialbookclub" <soaptalk@...> wrote:

          [[Peter Barrett <barac1998@...> inquired:

          I have viewed some of the previous post from this group.

          I noticed about the term African American (AA) as a misnomer.
          I understand the tri-racial heritage of the AA group.

          My question is do you think the term African American
          needs to be correctly understood or a different term?
          I'm just wondering what thoughts the members might have on this.

          I have been on other sites where people refuse to believe that
          [the majority of] AAs are tri-racial and I have always known that.
          It is good to see this site embrace that fact.

          My response:

          In my opinion, without question, next to the misnomer of
          `American-Indian' (AI), the term `African-American' (AA)
          is actually the one of the most misleading terms ever placed
          (or should I say, `forced') on any Ethnic grouping of people--
          particularly when one considers that is common knowledge
          and also has been scientifically proven that the majority of
          the AAs (+70%, in fact) are of a tri-racially admixed-ancestry.

          Between the demand by Jesse Jackson (circa 1990) that "any
          and every citizen or resident of the United States of America
          who was of any part or amount African descent" also be referred
          to by the term `African-American' AND the subsequent and
          hopelessly-flawed `revised' "racial statistics" form that was
          created by the United States Census Bureau / USCB (also, circa
          1990) ... the term `African-American' has become and continues
          to remain one which is of complete controversy and misapplication.

          In addition ... (as a result of the semantic problem of
          trying to broadly and erroneously apply, as well as force
          others to falsely perceive, a term as being synonymous
          or interchangeable with another) ... one of the major
          problems encountered --- in trying to help people in
          their having a full understanding of the fact that this
          particular `Ethnic' grouping of people is actually a
          `Type' of `Multi-`Racial / Mixed-Race group (and is not
          even a `type' of `mono'-racial "Black" group at all) ----
          seems to stem largely from the "politically-correct" (and,
          thus `culturally-incompetent') selection of the misapplied
          term `African-American' even being used to refer to this
          Ethnic group from the start -– as well as it's later expanded
          application to include `anyone' of any part-African descent.

          Originally the phase `African-American' was used
          merely as a descriptive term regarding the route of
          the horrific Voyage of the `Middle-Passage Experience'
          (i.e. from-`Africa'-to-`America') --- then it was
          later selected for use to describe the largely
          `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race `Ethnic' grouping of
          people who were The "Descendents of the Survivors" of
          the `Middle-Passage `Voyage' and also of the `One-Drop
          Rule-Enforced'/Matrilineal-Based, Chattel-Slavery
          `System' -- that took place thereafter (specifically
          on the continental United States of America during the
          periods of the Antebellum, Reconstruction and
          "Jim Crow" / Segregation eras that followed).

          Then -- thanks to various politically-motivated people such as
          Jesse Jackson and also the key administrators at the USCB --
          the term was later inexplicably-expanded (circa 1990) to
          also refer to and include "any American of African descent".

          It should also be remembered that this oddly inexplicable act
          is just one of the many reasons that almost all of the so-called
          government "statistics" that are allegedly in regards to the
          people of the AA Ethnicity are so completely and unbearably
          both inaccurate and also totally skewered toward "the negative".

          [[For instance, few people anywhere in the world are aware
          of the fact that -- there are *not* more `AA' men in prison
          rather than college; 1/4 of `AA' men are *not* in prison
          nor are they likely to die before the age of 25; and 70%
          of `AA' children are *not* born out of wedlock, etc.

          When "any American (citizen or resident) of African descent"
          is erroneously listed as being an AA, however, naturally the
          "statistics" (ranging from --- educational grades, diplomas and
          degrees; to data on welfare rolls, recipients and amounts; to
          employment ratings; to socio-political-economic status and
          opinions; to family structure and environment; to crime, to STD/
          HIV/ AIDS and so on) which falsely claim to be in regards to the
          AA Ethnicity are then going to erroneously show "negative" results.

