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Zawadka Morochowska update

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  • Justin
    By way of an update, I am pleased to report that my e-mail to the Zagorz gmina (not the USC) inquiring about Zawadka Morochowska, specifically the monument
    Message 1 of 15 , Apr 7, 2011
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      By way of an update, I am pleased to report that my e-mail to the Zagorz gmina (not the USC) inquiring about Zawadka Morochowska, specifically the monument erected to commemorate those tragically killed there in 1946, has resulted in a very helpful response. Ms. Maria Zagorski, whose position translates to the "subinspector of the city and municipality," helpfully responded with the exact latitude and longitude of the monument, should I wish to visit. She also scanned and attached, via e-mail, the contents of the gmina's file on the monument, six pages in total, including a letter apparently laying out details and seeking authorization for it, a design of the monument and a proposed inscription. Because the material is all in Polish, and was sent by way of JPEG scans (thus not susceptible to Google translate) I cannot read it in nuanced detail. If anyone is interested in it, I will be happy to share and, if anyone cares to translate any of it, I'd be even happier.

      I still need to snail mail the letters which I've drafted to the various USCs and archives helpfully suggested, to track down the post-1845 Morochow/Zawadka GC parish registers, which we now know, at least, are *not* in the Komancza USC, thanks to their helpful reply to me, although they do have records of judicial acts of anyone from the former Zawadka Morochowska who sought to have a vital act registered as having occurred there from 1946 to 1972 (although the village was destroyed in 1946).

      I'll keep everyone posted on progress.

      Justin
    • Laurence
      / Remind us ..what happened in 1946? _______ Lavrentiy
      Message 2 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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        /


        Remind us ..what happened in 1946?


        _______

        Lavrentiy






        --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Justin" <jkhouser84@...> wrote:
        >
        > By way of an update, I am pleased to report that my e-mail to the Zagorz gmina (not the USC) inquiring about Zawadka Morochowska, specifically the monument erected to commemorate those tragically killed there in 1946, has resulted in a very helpful response. Ms. Maria Zagorski, whose position translates to the "subinspector of the city and municipality," helpfully responded with the exact latitude and longitude of the monument, should I wish to visit. She also scanned and attached, via e-mail, the contents of the gmina's file on the monument, six pages in total, including a letter apparently laying out details and seeking authorization for it, a design of the monument and a proposed inscription. Because the material is all in Polish, and was sent by way of JPEG scans (thus not susceptible to Google translate) I cannot read it in nuanced detail. If anyone is interested in it, I will be happy to share and, if anyone cares to translate any of it, I'd be even happier.
        >
        > I still need to snail mail the letters which I've drafted to the various USCs and archives helpfully suggested, to track down the post-1845 Morochow/Zawadka GC parish registers, which we now know, at least, are *not* in the Komancza USC, thanks to their helpful reply to me, although they do have records of judicial acts of anyone from the former Zawadka Morochowska who sought to have a vital act registered as having occurred there from 1946 to 1972 (although the village was destroyed in 1946).
        >
        > I'll keep everyone posted on progress.
        >
        > Justin
        >
      • Justin
        The village of Zawadka Morochowska was eradicated in four actions by Soviet-backed Polish Army units on January 23, 1946, March 28, 1946, April 13, 1946, and
        Message 3 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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          The village of Zawadka Morochowska was eradicated in four actions by Soviet-backed Polish Army units on January 23, 1946, March 28, 1946, April 13, 1946, and April 30, 1946, in reprisal for alleged support of UPA Acts in the area. After the massacres ceased, 74 women and 4 men who survived were deported, presumably to Ukraine. By the time of the first action in 1946 the village had been reduced to a shambles, most of the people living in improvised trenches and huts because the Nazis had earlier destroyed most of it during the war. Some sources indicate that the Greek-Catholic Church building stood in ruins until the early 1950s, when it was torn down. The site of the village is today a field with the memorial erected in 1998 thanks to the efforts of the people in gmina Zagorz.

          See here:
          http://www.lemko.org/lih/depo1.html

          Below is quoted from this site.

          In the course of the "repatriation action" hundreds if not thousands of Ukrainians were murdered in a cold, premeditated manner. No crime, however big, committed by the Nazi executioners seems to surpass the bestialities perpetrated by the Soviet-led Polish army on Ukrainians in many villages west of the Curzon Line, In particular, what took place in the village of ZAVADKA MOROCHIVSKA on January 23, 1946 seems to have touched the nadir of human cruelty. It was planned and executed by the Polish government of Bierut and Co., whose representative to the United Nations, Dr. Oscar Lange, was then accusing the United States and Great Britain of "threatening" peace in Iran and Indonesia. The following report of the mass murder of Ukrainians by the Polish army in the village of Zavadka Morochivska, District of Sanok, Poland, was sent by the Ukrainian underground. Its authenticity was confirmed by several Ukrainian refugees as well as by American citizens recently repatriated from Poland. The text is a literal translation from a copy now in the writer's possession:

