Poles in Slovakia
The words of this prayer1 Bishop Wladyslaw Bandurski offered beloved Polish People in the Spis region , Orava and providing NCB 's groundbreaking for the Polish Borderlands South 1918-1920 . For then , as a result of World War I has been broken up in Hungarian Kingdom in its present form , and so . Upper Hungary inhabited by a majority of Slovaks were to be included within the new state - Czechoslovakia. However, the northern ends of the Upper Hungary, Slovakia did not bear the character. Three regions: Czadeckie , Upper Orava and northern and central Spis lived in compact clusters Polish people2. New situation has created hope for a connection to the motherland . Ultimately, however, has been incorporated into the Polish minority of ethnic Polish territory in Upper Hungary. Much more is on the part of Slovakia.
Polish folk music occupies the southern part of the Polish ethnic area , which was located in the south- western part of Malopolska , Silesia, Cieszyn , but also beyond the borders of the Republic, the history of the ruling or the result of a subsequent settlement , the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Romania, Ukraine , Hungary and Yugoslavia . Ibid , Highlanders Polscy3 a particle (Ukraine) , clear (the Czech Republic , Yugoslavia , Hungary ) or major component part ( Słowacja4 , Romania ), the Polish minority , and cultural heritage , language , historical experience of Polish Highlanders at the same time there are in these areas in the face of Polish ogóle.5 Out of the eleven - twelve different ethnic groups in Slovakia Polish Highlanders reside primarily czadeccy Highlanders , and Spiszacy Orawiacy and Podhalanie6 .
On the formation of a Polish population of the ethnic territory of Slovakia by a few key processes osadniczych7 :
1st Compact settlement in Poland ( autochthonous ) in the area a) Czadeckiego , b) Upper Orava, c) Northern and Central Spis region , is dated , respectively: a) the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries , b) the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries , c ) XIII -XV century Polish settlement in the northern parts Šariš and Zemplin took place probably in the twelfth century or earlier , but had been assimilated , left today is a clear mark on the dialects wschodniosłowackich . Polish population in the area of Orava and Spis region is characterized by relatively high population growth - birth rate here is higher than the average for Slovakia , which to some extent compensated by the processes of assimilation , which are subject to the Poles , particularly scattered in the rest of Slovakia.
2nd Migration from Czadeckiego , Orava and Spis so-called . The bottom lands ( up to the present Hungary) since 1716, and emigration from Galicia from the sixteenth century , with particular intensity in the second half . Nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, mainly in areas of north- eastern Slovakia ( Šariš and Zemplin ) 8 and Podhale to Orava and Spis . The Polish population settled in the villages of ethnic Slovak , where he underwent rapid assimilation. Poles also founded their own villages and some of them survived the Polish character , or linguistic and ethnic or - zesłowaczone language - maintain the original structure of ethnicity .
3rd Post-war still takes place migration from the ethnically Polish areas in Slovakia in the heart of the country , mainly to urban centers .
4th Emigration from the Polish part of the Orava and Spis and from Romanian Bukovina, which takes place immediately after the war period ( 1945-1948 ). Population focuses on the Polish border , and in the cities and counties in the former : Turocz , Nitra , Gemer .
5th Emigration from the whole Polish territory to Slovakia , which runs throughout the postwar period . Its size was small ( less than the Czech Republic or Hungary ). This process intensified in the seventies. Migrants from the Podhale live mostly near the border with the Polish , and Polish immigrants from the depths mainly in large cities. These people form the core of the Slovak and Polish are the most organized Polish community . The census usually appear as Poles .
In light of the official residence Slovakia only 2.6 thousand. Polaków9 . Official data are based on census results . In principle , they reflect the state of national consciousness (or rather a declaration of consciousness ), different ethnic groups, and not necessarily their actual size and placement . National consciousness is a subjective criterion , and its status is often a significant impact of the policy of the state. This policy was sometimes carried out so that the resulting minority group in the national consciousness fades associated with the actual ethnicity , or awareness of this still exists but is not declared. Hence, to know the actual size and position of the Polish population is necessary to take into account objective criteria such as ethnicity , language , and finally the culture of this community . The advantage of these criteria, the criterion of consciousness , or rather the ability to open declaring Polish nationality lies precisely in its objectivity .
This two-pronged approach to nationality is the fullest description of the real , better than you , just a description of the ethnic structure of the area based on the criterion of consciousness narodowej10 or only objective characteristics . Nationality within the meaning of national consciousness is a subjective feeling , ethnicity and state the objective being the result of ethnicity, cultures and, in general, too, językowej11 .