          In fact, two excellent books on this subject are
          "Black Robes, White Justice" (written by FGM-Mixed
          New York Supreme Court Justice, Bruce Wright) and
          also "Don't Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural
          Misinformation about the African-Americans" (written
          by FGM-Mixed, Reporter / Researcher, Ferai Chideya).

          http://gpn.unl.edu/cml/cml_product.asp?catalog_name==GPN&category_name==Don't+Believe+the+Hype&product_id=01
          http://www.powerbooksearch.com/booksearch0758201109.html]]

          Like the socio-political "identification" of "black"
          (which has been utilized since the late 1960's wherein
          the largely very successful `Civil Rights Movement'
          was replaced, via media and political manipulation,
          by the short-lived and rather divisive `Black Power /
          Pan-Africanism Movement') --- the term AA is so
          unbearably misleading ... and it's common misuse
          seems to be one of the main reasons that so
          very few people seem to realize that the AA's:

          1) Are not a `mono'-racial "race" grouping
          (or even a `racial' grouping of any sort at all);

          2) Are actually a largely `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race
          `Ethnic' grouping ... as more that 70% of people
          born to two parents who are both members of the
          AA Ethnic grouping (i.e. full AAs) -- are actually
          and have always remained of a continually
          MGM-Mixed lineage and racial-admixture;

          3) Are a very `specific' grouping of people (and not
          just `any' or `every' grouping of people who happen
          to be of `some part' Black-admixture -- as one cannot
          be a member of this particular `Ethnic' group – unless
          one is actually a "Descendent of the Survivors"
          of the Historical-Voyage (the Middle Passage)
          which led to an Historical-Experience
          (The 'One-Drop Rule'-Enforced / Matrilineal-Based
          Chattel-Slavery `System') which took place in a
          specific geographical-location (the Continental
          United States of America' during a specific
          historical-period (the Antebellum era – and
          Reconstruction and the "Jim Crow" /
          Segregationist period which followed).

          Personally, I feel that words such as
          `African-American' and "black" are
          BOTH completely erroneous terms
          to use in describing this largely MGM
          Tri-racially "Mixed" Ethnic group of people.

          Use of the word `African-American', to describe this
          group -- generally leads the hearer to naturally make
          the neuro-linguistic assumption-based error that the
          term is indicative of it's subject being someone who
          is either "sole or predominantly" of a `mono'-racially
          Black ancestry (which is not even remotely the
          case for the majority -- +70% -- of the people who
          belong to this largely tri-racial `Ethnic' grouping).

          In reality, researchers, geneticists, historians and
          anthropologists have repeatedly proven, detailed
          and documented that the majority of those people
          who born to two parents who are both members
          multi-racial Ethnic grouping (more than 70%, in fact)
          have about 20-30% `white' "racial" admixture and
          even more than 25% 'Amerindian' "racial" admixture.

          As noted, the use of the term `"black" to describe this
          group also seems very inappropriate – both for the
          reason listed above as well as for the fact that the
          term "black" was only since the late 1960's and 1970's
          as being reflective of what was supposed to have
          been am anti-racist / anti-colonialist socio-political
          "identification" (then referred to as "pan-Africanism")
          that led and expressed by the, now rather phased
          out (and surprisingly even somewhat divisive)
          Afro-centric "Black-Power" movement of that era.

          Few people seem to realize that the term "black"
          was never actually even meant for use as a
          `racial-descriptor' for the people of this Ethnicity
          -- but rather it was actually simply meant to be
          used merely as a way of describing "an emerging
          `political consciousness' and also an attempted
          `cultural connection' being expressed and
          "identified" among some of the younger members
          of this given group at that certain era in history
          for a particular socio-political purpose".

          http://www.nydailynews.com/news/ideas_opinions/v-pfriendly/story/283791p-243138c.html
          http://www.dailybruin.ucla.edu/DB/issues/97/09.22/view.tucker.html

          The error of using a term such as this (which one
          would normally and traditionally only have associated
          with a very specific `Continent', `Voyage', `Race' or
          even a `Socio-Political "Identification" `), and then
          erroneously applying it to a given `ethnic' group,
          is that it would naturally result in the neuro-linguistic
          reaction of people then instantaneously perceiving
          and associating the "Ethnic" group ONLY within
          the `former representation' of the term as being
          in reference to specific `Continent', `Race' and
          or `Voyage' or a `Socio-Political "Identification.