          "On January 23, 1946, about 11:00 a.m., a runner from the village of Zavadka Morochivska came to our detachment and notified us that Polish troops in force attacked the villages of Bukhovitsia, Ratnitsia and Zboiska. The Poles, he continued, were looting homes, and beating and killing the peasants. Immediately our detachment began moving in the direction of these villages. We met peasants fleeing from the above-mentioned places who reported that a great many Poles had come early in the morning to Zavadka Morochivska and organized a savage butchery, in which several dozen inhabitants were brutally murdered. Later on, a woman came and, sobbing bitterly, began telling us what the Poles had done: 'They came to the village at dawn. All the men began to run to the woods, and those who remained, attempted to hide in the attics and cellars but to no avail. The Polish soldiers were looking everywhere so that not a single place was left unsearched. Whenever they captured a man, he was killed instantly; where they could not find a man, they beat the women and children. . .. My father was hidden in the attic and the Poles ordered my mother to climb up the ladder to search for him. These orders were accompanied by severe rifle-butt blows. When mother started to climb, the ladder suddenly broke and she fell down, breaking her elbow. Five Poles began to beat her again with rifle-butts and when she could not lift herself, they kicked her with their heavy boots. I ran to her with my four-year-old daughter and wanted to shield her, but the soldiers began to beat me and my child. I soon fell unconscious and awoke to find my mother and child killed and the entire village afire!" About two hours later we met more peasants from the villages of Zavadka, Mokre, Vysochany and Kamianne. They all said that the Polish army came in large forces, even bringing Up tank detachments. We moved further to the village of Karlikiv, where the day before the Poles had murdered 14 persons, among them a 70-year-old Catholic priest, Father S., his wife, daughter and a little grandchild.*

          (*The Ukrainian Catholic Clergy by special permission of the Holy See dating back to 1596, were allowed to marry)

          The peasants told us that a half dozen Polish soldiers came to the rectory and bayoneted the old, venerable priest when he refused to tell where his son was. Then they shot his wife and his daughter. The three-year-old granddaughter was in the arms of a maid. When she saw that her mother and grandparents were killed, she began to cry, calling to the maid, "Magda, please hide me because the Poles will kill me." At that moment a Polish soldier struck the child three times with a bayonet, killing it instantly. Then the same man fired at the maid, mortally wounding her in the abdomen. After that the rectory was set afire, as were other houses in the village. Those who tried to escape were instantly machine-gunned.

          In the village of Kamianne we were told that the same Polish troops who had plundered and murdered people in Karlikiv, had massacred about seventy persons in Zavadka Morochivska and had burned the village completely. The next morning we were on the move towards the village. From the hill above the village we saw nothing but smoldering ruins and a few moving Shadows that looked more like ghosts than human beings. We came to the first skeleton of a house where we saw the corpse of a young woman with several bayonet stabs. A few yards farther lay a dead man and a twelve-year-old girl. . . . An old mother was walking around and looking at the corpses of her children. She did not cry, her eyes were dry, but her mouth worked constantly. Nothing but a weak whimpering escaped her.

          A ghastly, hair-raising (scene-wm) appeared when we moved into the cemetery-like village. Here and there walked ragged shadows.:..."'Why did they kill her, why have they murdered her?" lamented and old woman, standing over the body of her daughter. A small man, looking barely alive, came to us: Come and see what they have done!' Showing us several corpses, he cried "There they are!" We saw three small children: seven months, two years and seven years old. All had been bayoneted. On the other side of the street was his dead wife, with several bayonet Stabs in her breast and her legs badly mutilated. "She is my wife," whispered the man, "and there is my old father. All have been murdered -- only I remain!" From a half-burned house an eight-year-old boy came out with his seven-month-old infant brother: "I'm all alone. . . . Here is my mother and there lies my father. . . . He was killed when he chopped wood to make a fire for us." Another boy of fourteen showed us the place where his father, mother and sister lay dead. At the village we saw the bodies of four men who were machine-gunned when they tried to flee. In the village cemetery several dozen bodies had already been placed in a common grave. All were horribly mutilated -- men, women, children and old people alike met the same cruel death. Near the grave there were several corpses awaiting burial. One was that of an old man who had been shot while praying. The bodies of adult males and females showed bruises from rifle butts, barbed wire and nails with which they had been tortured before being shot."

          The report was accompanied by a list of people, inhabitants of Zavadka Morochivska. The bloody and brutal "repatriation action" was conducted by the 34th Infantry Regiment, WP( Wojsko Polskie), stationed in Sanok, southeast Poland, The mass murder of the Ukrainians was entrusted to the First Battalion of the same regiment. The entire action was directed by the Commanding Officer of the 34th Infantry Regiment, Colonel Pluto, whose headquarters were established in the neighboring village of Mokre**. (**See the Appendix at the end of the pamphlet.)

          The report adds that those whom the Polish soldiers did not kill were beaten and mutilated. The latter were, of course, refused any medical attention on the part of the Polish Army and many people died later as a result of the beatings. The entire village was thoroughly looted. The Poles took 17 horses, 34 cows, 137 chickens, 78 bushels of wheat and other goods. Some 27 houses were completely burned. It should be added that the village was destroyed by the Nazis, and it was not until 1945 that the peasants were able to rebuild it with whatever material they could find.

          After the mass murder of innocent Ukrainians, the Warsaw government announced that those killed in Zavadka Morochivska were members of the Ukrainian underground army, commonly known as "banderivtsi," which was not true at all. Children, infants and old people can hardly be accused of belonging to a secret partisan organization. The real reason that they were killed was that they were Ukrainians and simply had to be exterminated. The rest of the villagers, who miraculously escaped the massacre, began slowly to build a new life again with the confident hope that the Poles would not molest them any more. Despite persistent orders from the Polish government to go east of the Curzon Line, these people preferred to remain in their native land. But the Polish authorities were equally determined that they should not be left in peace. Demand after demand came from Moscow that all Ukrainians should be surrendered without delay and without any exception.