Population of ethnically and linguistically Poland , Slovakia focused mainly in three bordering the Polish regions: Czadeckiem , Upper Orava region , northern and central Spis is indigenous , with proven Polish ethnic and preserved continuity of the same origin. It uses the dialects of a group of dialects of Malopolska ( Orava and Spis ), and borderline Malopolska and Silesia (in Czadeckiem ). Culture of this community has close ties with the culture of Polish highlanders from the area of Poland and Zaolzie . The Polish population of the three regions is a well- integrated rural community . Until the early nineteenth century , although the past few centuries, these lands belonged to Hungary, maintaining the Polish national identity of this population is not a problem, and this favored the fact that such pastoral care and educational activities as well engaged in teaching and educational people talking , teaching and reading in Polish, often originating from these areas . The fact it owes the success of the Counter-Reformation Orava and Spis . Poles successfully fending off the men Lutheran szerzony Hungarian and Slovak ministers , not only that persevered in the faith, but also to retain national identity for which the Reformation was a big threat. Not without significance was the fact of belonging to the Polish part of the Spis region to 1312 and in the years 1412-1769 .
In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century, it was decided to exploit the fact that the Polish etnikum in Spis , Orava and Czadeckiem peasant population is strictly subordinated to the Hungarian authorities . In the first row removed Polish clergy and teachers. Polish language disappeared from school and kościoła12 . Blocked contacts are with Galicia . Applied treatments madziaryzacyjne Germanization and , to their ineffectiveness słowakizacją quickly replaced . Slovak Slovak teachers and clergy have received from the Hungarian authorities a free hand in conducting the Slovak national activities in the areas ethnically Polish and in circumstances where the Slovak ethnic area he was hampered their activities . This Slovak farár ( pastor ) instilled peasant highland population that highlander is the only nation słowackiego13 tribe . Finally, in 1880 it was decided to officially sanction the entire campaign , including Poles , native to the area en bloc Slovak ethno -linguistic groups in the lists powszechnych14 and this is where the Czech and Slovak scientists conducted the first study confirming the ethnic and linguistic communities Polishness discussed here . These studies were continued and , moreover , largely thanks to these people (such as A. Šembera , F. Pastrnek , J. Polívka , S. Czambel , Š. Mišík , V. VÁŽNY ) it was possible to play in the number and distribution of this ludności15 . Also, thanks to the Slovak researchers could learn the circumstances to carry out denial of the Hungarian censuses of the existence of the Polish population in which the performance of the ethnically Polish territories participated Commissioners census - Słowacy16 . Why , in commenting on the lack of census data on indigenous Polish population Spis ( enshrined as a Slovak ), Slovak priest and a great connoisseur of Spis - Štefan Mišík wrote Significantly, today updated the words : It is one statistic figures of the dead , and another real life nations . So who wants to learn and study ethnic relations , but let them reach the sources of statistics , which are rooted in the real life of the nations . At the turn of the century was initiated by Polish intelligence from the area of Galicia effective social activity among this population. To admit that this activity was too late by at least half a century , and the fact that support for the Poles słowakizacji was wrong and harmful to the interests of Hungary, Budapest authorities have realized only a few years before World War I , when it was already too late to complete neutralization of Slovakia. The fruit of several years of work , however, was a partial restoration of Polish national consciousness of that community. The activity was conducted including Julian Jerzy Teisseyre and John Bednarski , and nationally aware and Spiszacy Orawiacy like Fr. Ferdinand Machay , Eugene Stercula , Alexander Matonóg , Piotr and Wojciech Halczyn Borowy . Achieved results undoubtedly contributed to the fact that after World War I, the local Poles declared their willingness to return these lands to the homeland and the Polish National Council designated in the Orava region Jablonka and Ľubovňa in the Spis region . The question of Polish-Slovak border (and Cieszyn Silesia ) was on board the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Delegates of the Polish population of Orava and Spis were: Fr. Ferdinand Machay with Jablonka , Peter Borowy from Rabczyc and Wojciech Halczyn the Lendaku . The final boundary plebiscite was to decide which, however, did not materialize . Instead, the Council of Ambassadors, took 28 VII 1920 decision by which the Polish countryside , only 27 enrolled and Orawy17 Spis . As a result of this deeply unjust decision in Poland there were only 25 thousand. people ( of whom 97 % were Poles ), while around 125 thousand . Poles left in Słowacji18 . Head of the Inter- Commission Plebiscytowa - Comte de Maneville said that even the most detrimental to the Polish poll results would be better than the provisions of Ambasadorów19 . Family Villages boric Peter (now a candidate for sainthood ), and Wojciech Halczyna is Rabczyce and Lendak , the Council of Ambassadors and left in Slovakia. On the left in the ethnically Polish areas in Slovakia continued its policy of denationalization . In the years 1939-1945 Slovakia, as a reward for participation in the German invasion of Poland occupied belonging to the Polish part of the Orava and Spis . After World War II restored to the border force in the interwar period.