          The erroneous semantic misapplication of this term
          is often largely why people inaccurately believe that
          it is representative of; synonymous with or used
          interchangeably for the `racial' term "black" –
          rather than in reference to the `voyage' which led
          to the launching of a specific `historical experience'.

          That having been said – the answer to your question
          is (for me) ... that `No', I do personally *not* feel or
          believe that that the current answer to the issues
          involved with the misnomer of `African-American' --
          is to give this largely `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race
          Ethnic grouping of people – yet another new LABEL.

          As (just as it has been found that, in the case of
          many, if not most Amerindians, they did not like
          the politically-correct / culturally-illiterate term
          of `Native American' being forced on them any
          more than they did the term `American Indian')
          –--- yet another new label never seems
          to be ;the answer' to a complex issue.

          But rather – what seems would be most
          effective would be to simply educate
          people on the following facts:

          *** the `African-Americans' (AAs) and
          the `Black-Americans' (BAs) are *not*
          the same people groupings at all;

          *** the AAs are a largely `Multi'-Racial/
          Mixed-Race `Ethnic' group -- while the
          BAs are a `mono'-racial `Race' group;

          *** the majority of those people who are
          full-AAs are largely "black" *only* in the
          sense of socio-politically "identifying"
          (largely due to the `One-Drop' Rule and
          other forms of Racism) with the struggles
          experienced by those with whom they are
          connected via a part of their tri-racial lineage;

          *** and most of the "statistics" offered by the U.S.
          government and media about the AAs are extremely
          skewered, biased and completely inaccurate
          (due to a lack of understanding that the terms
          `Black' and `African-American' are *not* actually
          in reference to the same people groupings; they
          are *not* synonymous terms; and should not
          be/ have ever been used interchangeably).

          --- [Submitted by soaptalk@... / 05-03-2006 ©]

          Acronym Key:

          [MGM-Mixed == Multi-Generational-Mutiracially Mixed
          FGM-Mixed== First-Generational-Multiracially Mixed]

          Related Links:

          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/169
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/183
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/14
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/991
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/236
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/196
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/1
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/MGM-Mixed/message/2]]
        • multiracialbookclub
          In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com, Peter Barrett inquired: Can someone also tell me where the 70% of admixture for AA was found? … If
          Message 4 of 13 , May 3 9:45 PM
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            In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
            "Peter Barrett" <barac1998@...> inquired:

            Can someone also tell me where the 70% of admixture for AA was found?
            … If anyone has more information on this it would be appreciated.

            Note: 
            Said inquiry was made in regards to the post found at the following link:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032

            My response:

            That's a really excellent good question and hopefully, the
            following information may be of help in answering it…. :-?

            Some of the sources can be found listed within the following link
            :
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1003

            Other sources are also found in various other postings at this group.

            In addition, there are many other sources that also note said figure
            (both online and in print) ... some of these include the following:


            "With some figures showing 70% of African
            Americans fitting into a multiracial category,"

            Source: http://www.interracialvoice.com/editor10.html

            "Seventy to eighty percent of so-called
            "blacks" are of mixed racial heritage."
            Source: http://www.digitas.harvard.edu/~perspy/old/issues/1997/may/boxing.html

            "Most writers on the subject of American black-white
            miscegenation, for instance, estimate that seventy to
            ninety percent of African Americans have white ancestry"