          2. SECOND RAID ON ZAVADKA
          Therefore on March 28, 1946, some two months later, the 34th Infantry Regiment's: First Battalion, under the command of an unidentified Russian captain, made a surreptitious raid on Zavadka Morochivska in order to destroy its remaining inhabitants.

          Part of the villagers took to the woods, but the rest were arrested and herded into the square near the school building. Here the Russian captain, wearing a Polish army uniform, declared that he would execute all because they refused to go to Ukraine and preferred to stay and help the Bandera groups plunder and weaken the "new democratic Polish state." He then selected 11 men and, before the eyes of their wives, children and old people executed them without any judicial procedure.*** (*** Among those murdered thus were:


          1. MASLIUK, Ivan, 46,
          2. MASLIUK, Theodore, his son, 25,
          3: MASLIUK, Mykola, another son. 29,
          4. KLEPCHYK, Michael, 28,
          5. DOBRIANSKY, Vasyl, 35,
          6. SCHURKALO, Yakym, 40,
          7. KOZLYK, Stephen, 18,
          8. KERELEYZA, Dmytro, 48,
          9. NECHYSTY, Michael, 38 (who escaped with wounds during the first raid in January, 1946):
          10. BILAS, Ivan, 35
          11. BILAS, Theodore, 40.)
          Among the executed were a few who had received wounds during the first massacre by the 34th Infantry Regiment from Sanok on January 23, 1946. After the execution, the Soviet captain burned the last of the houses, leaving only the school and church buildings. Before his departure, he addressed the few remaining women and old people:

          "The same fate will be met by everyone who refuses to go to Ukraine. I, therefore, order that within three days the village be vacated; otherwise, I shall execute everyone of you. To prove that I have a good heart, I am not burning the school and church so that the women and children have a roof over their heads before they depart for the Soviet Union."

          Despite the second massacre, the remaining villagers were more determined than ever not to leave their soil. With the majority of their neighbors killed and all of their houses demolished, they continued to live in Ukrainians in the village of Zavadka Morochivska. The testimony was people in other villages. But this was not for long. The Polish government in Warsaw and its Soviet sponsors were determined to make an example of the village of Zavadka Morochivska for other Ukrainian villages and towns. On April 13, 1946, the same 34th Infantry Regiment from Sanok sent two companies to the village with an express order to kill all Ukrainians on sight if they refused to go east of theCurzon Line! The village was then surrounded on all sides with platoons of the Polish army. These were ordered to shoot every Ukrainian man, woman or child. Some of the villagers were captured and tortured to death.*

          (* Among them were the following:

          1. DOBRIANSKY, Volodymyr, 15;
          2. DOBRIANSKY, Ivan, 22. severely beaten and then shot to death;
          3. MASLIUK, Orest, 27, mutilated legs, finished with rifle butt blows;
          4. ROFYCHAK, Volodymyr, 18, wounded and stoned to death;
          5. NECHYSTY, Senko, 3, shot through the head;
          6. KERELEYZA, Ivan, 42. born in the United States, severely wounded.)

          The captured women were also beaten with bayonets and rifle butts or were kicked and stoned. The children were, too, subjected to the same brutalities. A few huts, set up since the last second raid on March 28, 1946, were burned, as was the school building. The few remaining old women and children were told that if they didn't leave for the Soviet Ukraine within three days they would all be executed. Yet these unfortunates, without a roof over their heads and nothing to eat except what was given them by neighboring ,villagers, decided to die on their native soil rather than go to the Soviet Union.

          But on April 30, 1946, a final raid was made upon Zavadka Morochivska by detachments of the Polish army. All inhabitants were forcibly driven to-the village square and from there, under a strong armed escort, to the railroad station of Zahir. Here all these Ukrainians, numbering 78 persons (only 4 men among them), were handed over to the Soviet commissars. No one knows what happened to them thereafter. Thus was a purely Ukrainian village totally destroyed by the Soviet directed Polish army, even more thoroughly than its famous Czechoslovak counterpart, Lidice.



          --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
          >
          > /
          >
          >
          > Remind us ..what happened in 1946?
          >
          >
          > _______
          >
          > Lavrentiy
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Justin" <jkhouser84@> wrote:
          > >
          > > By way of an update, I am pleased to report that my e-mail to the Zagorz gmina (not the USC) inquiring about Zawadka Morochowska, specifically the monument erected to commemorate those tragically killed there in 1946, has resulted in a very helpful response. Ms. Maria Zagorski, whose position translates to the "subinspector of the city and municipality," helpfully responded with the exact latitude and longitude of the monument, should I wish to visit. She also scanned and attached, via e-mail, the contents of the gmina's file on the monument, six pages in total, including a letter apparently laying out details and seeking authorization for it, a design of the monument and a proposed inscription. Because the material is all in Polish, and was sent by way of JPEG scans (thus not susceptible to Google translate) I cannot read it in nuanced detail. If anyone is interested in it, I will be happy to share and, if anyone cares to translate any of it, I'd be even happier.
          > >
          > > I still need to snail mail the letters which I've drafted to the various USCs and archives helpfully suggested, to track down the post-1845 Morochow/Zawadka GC parish registers, which we now know, at least, are *not* in the Komancza USC, thanks to their helpful reply to me, although they do have records of judicial acts of anyone from the former Zawadka Morochowska who sought to have a vital act registered as having occurred there from 1946 to 1972 (although the village was destroyed in 1946).
          > >
          > > I'll keep everyone posted on progress.
          > >
          > > Justin
          > >
          >
        • Laurence
          / Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII? _____ Lavrentiy
          Message 4 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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            /

            Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?