Estimation of abundance and distribution of ethnic population of Poland and an attempt to determine the degree of assimilation and differentiation processes on the one hand, and processes to compensate for the loss on the assimilation of the other lean on:
1st results of field research , which I took up an area on the ethnic Polish population of Slovakia;
2nd results of studies on the source material on demography and geography of the population;
3rd materials research and literature in the field of population geography , linguistics , ethnography and modern history .
Czadeckie bordered to the north of Cieszyn Silesia and the east Żywiecczyzną . In the Middle Ages belonged to the Polish . In 1417, was divided between Silesia and Hungary . In the eighteenth century, Hungary gradually took over the Silesian part of Czadeckiego up to now the route in the northern border of the Slovak Rep. . Czech and Polish in the region. The Polish population is Czadeckiem Highlanders czadeccy mass resides in a compact area to the east and partly on the north-west of providing NCB , even though half a century ago were all ethnically Polish Czadeckie , in the eighteenth century, the ethnic Polish territory reached even further , linking the ethnically Polish part of the Orava region. Colonization Czadeckiego , which takes place primarily in the sixteenth and seventeenth century followed from two directions , ie from Cieszyn Silesia and Żywiecczyzny . Today it is a group of about 30,000 people. In the linguistic sense, it falls heavily influenced by Slovak. Polish dialect is best kept in Skalite . Many said the fact that a significant minority group of descendants of Highlanders czadeckich , which at the beginning of the nineteenth century (before słowakizacji ) emigrated to Bukovina (now part of Romania and Ukraine) today maintained narodową20 Polish consciousness .
Upper Orava for the most part belonged to the Polish even in the sixteenth century, however, remained niezasiedlonym area , but only by utilized by the Highlanders . In 1556 , the lords were Thurzonowie Orava Castle . They have taken action for the development and settlement of the Upper Orava region at the same time leading to its passage in its entirety the borders of Hungary. The result of fifty years was the establishment of colonization forty settlements. Narrow belt south was colonized by the Slovak part ( with some participation of Poles and Ruthenians ). The rest of the Upper Orava region was inhabited by Poles , mainly from the area Żywiecczyzny , goods suskich , Makowski , playgrounds and partly Highlands. Of the twenty- five Polish village in Upper Orava , fourteen , with a total of approximately 27,000 inhabitants is the Polish . In the Slovak part of the Upper Orava orawscy inhabit a dozen mountaineers ethnically pure Polish villages stretching wide belt along the Polish border. Currently, the scale of linguistic assimilation is relatively the smallest was in the region. ethnically Polish population in the Slovak part of the Orava region is 32,000 . The processes of assimilation in the Orava region are offset by high population growth where the dominant marriages within their own (in the ethnic sense ) społeczności21 .
Record also belonged in the Middle Ages to the Polish and the Polish State, the process of resignation from the region followed gradually. At the beginning of the twelfth century in the hands of the Poles remained Record northern and central , then north. This part of the Spis region , Poland lost to Hungary in 1312 One hundred years later , by way of pledge Poland came across 13 cities Spiš forming six compartments in the middle and lower Spis and called . Dominion lubowelskiego covering the northern part of the Spis region (upper) . Ľubovňa in Old Castle was the seat of the Spis governor . Starostwo Spiš is illegally occupied by Hungary in 1769. Main directions Record influx of Poles in particular in the thirteenth - fifteenth century emigration from the Podhale and Sądecczyzny . Of particular importance for the survival of the Polish , especially Zamagurzu Spišský ( detached from the Polish at the beginning of the fourteenth century ), but also in the remaining villages in Hungary, Polish central Spis Polish schools was the existence and activities of the Polish clergy by the end of the eighteenth century, especially the law - miechowitów bożogrobców . For several centuries of Polish villages were separated from the sludge of Slovak territory ethnically German and Ruthenian . This prevented the penetration of the Slovak language influences . After World War II , after the expulsion of most Germans, Slovaks Spišské and the influx of Slovak influence in the dialect of Poles ( Highlanders Spiš ) in the valley of the Poprad are stronger. Much better situation to be in the Zamagurzu Spišský (the area on the Slovak side canyon ). Currently, the Polish population in Spis , Poprad valley is heavily interspersed with Ukrainians, Slovaks, Gypsies and Germans. The population of Polish ethnic Slovak Spis should be assessed from 1939 to 1946 thousand. Like the Upper Orava and Spis so (especially Zamagurzu ) , the Polish population is relatively low due to the assimilation of a compact , mass and character of the original Polish settlement . In analogous manner to the Upper Orava processes are balanced asymilacyjne22 .