            Source: http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/zack.html

            "Seventy percent of …African Americans … are
            mixed with … mostly Scottish Irish and Native
            American, yet … defined as "black".
            Hispanics, like "blacks", have an equal
            amount of race mixing in their ethnic group."
            Source: http://www.blackcanada.com/news_7.htm

            Here is an very interesting observation made regarding
            the historical creation of the largely `Multi'-Racial /
            Mixed-Race African-American Ethnic group --

            "During slavery there were, of course, frequent
            mixed race births, many resulting from the rape of
            enslaved "black" women by white slave owners.
            Between 1850 and 1860, the "Mulatto" [i.e. Mixed-Race]
            slave population increased by 67 percent; in contrast, the
            'Black' slave population increased by only 20 percent.
            At about this time, the notion of "Hypodescent",
            or The "One-Drop Rule," became prevalent.
            This is the idea that someone with even
            one distant African ancestor is black ...
            The 1890 census added further distinctions and had
            categories for White, Black, Mulatto, Quadroon,
            Octoroon, Chinese, Japanese, and Indian.
            By 1910 the Census Bureau had eliminated the terms
            mulatto, quadroon, and octoroon …
            three-quarters of
            all "blacks" in the United States were racially mixed
            …

            Anyone [listed] as African American
            would henceforth be counted as "black"
            ."

            Source: `Race and Mixed Race `by Naomi Zack
            (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993)

            http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/family/cruz-berson.html

            Also -- here is an interesting observation someone made:

            "Joshua R. Goldstein and Ann J. Morning, of
            the Office of Population Research, Princeton
            University, February 29, 2000, wrote for the
            Russell Sage Foundation a paper investigating
            the ramifications of multiple-"race" responses
            on the then-pending 2000 census. 
            The paper entitled, "The multiple-race population of
            the United States : Issues and estimates," appeared in
            the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 
            These researchers clearly stumbled
            on some interesting observations: 
            Classifying those indicating more "races" than one
            puts Government in a seven-way bind, either ...
            opening a way out for potentially seventy percent of
            African Americans
            to [leave] "their" Black race...

            The researchers above further noticed that
            ...
            census "race" data collection is
            [both] politicized and … arbitrary..."

            (Source: http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/point5.html
            and the entire paper, a 96K byte PDF file, can be found at
            http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/100086897.pdf.)

            In addition, listed below is a perfect example of
            how statistics regarding the `African-Americans'
            are almost always completely false and erroneous.

            In this article – the writer openly makes the mistake of
            perceiving the Afro-Latino `Cultural' grouping AND the
            African-American `Ethnic' as being one and the same
            people grouping – then wrongfully combines the statistics
            of these two separate groups and then falsely presents them
            as if they are statistics about the African-Americans.

            Here is an example of one of the many erroneous
            `statistics' that can be found within this article:

            "In 1997, however, 55 percent of African Americans
            (including black Hispanics) lived in the South."
            Source:
            http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/faculty/hodgson/RussiaDiversity/PBRaceEthnicity/PBRaceEthnicity.html

            As stated numerous times -- a person cannot be a part of the 'African-American'
            (AA) Ethnic grouping simply because they are a citizen or resident of the United
            States of America and also happen to be of some-part Black admixture.
            The AAs are a very specific and unique largely 'Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race
            'Ethnic' grouping of people -- and groups such as Afro-Latinos; West Indians;
            African, etc. -- should not be enumerated as part of the so-called "statistics"
            regarding the AAs -- yet -- due to manipulation by the media and various
            political and government bureaucratic group -- every person in America who
            is of any-part Black ancestry is often falsely listed as also being an AA.

            This false categorization and enumeration has created a tremendous
            and unfair burden for those people who truly are of the AA Ethnicity.