            _____

            Lavrentiy
          • Laurence
            During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment Carpathians , that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under
            Message 5 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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              During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment "Carpathians ", that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under the command of Col. J. Kotowicz. The war operations reached Zagórz on 9th September and just then the German air force was bombing the railway junction and bridge. As a result, the Polish Army retreated to the line of Uherce - Ustrzyki on 10th September.
              With the day of setting the Soviet - German border on the San river - Zagórz became a part of the Sanok district, in the province of German - occupied Poland. During the Hitler?s occupation, Zagórz was one of the most active conspirational military center. Hitlerites arrested about 30 citizens of Zagórz area; some of them were placed in concentration camps and about 50 of them were transported to forced labour in Germany. The situation of Polish Jews was particularly tragic. In autumn of 1940 a labour camp was organized in buildings of cellulose factory (Zasław) with the prediction to imprison mainly the Jews. The prisoners numbered from 14 to 17 K were mainly from the district of Sanok. 10 K of them were murdered and the rest of them were transported to the camp in Bełżec. The labour camp in Zasław was liquidated in 1943. The Soldier of partisans? division "South" (OP-23 ) under the command of Capt. A. Winogrodzki (Home Army "AK" -pseudonym "Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski") have liberated Zagórz on 11th september 1944.


              http://www.zagorz.pl/ang/historia.php4


              Throughout the first years of WWII, the Germans stoked Ukrainian nationalism in order to counter Polish resistance and Soviet influence. The Ukrainians were keen collaborators, seeing the Germans as liberators for their own nationalist aspirations and it is known that Ukrainians participated in many massacres instigated by the Germans. Following the war, a large south-eastern part of the former Polish Republic became Ukraine and the Soviets forcibly transferred the populations on either side of the new border to regroup the different ethnic groups.









              http://salikweb.perso.sfr.fr/MassacresJews.htm



              --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
              >
              > /
              >
              > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
              >
              > _____
              >
              > Lavrentiy
              >
            • Laurence
              / Justin, I assume that in 1946, UPA and the Polish Home Army (HA) - Ordon , Korwin , Węgrzynowski - also had conflicts in the Zawadka Morochowska area.
              Message 6 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                /

                Justin,

                I assume that in 1946, UPA and the Polish Home Army (HA) -"Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski" - also had conflicts in the Zawadka Morochowska area. Did the NKVD and People's Army of Poland have any actions directed at the HA in the area?

                ________

                Lavrentiy




                --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                >
                >
                > During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment "Carpathians ", that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under the command of Col. J. Kotowicz. The war operations reached Zagórz on 9th September and just then the German air force was bombing the railway junction and bridge. As a result, the Polish Army retreated to the line of Uherce - Ustrzyki on 10th September.
                > With the day of setting the Soviet - German border on the San river - Zagórz became a part of the Sanok district, in the province of German - occupied Poland. During the Hitler?s occupation, Zagórz was one of the most active conspirational military center. Hitlerites arrested about 30 citizens of Zagórz area; some of them were placed in concentration camps and about 50 of them were transported to forced labour in Germany. The situation of Polish Jews was particularly tragic. In autumn of 1940 a labour camp was organized in buildings of cellulose factory (Zasław) with the prediction to imprison mainly the Jews. The prisoners numbered from 14 to 17 K were mainly from the district of Sanok. 10 K of them were murdered and the rest of them were transported to the camp in Bełżec. The labour camp in Zasław was liquidated in 1943. The Soldier of partisans? division "South" (OP-23 ) under the command of Capt. A. Winogrodzki (Home Army "AK" -pseudonym "Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski") have liberated Zagórz on 11th september 1944.
                >
                >
                > http://www.zagorz.pl/ang/historia.php4
                >
                >
                > Throughout the first years of WWII, the Germans stoked Ukrainian nationalism in order to counter Polish resistance and Soviet influence. The Ukrainians were keen collaborators, seeing the Germans as liberators for their own nationalist aspirations and it is known that Ukrainians participated in many massacres instigated by the Germans. Following the war, a large south-eastern part of the former Polish Republic became Ukraine and the Soviets forcibly transferred the populations on either side of the new border to regroup the different ethnic groups.
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                >
                > http://salikweb.perso.sfr.fr/MassacresJews.htm
                >
                >
                >
                > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                > >
                > > /
                > >
                > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                > >
                > > _____
                > >
                > > Lavrentiy
                > >
                >
              • Laurence
                / After the World War II had ended, the warfare lasted still in the south eastern areas of Poland. Polish units of the Army, Internal Security Corps (KBW) and
                Message 7 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                  /

                  After the World War II had ended, the warfare lasted still in the south eastern areas of Poland. Polish units of the Army, Internal Security Corps (KBW) and Citizen Militia (Milicja Obywatelska, MO - the name of Polish Police in 1944-89) were still fighting with Ukrainian nationalist partisans of the UPA - Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The UPA partisans were murding and terrorizing Polish inhabitants of these areas and fighting against Polish authorities, finding some support in inhabitants of Ukrainian nationality. At that time, the masses of people of Ukrainian nationality were being moved to Soviet Ukraine, while people of Polish nationality were being moved from Soviet area. Among others, UPA partisans were attacking the railways, stations, bridges and the transports of people. In order to protect the railways, the new armed security formation was created: Służba Ochrony Kolei (SOK) - the Railway Protection Service, subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, not the Army (Ministry of Defence). To carry out its duties more efficiently, in the autumn of 1945 the SOK HQ started forming of the improvised armoured trains, with the Army's help. They were meant to patrol the tracks, and protect the transport trains on dangerous areas. Their crews were formed from the volunteers of SOK, as well as soldiers, officers and NCO's.