Thus, the size of the ethnically Polish population in Slovakia, living in compact clusters in the Czadeckiem , Orava and Spis is around 100-108 thousand.
Poles also live in Slovakia, a number of villages in central and north- eastern part of Slovakia . These are called . " islands " ethnic - the village inhabited by Poles migrating to the area of Małopolska and Spis , Orava and Czadeckiego from the eighteenth to early twentieth century , to a much lesser extent with the Polish and Romania for the period 1945-1948 . A part of the Polish population has been the assimilation of language ( often, however, maintaining the continuity of ethnicity ). The number of Polish etnikum in these clusters can be estimated at 15-20 thousand. , except that in some parts it is linguistically zesłowaczone . Ethnic islands in central Slovakia , as a rule speak dialect Orava , rarely with features czadeckimi . Certain sections of a form of Polish immigrants and Romania in the years 1945-1948 in the former counties of Nitra, Turocz , Gemer and in Bratislava , as well as residents Derenk , Polish villages in Hungary ( Highlanders spiscy ) relocated during the Second World War under Rožňava ( Gemer ) then belongs to Hungary.
Very difficult to determine the number of Polish highlanders scattered throughout Slovakia ( mainly as a result of migration to the cities in the postwar industrialization ). Unless they come out of these clusters have a compact is not subject to assimilation , which was the subject of children born in mixed marriages . Indirect demographic analysis indicates a minimum value of 17 thousand . people, which seems reasonable in light of the already set out above, the number of Polish highlanders in dense clusters , which took place this emigration.
The small numbers and is also very dispersed Slovak Polonia. This is a group which appears in the census data as a rule, the Polish population . Its actual size of the same communities abroad is determined at about 5 thousand . However, analysis of population movements in the years 1950-2001 according to current records indicate the size of EUR 12 thousand Poles . people , ie after omitting the declaration of a national change by those who initially declared nationality polską23 . The genesis of this group is different from the question of the Polish population - indigenous . Polonia Slovak formed primarily those with higher emigration (especially from the years 1974-1985 ), mainly from the depths of Polish, residing in urban areas, employed in factories , but from the above figures, a group of several hundred Polish highlanders living on the Polish border in the Orava and Spis . Slovak Polish initiatives , people almost exclusively born, raised and educated in Poland include pn organization . Polish Club and the monthly magazine "Monitor Polonia . " Although the Polish Club is an organization bringing together the community of a different origin and nature than the Polish Highlanders - natives of the regions in question , his appointment is a valuable initiative, since this is the first Polish post-war organization in Slovakia , and the club itself , according to the statute is to be the organization bringing together the people , as specified " sentient belonging to the Polish cultural circle "24
The social situation of Poles in Slovakia , at the moment is as follows: półtorawiekowe action wynaradawiające unfortunately led to a far -reaching loss of Polish national consciousness , but did not remove the Polish language , Polish character of cultural , ethnic and above all the ludności25 . There are so ethnically distinct attributes , but also a sense of separateness , distinctness of the mountain and the relationship with the Slovaks, Polish highlanders in Poland. In a similar situation a hundred years ago , and awareness-raising activities undertaken , as it turned out very effectively. The very process of decay Polish consciousness , admittedly , very advanced , however, is inhibited . Sometimes the total lack of a sense of urban Polish , it exists but is not articulated explicitly , but only you can hear that " not after słowieńsku gwarzimy [ Slovak - editor . car . ] ba after nasemu "or" KIE pódymy to Poland after we gwarzić nasemu " sometimes that " Polish " , but often full of helplessness and resignation of the complaint that "in the church and not skole słychno nothing after nasemu , ba syćko after słowieńsku . There are , however, an open declaration of Politeness. All this makes the awareness of this part of the population , officially declaring as Slovakia can basically be described as a liquid , the more that the question of nationality is sometimes perceived as a question of citizenship, hence słowackości declaration is a declaration of nationality, and nationality is not necessarily . What is important is that, despite significant rid of national consciousness , we could not remove the Polish language. Better than national, is rooted among Polish mountaineers are aware that the language they use is Polish. It functions as everyday speech , both among the older and middle and even younger pokolenia26 , although the range of threats to the special language is broad (especially the school and the media). Polish dependent on the language of nature favors the fact that a compact Polish settlements . However, the teaching language, liturgy , offices , means of communication is the Slovak language. Coverage of the Polish language is limited to the private sphere is home, at most public places such as shops, etc. where the village is purely Polish. The Polish language is not present in school education . Slovaks perceive Polish dialect often , I would say negatively. At the same time , interestingly , Polish highlanders , despite the loss of Polish national consciousness is often perceived by the neighboring population of the Slovak , Ruthenian and German as Poles . Polish cultural life is in the form of folk groups of the repertoire of his ethnic group, in their dialect . This activity undoubtedly contributes to maintain the Polish identity narodowej27 .