            It should also be noticed in the chart contained in that
            same article that -- while `White', `Asian' and "American
            Indian" (again, another misnomer) have all been given the
            decency and dignity of being listed under separate "Racial"
            groups – and the term "Hispanic" has been listed under
            a separate `Cultural' group – only one (1) group -- the
            African-American `Ethnic', of course – has (yet, again)
            been forced to falsely `carry the statistics' for everyone
            in the United States of every person in the United States
            who is "of some part-Black ancestry" (no matter the
            true `Ethnic', `Cultural' or even `Racial' grouping)

            Actions such as found in this article – are (once again) –
            one of the very main reasons that the average so-called
            "statistic" (and even many of the various "definitions"
            …. such as the extremely erroneous "definition" found
            at the online "encyclopedia" known as `Wikipedia') –
            which are alleged to be about the `African-Americans'
            are almost always generally `false', `inaccurate' and
            `negative' and simply cannot be relied upon for the true
            state of affairs for this very diverse Ethnic grouping.

            As stated previously -- when just "any American (citizen or resident)
            of African descent" is erroneously listed as being an AA, however,
            naturally the "statistics" (ranging from --- educational grades,
            diplomas and degrees; to data on welfare rolls, recipients and
            amounts; to employment ratings; to socio-political-economic status
            and opinions; to family structure and environment; to crime, to STD
            / HIV/ AIDS and so on) which falsely claim to be in regards to the
            AA Ethnicity are then going to erroneously show "negative" results.

            Two excellent books on this subject are "Black Robes,
            White Justice" (written by FGM-Mixed New York
            Supreme Court Justice, Bruce Wright) and also
            "Don't Believe the Hype: Fighting Cultural
            Misinformation about  African-Americans" (written
            by FGM-Mixed, Reporter / Researcher, Ferai Chideya).

            http://gpn.unl.edu/cml/cml_product.asp?catalog_name=GPN&category_name=Don't+Believe+the+Hype&product_id=1501
             
            http://www.powerbooksearch.com/booksearch0758201109.html

            Source: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032


            Hope this information is of some help in getting you
            off to a fairly good start on your research in this area.

            Have a great day. :)

          • wintyreeve@aol.com
            My cousin told me that she prefers to be labelled as Black because she has never been to Africa, and can t relate to what life is like there. Other
            Message 5 of 13 , May 3 11:39 PM
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              My cousin told me that she prefers to be labeled as "black" because
              she has never been to Africa, and can't relate to what life is like there.

              Other relatives will label themselves as "black" and ignore the other racial
              admixtures in the family either because they don't know, they don't care
              or they just assume that the color of your skin identifies what you are.
              This gets a bit confusing when I go to family reunions...LOL* I tell
              everyone that I am mixed, and brag about all the mixtures in our family.

              In Minnesota, the African immigrants almost always refer to
              themselves as African or identify with their country of origin.
              They also may refer to their identity in terms of religion.
              If you look at Hmong immigrants. They identify themselves
              as Hmong, not Hmong-American. Same with Latinos.
              They are Latinos, not Latin-Americans. I don't know
              about where you all live...that's just the trend here.

              So I guess being African-American, in a sense, is
              really what it is. Or no? What else do you call it?

              I mean if you are "Black" then that excludes the
              mixed people who would not fit the description.

              African-American seems to represent a racially mixed heritage.

              What do you think??

              Smiles, Lynn
            • multiracialbookclub
              In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com , Lynn wrote: ... African-American seems to represent a
              Message 6 of 13 , May 4 1:00 AM
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                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                " Lynn " <wintyreeve@...> wrote:

                ... African-American seems to represent a
                racially mixed heritage. What do you think??



                My reply:


                That's a very insightful perception and you make a good point.

                In fact -- when one thinks about it -- of the two
                terms – the term
                `African-American' (although still
                something of a misnomer, in my humble opinion

                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032)
                --- is actually quite clearly much closer to being a descriptor
                of or implication for a person having a Mixed-Race Ancestry
                (especially perhaps once the origin of the term is `explained' to the
                hearer) --- than is the term
                "Black" (as, when referred to "racially" 
                ...  rather than socio-politically... would imply adherence to
                the racist One-Drop Rule/The Rule of Hypo-Descent and to also
                imply a denial of a person's non-Black/other-American lineage).