                  Polish improvised armoured trains of the SOK (Railway Protection Service)



                  http://pibwl.republika.pl/sok.htm






                  --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > /
                  >
                  > Justin,
                  >
                  > I assume that in 1946, UPA and the Polish Home Army (HA) -"Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski" - also had conflicts in the Zawadka Morochowska area. Did the NKVD and People's Army of Poland have any actions directed at the HA in the area?
                  >
                  > ________
                  >
                  > Lavrentiy
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment "Carpathians ", that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under the command of Col. J. Kotowicz. The war operations reached Zagórz on 9th September and just then the German air force was bombing the railway junction and bridge. As a result, the Polish Army retreated to the line of Uherce - Ustrzyki on 10th September.
                  > > With the day of setting the Soviet - German border on the San river - Zagórz became a part of the Sanok district, in the province of German - occupied Poland. During the Hitler?s occupation, Zagórz was one of the most active conspirational military center. Hitlerites arrested about 30 citizens of Zagórz area; some of them were placed in concentration camps and about 50 of them were transported to forced labour in Germany. The situation of Polish Jews was particularly tragic. In autumn of 1940 a labour camp was organized in buildings of cellulose factory (Zasław) with the prediction to imprison mainly the Jews. The prisoners numbered from 14 to 17 K were mainly from the district of Sanok. 10 K of them were murdered and the rest of them were transported to the camp in Bełżec. The labour camp in Zasław was liquidated in 1943. The Soldier of partisans? division "South" (OP-23 ) under the command of Capt. A. Winogrodzki (Home Army "AK" -pseudonym "Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski") have liberated Zagórz on 11th september 1944.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > http://www.zagorz.pl/ang/historia.php4
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Throughout the first years of WWII, the Germans stoked Ukrainian nationalism in order to counter Polish resistance and Soviet influence. The Ukrainians were keen collaborators, seeing the Germans as liberators for their own nationalist aspirations and it is known that Ukrainians participated in many massacres instigated by the Germans. Following the war, a large south-eastern part of the former Polish Republic became Ukraine and the Soviets forcibly transferred the populations on either side of the new border to regroup the different ethnic groups.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > http://salikweb.perso.sfr.fr/MassacresJews.htm
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                  > > >
                  > > > /
                  > > >
                  > > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                  > > >
                  > > > _____
                  > > >
                  > > > Lavrentiy
                  > > >
                  > >
                  >
                • Laurence
                  In the early 1947 the existing four armoured trains formed the SOK armoured train unit (dywizjon pociagów pancernych SOK), commanded by Cpt. Marian Jarosz.
                  Message 8 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                    In the early 1947 the existing four armoured trains formed the SOK armoured train unit (dywizjon pociagów pancernych SOK), commanded by Cpt. Marian Jarosz. The unit's base was a small railway station in Zagórz near Sanok town (south-east of Poland). The unit took part in combat against UPA in Bieszczady Mountains. Later the unit received also one or two armoured draisines. In April 1947 the unit was subordinated to Gen. Stefan Mossor, a commander of a newly-created Operational Group "Wisła" (Vistula). The armoured train unit, along with Group's units, took part in the Operation "Wisła", which aimed to displace all the inhabitants from Bieszczady Mountains and their neighbourhood to other parts of Poland, in order to cut UPA partisans off of supplies or shelter. It was a brutal mean, but it put an end to a terror of UPA partisans in Poland (in the Soviet Ukraine the fight of communist government with UPA lasted till the sixties). (It must be noted by the way, that Bieszczady Mountains are currently one of the most beautiful places in Poland). The Operational Group was disbanded on 31 July 1947, the armoured train unit was as well. Two armoured trains (probably Nos. 1 and 2) were moved to the Military District V HQ (DOK V - Cracov), and the other two (probably Nos. 3 and 4) were moved to the Military District VII HQ (DOK VII - Lublin). These Districts carried out further combat with the remainder of UPA, until 1948. The armoured trains were probably used in this further combat as well. Some of these armoured trains existed in SOK up to the late 40's. Due to the lack of serious threats of the railway transport, they were used mainly for training of the SOK guards. From time to time, however, they were used in raids against ...the thefts of a coal on stations. Most likely the armoured trains of the SOK were liquidated in the 50's.



