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Polish and Belarusian Populations in Northern Kresy in 1931

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  • Laurence
    Polish and Belarusian populations in northern Kresy in 1931. (Polesie, Nowogrodek and Wilno Voivodeships) Polesie Polish: 164,169 Belarusian:
    Message 1 of 46 , Mar 3, 2011
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      Polish and Belarusian populations in northern Kresy in 1931.
      (Polesie, Nowogrodek and Wilno Voivodeships)


      Polesie

      Polish: 164,169
      Belarusian: 782,426


      Nowogrodek

      Polish: 553,900
      Belarusian: 413,500


      Wilno

      Polish: 761,700
      Belarusian: 289,700


      Total

      Polish: 1,479,769

      Belarusian: 1,485,626



      Percent(1)

      Polish: 42.7%

      Belarusian: 42.9%

      _______

      Footnote

      (1) Percent of the total 1931 northern Kresy population which is Polish and Belarusian. The total northern Kresy population was 3,465,200. Other groups included in total population are Jews, ethnic Germans, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, and others.
    • Laurence
      Hello Orest, The Family History Library s Poland Research Guide provides the following about Polish census records: ******** Many original census returns
      Message 46 of 46 , Mar 9, 2011
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        Hello Orest,


        The Family History Library's "Poland Research Guide" provides the following about Polish census records:

        ********

        Many original census returns were destroyed, and only compiled information remains. Some census records still exist in archives but are usually not available to researchers. Some censuses are in the Main Archives of Ancient Documents (Archiwum Główne Akt Dawnych - AGAD) in Warsaw; various district and municipal archives.... It is uncertain where most Polish census records are kept, so you may have to contact various archives in the vicinity of the town where your ancestor lived.


        https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Poland_Census

        *********


        The census records which are available in the Polish State Archive System can be determined via on-line. See the follwoing for how to do it:

        https://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Poland_Holdings_of_the_Polish_State_Archives

        http://baza.archiwa.gov.pl/sezam/?l=en



        Here are descriptions of the 1921 and 1931 Polish censuses:

        http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/5840_5620_PLK_HTML.htm


        http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/7872_PLK_HTML.htm


        ________

        Lavrentiy



        "kozulich" <kozulich@...> wrote:
        >
        > Are the details of the 1921 and 1931 census available (not just the statistics, but the actual interview forms)?
        >
        > Thanks,
        >
        > Orest
        >
        > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
        > >
        > > /
        > >
        > > Given all the shortcomings of the 1921 and 1931 Polish censuses, it can still be shown with the data that the Polish population in the Kresy was not the plurality.
        > >
        > > ______
        > >
        > > Lavrentiy
        > >
        > >
        > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Laurence" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
        > > >
        > > > "kozulich" wrote:
        > > >
        > > > > Mother tongue might be a good indicator, and confession might be
        > > > > a good indicator, but those two criteria are fluid based on outside > pressure.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I agree.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > >Depending on who is asking and how they are asking, the answers >might change.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I agree.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > > They might even change from generation to generation, even though
        > > > > the genetic ethnicity doesn't change. So to get an accurate
        > > > > picture in a census is difficult.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I agree.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > > For example, there might be people in Poland who speak Polish as
        > > > > the mother tongue, but are ethnically German. They were born in
        > > > > Poland and have lived in Poland their whole life, but ethnically,
        > > > > they are German. This wouldn't necessarily be reflected in a
        > > > > census.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > I agree.
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > Nevertheless, we have to work with the two Polish censuses - 1921 and 1931. In 1921, nationality and religion was collected. For the 1931 census, nationality was replaced with "mother tongue".
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > Nationality question and criticism
        > > >
        > > > Veracity of the census' results has been questioned already in the 1930s, particularly in the part related to national minorities. Contrary to expectations on the side of national minorities themselves, the census used the concept of mother tongue and religion to classify the respondents, rather than nationality. The 1921 census had included a nationality question which was replaced in the 1931 census by the "mother tongue" question; this change was protested by Ukrainians and Jews, many of whom were bilingual or trilingual. Moreover, many Jews considered Polish to be their mother tongue.
        > > >
        > > > This situation created a difficulty in establishing the true number of non-Polish citizens of Poland. Some authors used the language criterion to establish the actual number of minorities, which left Belarusians seriously under-represented, as over 707,000 people declared they speak "local" rather than any other language. Other authors used approximation based on both language and declared religion. After World War II in Soviet bloc countries the interpretation of the census was used for political purposes, to underline the officially-supported thesis that pre-war Poland owned areas where non-Polish population made up the majority of inhabitants. For this purpose some authors combined all non-Polish speakers in South-Eastern Poland (namely Ukrainians, Belarusians, Rusyns, Hutsuls, Lemkos, Boykos and Poleszuks) into one category of "Ruthenians".
        > > >
        > > > Some authors explain that the change in questions asked by the census officials was due to Polish government's wish to minimise the presence of minorities and represented an attempt to maximize the effects of a decade of educational policies stressing the Polish language. Tadeusz Piotrowski called the 1931 census official but "unreliable", noting that it had underestimated the number of non-Poles, and that in particular, Poles were not a majority in the Nowogr�dek Voivodeship and Polesie Voivodeship.
        > > >
        > > > After World War II the pre-war chairman of the Polish census statistical office, Edward Szturm de Sztrem, stated that the returns had indeed been tampered with at the executive level, particularly in the east and south-east, although the extent of any possible tampering remains unknown.
        > > >
        > > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_census_of_1931
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > More on the two Polish censuses is here:
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_history_of_the_Vilnius_region
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > > Orest
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > ______
        > > >
        > > > Lavrentiy
        > > >
        > >
        >
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