                In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                " Lynn " <wintyreeve@...> wrote:

                My cousin told me that she prefers to be labeled
                as "black" because she has never been to Africa ,
                and can't relate to what life is like there.

                Other relatives will label themselves as "black" and
                ignore the other racial admixtures in the family either
                because they don't know, they don't care or they just
                assume that the color of your skin identifies what you are...

                So I guess being African-American, in a sense, is
                really what it is. Or no? What else do you call it?

                I mean if you are "Black" then that excludes the
                mixed people who would not fit the description.

                African-American seems to represent a racially mixed heritage.

                What do you think??

                Smiles, Lynn

              • Tyrone Anderson
                I think African-American represent a culturally mixed group Bi-Cultural with on the next level can man that members of this group are mixed. I say
                Message 7 of 13 , May 4 5:09 AM
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                  I think African-American represent a 'culturally 'mixed'' group Bi-Cultural
                  with on the next level can man that members of this group are mixed.

                  I say bi-cultural because 1st, their are cultural combinations
                  that came together to make this group, secondly a lot of it was
                  passed from 'ethnic' descendants of other ethnic groups:native
                  american, french, english, irish, chinese, or passed from the
                  adoption of other cultures by people not ethnically related.

                  wintyreeve@... wrote:
                  My cousin told me that she prefers to be labeled as "black" because
                  she has never been to Africa, and can't relate to what life is like there.

                  Other relatives will label themselves as "black" and ignore the other racial
                  admixtures in the family either because they don't know, they don't care
                  or they just assume that the color of your skin identifies what you are.
                  This gets a bit confusing when I go to family reunions...LOL* I tell
                  everyone that I am mixed, and brag about all the mixtures in our family.

                  In Minnesota, the African immigrants almost always refer to
                  themselves as African or identify with their country of origin.
                  They also may refer to their identity in terms of religion.
                  If you look at Hmong immigrants. They identify themselves
                  as Hmong, not Hmong-American. Same with Latinos.
                  They are Latinos, not Latin-Americans. I don't know
                  about where you all live...that's just the trend here.

                  So I guess being African-American, in a sense, is
                  really what it is. Or no? What else do you call it?

                  I mean if you are "Black" then that excludes the
                  mixed people who would not fit the description.

                  African-American seems to represent a racially mixed heritage.

                  What do you think??

                  Smiles, Lynn



                  "Man would rather be a little higher than the apes, than a little lower than the angels." -"I am Black & I am White, and know there is no difference. Each one casts a shadow, and all shadows are dark." -Walter White
                • multiracialbookclub
                  That s another good point as well. It s also good food for thought . [:-?] Thanks for sharing it. In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com
                  Message 8 of 13 , May 4 6:36 AM
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                    That's another good point as well. 
                    It's also good 'food for thought'.:-?

                    Thanks for sharing it.


                    In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                    Tyrone Anderson <gemini072@...> wrote:

                    I think African-American represent a culturally
                    'mixed' group -- Bi-Cultural which on the next level
                    can mean that members of this group are mixed.

                    I say Bi-Cultural because 1st, there are cultural combinations
                    that came together to make this group, secondly a lot of it
                    was passed from 'ethnic' descendants of other ethnic groups:
                    native american, french, english, irish, chinese, or passed from
                    the adoption of other cultures by people not ethnically related.


                    In Generation-Mixed@yahoogroups.com,
                    "Lynn" <
                    wintyreeve@...> wrote:

                    My cousin told me that she prefers to be labeled
                    as "black" because she has never been to Africa,
                    and can't relate to what life is like there.

                    Other relatives will label themselves as "black" and
                    ignore the other racial admixtures in the family either
                    because they don't know, they don't care or they just
                    assume that the color of your skin identifies what you are.