                    --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > /
                    >
                    > After the World War II had ended, the warfare lasted still in the south eastern areas of Poland. Polish units of the Army, Internal Security Corps (KBW) and Citizen Militia (Milicja Obywatelska, MO - the name of Polish Police in 1944-89) were still fighting with Ukrainian nationalist partisans of the UPA - Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The UPA partisans were murding and terrorizing Polish inhabitants of these areas and fighting against Polish authorities, finding some support in inhabitants of Ukrainian nationality. At that time, the masses of people of Ukrainian nationality were being moved to Soviet Ukraine, while people of Polish nationality were being moved from Soviet area. Among others, UPA partisans were attacking the railways, stations, bridges and the transports of people. In order to protect the railways, the new armed security formation was created: Służba Ochrony Kolei (SOK) - the Railway Protection Service, subordinated to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, not the Army (Ministry of Defence). To carry out its duties more efficiently, in the autumn of 1945 the SOK HQ started forming of the improvised armoured trains, with the Army's help. They were meant to patrol the tracks, and protect the transport trains on dangerous areas. Their crews were formed from the volunteers of SOK, as well as soldiers, officers and NCO's.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Polish improvised armoured trains of the SOK (Railway Protection Service)
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > http://pibwl.republika.pl/sok.htm
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                    > >
                    > > /
                    > >
                    > > Justin,
                    > >
                    > > I assume that in 1946, UPA and the Polish Home Army (HA) -"Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski" - also had conflicts in the Zawadka Morochowska area. Did the NKVD and People's Army of Poland have any actions directed at the HA in the area?
                    > >
                    > > ________
                    > >
                    > > Lavrentiy
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > > During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment "Carpathians ", that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under the command of Col. J. Kotowicz. The war operations reached Zagórz on 9th September and just then the German air force was bombing the railway junction and bridge. As a result, the Polish Army retreated to the line of Uherce - Ustrzyki on 10th September.
                    > > > With the day of setting the Soviet - German border on the San river - Zagórz became a part of the Sanok district, in the province of German - occupied Poland. During the Hitler?s occupation, Zagórz was one of the most active conspirational military center. Hitlerites arrested about 30 citizens of Zagórz area; some of them were placed in concentration camps and about 50 of them were transported to forced labour in Germany. The situation of Polish Jews was particularly tragic. In autumn of 1940 a labour camp was organized in buildings of cellulose factory (Zasław) with the prediction to imprison mainly the Jews. The prisoners numbered from 14 to 17 K were mainly from the district of Sanok. 10 K of them were murdered and the rest of them were transported to the camp in Bełżec. The labour camp in Zasław was liquidated in 1943. The Soldier of partisans? division "South" (OP-23 ) under the command of Capt. A. Winogrodzki (Home Army "AK" -pseudonym "Ordon", "Korwin", "Węgrzynowski") have liberated Zagórz on 11th september 1944.
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > > http://www.zagorz.pl/ang/historia.php4
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > > Throughout the first years of WWII, the Germans stoked Ukrainian nationalism in order to counter Polish resistance and Soviet influence. The Ukrainians were keen collaborators, seeing the Germans as liberators for their own nationalist aspirations and it is known that Ukrainians participated in many massacres instigated by the Germans. Following the war, a large south-eastern part of the former Polish Republic became Ukraine and the Soviets forcibly transferred the populations on either side of the new border to regroup the different ethnic groups.
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > > http://salikweb.perso.sfr.fr/MassacresJews.htm
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > >
                    > > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                    > > > >
                    > > > > /
                    > > > >
                    > > > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                    > > > >
                    > > > > _____
                    > > > >
                    > > > > Lavrentiy
                    > > > >
                    > > >
                    > >
                    >
                  • Laurence
                    Justin, Perhaps the Home Army was in Zawadka Morochowska area which was the reason why the Germans and/or UPA wrecked the place before 1946. ___ Lavrentiy
                    Message 9 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                      Justin,

                      Perhaps the Home Army was in Zawadka Morochowska area which was the reason why the Germans and/or UPA wrecked the place before 1946.

                      ___

                      Lavrentiy



                      --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > /
                      >
                      > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                      >
                      > _____
                      >
                      > Lavrentiy
                      >
                    • Laurence
                      ... German losses in the area during 1939: http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=50&t=75823&start=45 ______ Lavrentiy
                      Message 10 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                        --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                        >
                        >
                        > During the September Campaign in 1939 the area of Zagórz was being defended by the army detachment "Carpathians ", that comprised 3rd Mountain Brigade under the command of Col. J. Kotowicz. The war operations reached Zagórz on 9th September and just then the German air force was bombing the railway junction and bridge. As a result, the Polish Army retreated to the line of Uherce - Ustrzyki on 10th September.


                        German losses in the area during 1939:

                        http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=50&t=75823&start=45

                        ______

                        Lavrentiy
                      • Laurence
                        Records of German Wehrmacht (Army) field commands are availabe on US National Archives microfilms:
                        Message 11 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                          Records of German Wehrmacht (Army) field commands are availabe on US National Archives microfilms:


                          http://www.archives.gov/research/captured-german-records/foreign-records-seized.html



                          --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Justin,
                          >
                          > Perhaps the Home Army was in Zawadka Morochowska area which was the reason why the Germans and/or UPA wrecked the place before 1946.
                          >
                          > ___
                          >
                          > Lavrentiy
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                          > >
                          > > /
                          > >
                          > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                          > >
                          > > _____
                          > >
                          > > Lavrentiy
                          > >
                          >
                        • Justin
                          Thanks for filling in some suggestions to answer this question Lavrentiy. I did not know much about the German action in the area (other than that there was
                          Message 12 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                            Thanks for filling in some suggestions to answer this question Lavrentiy. I did not know much about the German action in the area (other than that there was some) but will use the links you provided to see what I can find out. I simply heard that there was prior destruction and that many of the people were already living in trenches and huts when the first 1946 actions came around.

