What "Kind" of Poles Are My Ancestors?
History of Kuyavia
Main article: Kuyavia
The beginnings of the state in Kuyavia are connected with the tribal state of the Goplanie. The Goplanie, which some researchers identify with the Mazowszanie-Klobianie or simply with the Kujawianie, had created a country with the main centers in Gniezno and Kruszwica. By that time, they were conquered by another tribe, the Polanie. According to Andrzej Bankowski, the Polanie settled in the region of Greater Poland after they had to leave together with the Morawianie, their former pannonian territories, conquered by the Avars. According to some sources, during the war between the Polanie and the Goplanie, Polanie were supported by the Great-Moravian army. As a result of occupation of the Goplanie's territory, the lands of Kuyavia were under the strong influence of the pannonian culture and they lost their primary masovian spirit.
The name Kuyavia arose for the first time used in 1136, in the Bull of Gniezno. It concerns only the region of later Kuyavia, bordering with the Vistula river. From 13th c. that name started to be used to define the Kruszwicko-Wloclawski land. In times of the Fragmentation, the Duchy of Kuyavia was created. In the 14th and 15th c. Kuyavia more than once was a subject of Polish-Teutonic disputes. Earlier, in 1267, the Duchy of Kuyaviajawy was divided into two separate dutchies: Inowroclaw and Brzesc-Kujawy.
After the union of Polish lands in the 14th c. division into provinces and counties was introduced. That division finalized in 15th century, existed until the fall of the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth. In the 15th c. Kuyavia was divided into two provinces: Brzesc-Kujawy and Inowroclaw with a shared Regional Council in Radziejów. Brzesc-Kujawy province was divided into five district courts: Brzesc, Kowalsk, Kruszwica, Przadeck and Radziejów. Inowroclaw province was divided into Bydgoszcz and Inowroclaw counties.
As a result of the First Partition in 1772 the Kingdom of Prussia took a considerable part of Inowroclaw province and the western part of Brzesc-Kujawy province. After the Second Partition the whole of Kuyavia was taken by Prussia. In 1815 under the provisions of the Congress of Vienna, Kuyavia was divided between the Kingdom of Poland (remaining in a Personal Union with Russia) and the Kingdom of Prussia. Brzesc-Kujawy province (counties: Aleksandrów, Radziejów and Wloclawek) remained in the Kingdom of Poland. Inowroclaw province (counties: Inowroclaw and Mogilens) was taken by Prussia.
That division lasted until the beginnings of World War I. In 1909 the Kujawy and Dobrzyn District Museum in Wloclawek was created. It was founded by the Polish Tourist Society.
In times of Second Republic of Poland, from 1938, western part of Kuyavia belonged to province poznanski, and the other part, eastern, belonged to the Warsaw province. In 1938 almost all Kuyavia became a part of Pomeranian province. In 1934 the Muzeum Nadgoplanskie in Kruszwica was built. It was opened in 1939, and it had valuable collection of ethnographical objects, inter alia: furniture and clothing.
During World War II almost all of Kuyavia was in the borders of Warta District "Warthegau", except the region of Bydgoszcz that was joined to the Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (German: Gau Danzig-Westpreussen)
In the years 1945-1975 Kuyavia was in the borders of Bydgoszcz province. Wloclawek province was created in 1975, and the western part of Kuyavia remained in Bydgoszcz province. In 1999 almost the whole of Kuyavia was joined to the Kuyavia-Pomerania province. Furthermore, small parts of Kuyavia were included in the borders of Masovia (regions between the border of the province and Skrwa River) and Wielkopolskie province (Przedecz, Wierzbinek).
History of Royal Prussia
Main article: Royal Prussia
Prior to the Teutonic Knights' invasion in the early 14th century, the region included Pomerelia and southwestern portions of Prussia.
During the Thirteen Years' War ("War of the Cities"), in February 1454, the Prussian Confederation, led by the cities of Gdansk (Danzig), Elblag (Elbing), and Torun (Thorn), as well as gentry from Chelmno Land (Kulmerland) asked the Polish king for support against the Teutonic Order's rule and for incorporation of Prussia into the Polish kingdom. The rebellion also included major cities from the eastern part of the Order's lands, such as Kneiphof, a part of Königsberg. The war ended in October 1466 with the Second Peace of Thorn, which provided for the Order's cession to the Polish Crown of its rights over the western half of Prussia, including Pomerelia and the districts of Elbing, Malbork (Marienburg), and Chelmno (Kulm).
Royal Prussia enjoyed substantial autonomy in its affiliation to the Crown of Poland - it had its own Diet (see Prussian estates), treasury and monetary unit and armies. It was governed by a council, subordinate to the Polish king, whose members were chosen from local lords and wealthy citizens. Prussians had also seats provided for them in Polish Diet, but they chose not to use this right until the Union of Lublin.
The Bishopric of Warmia had claimed the title of imperial Prince-Bishopric status, supposedly given by Emperor Charles IV. Although this claim seems unsupported by any document, it was in wide use in the 17th century. The bishopric continued defending this status until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.
The eastern part of Prussia remained under the rule of the Teutonic Knights and its successors, becoming the Duchy of Prussia in 1525 when the Order's last Grand Master Albert von Hohenzollern adopted Lutheranism and secularized the land as its hereditary ruler. In 1618 the duchy was inherited by John Sigismund von Hohenzollern. It remained under Polish (and briefly Swedish) suzerainty and the rulers of Brandenburg had to swear - in the role as Prussian duke - formal allegiance to the Polish Crown. Brandenburg achieved sovereignty over the duchy in the Treaty of Wehlau (1657).
As a result of the Union of Lublin in 1569, Royal Prussia's autonomy was abolished and the region was united with the Polish Crown. Prussian electors became senators and representatives to the Polish parliament, the Sejm.
During the First (1772) and Second (1793) Partitions of Poland, Royal Prussia was gradually annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. Its territory largely made up the Province of West Prussia created in 1773.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Friday, June 03, 2011 9:38 AM
Subject: [GaliciaPoland-Ukraine] Re: What "Kind" of Poles Are My Ancestors?
The Kuyavians is the name of the Polish micro-ethnic group in that area:
They innhabited land that Germanic people also inhabited.
Kujawy is far from Mielec, so describe how when your ancestors of Kujawy intermingled with Poles of the Mielec area.
--- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "dns_ny" <Ney.Denise@...> wrote:
> I've recently determined that a paternal great grandmother was a Poc~wiardowska, which is a place-based surname. When she married, she was living in the tiny place of Sokoligo~ra, adjacent to Poc~wiardowo. The larger nearby town is Golub-Dobrzyn. Given that she seems to be a local girl, is it likely that she is a ________ (Silician, Pomeranian, Gorali, Kashubian, etc.)? Are those groups, tribes, ethnicities; I don't even know what to call them? Where would I find inforamtion about these various groups and how they were distributed around Poland?
> Which of these groups would my maternal grandmother, who bore a paternal German-derived surname, Cuber, and a maternal surname of Majocha be part of? She and several generations of her ancestors lived in small towns (e.g., Surowa and Gorki) near Mielec in Galicia? Other family names in her line were Pedza, Rusek, Pl~awiak, and Diabutek.
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
- I can help you,I have a lot of data on Galicia, the region and the surrounding area Mielec (Podkarpackie - Rzeszow)Write to me:genealogia@...