                    This gets a bit confusing when I go to family reunions...LOL*
                    I tell everyone that I am mixed, and
                    brag about all the mixtures in our family.

                    In Minnesota, the African immigrants almost always refer to
                    themselves as African or identify with their country of origin.
                    They also may refer to their identity in terms of religion.
                    If you look at Hmong immigrants. They identify themselves
                    as Hmong, not Hmong-American. Same with Latinos.
                    They are Latinos, not Latin-Americans. I don't know
                    about where you all live...that's just the trend here.

                    So I guess being African-American, in a sense, is
                    really what it is. Or no? What else do you call it?

                    I mean if you are "Black" then that excludes the
                    mixed people who would not fit the description.

                    African-American seems to represent a racially mixed heritage.

                    What do you think??

                    Smiles, Lynn

                     

                    "Man would rather be a little higher than the apes,
                    than a little lower than the angels." - "I am Black
                    I am White, and know there is no difference. Each one
                    casts a shadow, and all shadows are dark." -Walter White

                  • barac1998@aol.com
                    I agree. I have always looked at term African American as a mixed cultural blend and have taught it that way as well. Peter
                    Message 9 of 13 , May 4 9:26 AM
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                      I agree. I have always looked at term African American as a mixed cultural blend and have taught it that way as well.
                       
                      Peter
                    • multiracialbookclub
                      Peter wrote: I agree. I have always looked at term African American as a mixed cultural blend and have taught it that way as well. Peter
                      Message 10 of 13 , May 4 10:30 AM
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                        "Peter" <barac1998@... >wrote:

                        I agree. I have always looked at term 'African American' as
                        a mixed cultural blend and have taught it that way as well.
                         
                        Peter

                        Reply:

                        Agreed.
                         

                        And while I do feel that the term `African-American' is
                        (like the term `American-Indian') a type of misnomer
                        …  I do not have a problem with it's usage (particularly
                        seeing that, as Ty, Lynn and Peter have pointed out, the
                        term can most certainly be said to have an indication that
                        the members of said Ethnicity would most likely be of a
                        Mixed-Race / `Multi'-Racial Ancestry … wherein the term
                        `Black' would *not* seem to indicate any such Ancestry) .

                        My main concern actually centers around `the lack of true
                        knowledge about the AAs' that is quite commonly found 
                        among and displayed by a good number of the members
                        of the American media, government, and census poll
                        takers … many of whom seem to have *no* remote concept
                        (thanks, again to the United States Census Bureau (USCB)
                        and it's hopelessly flawed-form, that's been used since 1990)
                        that the `African-Americans' (AAs) are *not* at all the same
                        group as the `Black-Americans' (BAs) and also that, as a
                        result of this lack of knowledge, the AAs seem to be the
                        *only* `Ethnic' group found in America (or the world)
                        that is forced to BOTH 1) live with society's denial
                        of it's Mixed-Race lineage AND 2) carry the unfair
                        burden of falsely being used to represent an entire
                        "Racial" grouping of people (largely due to the Rule
                        of Hypo-Descent / One-Drop Rule and the USCB).

                        As stated earlier – rather than look for a whole new name
                        or label for this largely `Multi'-Racial / Mixed-Race `Ethnic'
                        Group --- I truly feel that `Education' and the sharing of
                        knowledge and TRUE information about the AAs may be
                        a, if not `the', key step
                        in helping them to be able; feel free to
                        and have full 
                        support in publicly embracing and proclaiming
                        their FULL Ancestry and true Identity as well as also having
                        TRUE statistics provided about them (rather than the
                        so-called `common knowledge' false-statistics that have
                        been created by the forcing of them to – without any say
                        in the matter -- represent and to carry the statistics for
                        every citizen and resident in the United States of America
                        who just happens to have some/ any amount of Black lineage).


                        Related Links:

                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1045
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1043
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Generation-Mixed/message/1032

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