                            The daughter of an old Zawadka family who was in contact with an aunt there during and after the war told me about the actions in 1946. Apparently, at one point some of the people were put into a building which was doused with gasoline and set afire. Anna (c1901-1946), the first wife of Hryhoriy (George) Nieczysty (1899-1982), met her sad end. Her daughter Catherine (c1925-1946) was shot as she ran out into the field to escape the tragedy. (The online listing reverses these fates so perhaps the person I spoke to had switched the stories.) The husband and father (brother to my great-aunt Anna Hrynio and who boarded for a while with my great-grandpraents in Bellefonte) had come to the USA in 1931 and again in 1938, and was preparing to send for his family when the war broke out. The daughter Catherine already had some command of the English language and was a very smart girl, it is said. George was beside himself with grief when he learned of their sad fate and had a nervous breakdown. Eventually, he learned the trade of a boilermaker to give himself somewhere to direct his energies and later remarried. He died in Pottsville, PA in 1982. The aunt, a Miss Starziski, often wrote after the war that they were in need of supplies, and the relatives here sent whatever they could. Eventually they lost touch, I believe, or the old people died and that was the end of the communication.

                            Justin



                            --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > /
                            >
                            > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                            >
                            > _____
                            >
                            > Lavrentiy
                            >
                          • Laurence
                            STRUGGLING FOR PEACE: understanding Polish-Ukrainian coexistence in southeast Poland by RNM Lehmann http://dare.uva.nl/document/133473 ___________ On the 9 of
                            Message 13 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                              STRUGGLING FOR PEACE: understanding Polish-Ukrainian coexistence in southeast Poland by RNM Lehmann


                              http://dare.uva.nl/document/133473


                              ___________


                              On the 9 of September 1939 German troops invaded Sanok. From that time to the 22 of June 1941 Sanok became a border town, as the river San was made the border between the General Government and the Soviet Union. The first network of underground resistance forces was established in Sanok in 1940. Between 1940-42 Sanok was a meeting point for secret messengers going to and from Hungary. Numerous sabotage operations were undertaken by the Home Army (Armia Krajowa). On the 9 of August 1944 Soviet forces reached Sanok. The war was disastrous to the town, especially to its industries. As a matter of fact it did not finish with dislodging the German forces. It soon turned into a civil war between the Ukrainian underground forces on one side and the militia, security and military forces of the communist Poland on the other. It lasted until 1948, spreading destruction in Sanok Land countryside. Its last dramatic accord was so called "Vistula Operation", a massive deportation of Ukrainian speaking inhabitants to the Western, post-German part of Poland. Simultaneously the heavy fights were continued against Polish independence organization WiN ("Liberty and Independence") ...


                              http://www.pol-and.eu/EN/SanokHistory.html

                              ___________


                              POLISH HOME ARMY (AK) - HISTORY


                              http://www.biega.com/museumAK/hak-e.html

                              http://biega.com/museumAK/AKMuseum.html


                              http://forum.axishistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=50&t=75823&start=60



                              With the Nazis by Mordechai Zilberman
                              Translated by Jerrold Landau

                              A. Before Arrival in Zaslaw

                              http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/sanok/San524.html






                              --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Justin" <jkhouser84@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Thanks for filling in some suggestions to answer this question Lavrentiy. I did not know much about the German action in the area (other than that there was some) but will use the links you provided to see what I can find out. I simply heard that there was prior destruction and that many of the people were already living in trenches and huts when the first 1946 actions came around.
                              >
                              > The daughter of an old Zawadka family who was in contact with an aunt there during and after the war told me about the actions in 1946. Apparently, at one point some of the people were put into a building which was doused with gasoline and set afire. Anna (c1901-1946), the first wife of Hryhoriy (George) Nieczysty (1899-1982), met her sad end. Her daughter Catherine (c1925-1946) was shot as she ran out into the field to escape the tragedy. (The online listing reverses these fates so perhaps the person I spoke to had switched the stories.) The husband and father (brother to my great-aunt Anna Hrynio and who boarded for a while with my great-grandpraents in Bellefonte) had come to the USA in 1931 and again in 1938, and was preparing to send for his family when the war broke out. The daughter Catherine already had some command of the English language and was a very smart girl, it is said. George was beside himself with grief when he learned of their sad fate and had a nervous breakdown. Eventually, he learned the trade of a boilermaker to give himself somewhere to direct his energies and later remarried. He died in Pottsville, PA in 1982. The aunt, a Miss Starziski, often wrote after the war that they were in need of supplies, and the relatives here sent whatever they could. Eventually they lost touch, I believe, or the old people died and that was the end of the communication.
                              >
                              > Justin
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                              > >
                              > > /
                              > >
                              > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                              > >
                              > > _____
                              > >
                              > > Lavrentiy
                              > >
                              >
                            • Laurence
                              Justn, In nearby Plonna, the following occurred: Płonna was the site of a special camp in 1942. The camp was used to hold Jews from the Sanok, Lesko and
                              Message 14 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                                Justn,

                                In nearby Plonna, the following occurred:

                                Płonna was the site of a "special camp" in 1942. The camp was used to hold Jews from the Sanok, Lesko and Dobromil powiats, that is if they weren't shot in their village or taken to the work camp in Zwangsarbeitslager Zaslaw, 30 km (19 mi) east of Bukowsko. Apparently at least 13,000 people were held at Zaslaw and then transported to Belzec extermination camp. The old people were shot in the woods near Zaslaw, according to "The Holocaust: The Jews in the County of Cracau".


                                On April 1946 the village was attacked by a strong unit of the Polish Army and some buildings were burned. Some Ukrainian people were resettled to the Ukrainian SSR in 1946. Ukrainian people of Plonna were deported on 29 April 1947 (Operation Vistula) and moved to the Silesia area of Poland. Only after a dozen years following the war did the village start to rebuild.

                                http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C5%82onna,_Subcarpathian_Voivodeship





                                --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Justin" <jkhouser84@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > Thanks for filling in some suggestions to answer this question Lavrentiy. I did not know much about the German action in the area (other than that there was some) but will use the links you provided to see what I can find out. I simply heard that there was prior destruction and that many of the people were already living in trenches and huts when the first 1946 actions came around.
                                >
                                > The daughter of an old Zawadka family who was in contact with an aunt there during and after the war told me about the actions in 1946. Apparently, at one point some of the people were put into a building which was doused with gasoline and set afire. Anna (c1901-1946), the first wife of Hryhoriy (George) Nieczysty (1899-1982), met her sad end. Her daughter Catherine (c1925-1946) was shot as she ran out into the field to escape the tragedy. (The online listing reverses these fates so perhaps the person I spoke to had switched the stories.) The husband and father (brother to my great-aunt Anna Hrynio and who boarded for a while with my great-grandpraents in Bellefonte) had come to the USA in 1931 and again in 1938, and was preparing to send for his family when the war broke out. The daughter Catherine already had some command of the English language and was a very smart girl, it is said. George was beside himself with grief when he learned of their sad fate and had a nervous breakdown. Eventually, he learned the trade of a boilermaker to give himself somewhere to direct his energies and later remarried. He died in Pottsville, PA in 1982. The aunt, a Miss Starziski, often wrote after the war that they were in need of supplies, and the relatives here sent whatever they could. Eventually they lost touch, I believe, or the old people died and that was the end of the communication.
                                >
                                > Justin
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                                > >
                                > > /
                                > >
                                > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                                > >
                                > > _____
                                > >
                                > > Lavrentiy
                                > >
                                >
                              • Laurence
                                The Polish Underground Home Army (AK) and the Jews: What Survivor Memoirs and Testimonies Reveal Joshua D. Zimmerman Yeshiva University
                                Message 15 of 15 , Apr 8, 2011
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                                  The Polish Underground Home Army (AK) and the Jews: What Survivor
                                  Memoirs and Testimonies Reveal Joshua D. Zimmerman
                                  Yeshiva University


                                  http://icj.huji.ac.il/conference/papers/Joshua%20Zimmerman.pdf

                                  **********


                                  The Doomed Soldiers
                                  Polish Underground Soldiers 1944-1963 - The Untold Story


                                  http://www.doomedsoldiers.com/home-army-soldier.html


                                  ********



                                  Polish Resistance in World War II


                                  http://www.polishresistance-ak.org/Essays.htm





                                  --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > Justn,
                                  >
                                  > In nearby Plonna, the following occurred:
                                  >
                                  > Płonna was the site of a "special camp" in 1942. The camp was used to hold Jews from the Sanok, Lesko and Dobromil powiats, that is if they weren't shot in their village or taken to the work camp in Zwangsarbeitslager Zaslaw, 30 km (19 mi) east of Bukowsko. Apparently at least 13,000 people were held at Zaslaw and then transported to Belzec extermination camp. The old people were shot in the woods near Zaslaw, according to "The Holocaust: The Jews in the County of Cracau".
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > On April 1946 the village was attacked by a strong unit of the Polish Army and some buildings were burned. Some Ukrainian people were resettled to the Ukrainian SSR in 1946. Ukrainian people of Plonna were deported on 29 April 1947 (Operation Vistula) and moved to the Silesia area of Poland. Only after a dozen years following the war did the village start to rebuild.
                                  >
                                  > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C5%82onna,_Subcarpathian_Voivodeship
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Justin" <jkhouser84@> wrote:
                                  > >
                                  > > Thanks for filling in some suggestions to answer this question Lavrentiy. I did not know much about the German action in the area (other than that there was some) but will use the links you provided to see what I can find out. I simply heard that there was prior destruction and that many of the people were already living in trenches and huts when the first 1946 actions came around.
                                  > >
                                  > > The daughter of an old Zawadka family who was in contact with an aunt there during and after the war told me about the actions in 1946. Apparently, at one point some of the people were put into a building which was doused with gasoline and set afire. Anna (c1901-1946), the first wife of Hryhoriy (George) Nieczysty (1899-1982), met her sad end. Her daughter Catherine (c1925-1946) was shot as she ran out into the field to escape the tragedy. (The online listing reverses these fates so perhaps the person I spoke to had switched the stories.) The husband and father (brother to my great-aunt Anna Hrynio and who boarded for a while with my great-grandpraents in Bellefonte) had come to the USA in 1931 and again in 1938, and was preparing to send for his family when the war broke out. The daughter Catherine already had some command of the English language and was a very smart girl, it is said. George was beside himself with grief when he learned of their sad fate and had a nervous breakdown. Eventually, he learned the trade of a boilermaker to give himself somewhere to direct his energies and later remarried. He died in Pottsville, PA in 1982. The aunt, a Miss Starziski, often wrote after the war that they were in need of supplies, and the relatives here sent whatever they could. Eventually they lost touch, I believe, or the old people died and that was the end of the communication.
                                  > >
                                  > > Justin
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > >
                                  > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                                  > > >
                                  > > > /
                                  > > >
                                  > > > Why and what did the Germans do in the village during WWII?
                                  > > >
                                  > > > _____
                                  > > >
                                  > > > Lavrentiy
                                  > > >
                                  > >
                                  >
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