The Slovak Party shall specify that the population as a Slovak , but I could not deny the Polish national origin and nature of the language of the Polish population, is replaced by the term Polish term Goralský . As for the census data , it can give the impression that the Slovak authorities realize the real ethnic relations in their area. This is evidenced analysis pospisowe residing in large part by ethnic Poles in the county Ľubovňa old Slovak Spis the years 1973 and 1982. It was found there that the results of the census do not correspond to the structure of language, and then estimate the actual contribution of individual niesłowackich ethnic groups (including mountaineers ) in the population of the district. Even more telling was a statement in the official publishing of the City Council tries Ľubovňa 1984 [ underlined . mine ]: " The city is partially in use ( in unofficial contacts ) Ukrainian ( Lemko - editor . MS) dialect of the region in a much broader scope than is apparent from the participation of nations [ by census ]. Often one can hear the local dialect and German dialect highlander Khmelnytskyi , where nationalities : Polish and German according to the census are not there almost no participation. Everything must be considered part of the local , the local folklore. " In this way the fact that almost absent Ruthenians , and especially the Poles and Germans in Ľubovňa by census data , means that their actual presence, confirmed by the above statement with the rank falls to the level of a social phenomenon li -only local folklore ! Positive in the above analysis and quoted text to identify the language Spiš Polish highlanders and their differences from Słowaków28 .
Social work among the Poles in Slovakia have : Friends of Polish Association of Orava and Spis. The situation of Poles in Slovakia is also of interest to the Highlanders Association . Representatives of the TPO and ZPS discussed the Polish Ambassador to the Republic of Slovakia in Bratislava ( IV, " 1993) , and 15 April 1993 with the then Deputy Prime Minister also Łączkowskim Paul , who presented the following postulates ( I quote ):
1st Recognition by the Government of the Slovak Polish minority on the above areas, previously codenamed " goralskou "
2nd Material support and personnel of the Polish language learning networks in any form, including libraries, reading rooms , recreation rooms ;
3rd ZPS publications Financial support and TPO for promoting Polish identity and the promotion of regional culture of beauty ;
4th The establishment of consulates in these areas of Poland ( General or Levoca Poprad , consular agencies in Old Ľubovňa and Namiestowie or Trzciana ) .29
Needless to convince their news. The statement about the alleged lack of national consciousness does not justify the lack of interest in the Polish State indigenous Polish population in Slovakia in the face of preserving cultural and linguistic identity of that community, the continuity of ethnic origin , and finally surviving manifestations of Polish consciousness , at least as a cultural community awareness of the Polish highlanders from the Polish side of the border and also a sense of separateness against the Slovaks.
The question of Poland , Slovakia was recognized as one of two main elements of cooperation Nowy Targ Branch Polish Historical Society , the Society of Friends of Orava, Highlanders Association and the Polish Association of Spis . Article II, section 2, signed fifth December 2004 in Nowy Targ Declaration Współpracy30 these organizations is as follows:
Record , Orava and Czadeckie this land of our heritage. The purpose of a particular [ co ] is to learn , preserve and develop the national identity of those groups of Polish Highlanders , which in small part to the limits of the Polish State , and are more detached from it .
and then , in the Article . III, pts. 2 indicating a desirable common objectives through:
Joint, coordinated efforts for the Polish character of the relevant parts of Spis , Czadeckiego Orava and other parts of former Upper Hungary, and the population originating from there .
It must be concluded that the main influence on the shifting range of the population ethnically and linguistically Polish in what is now Slovakia, and a significant (though not total) disappearance of Polish national consciousness was not the natural processes of assimilation , but most of all began in the nineteenth century słowakizacja .
Article submitted for printing in Nowotarskie Diary Historic New Market Branch of the Polish Historical Society
1 Leon Rydel , Fr. Bishop Wladyslaw Bandurski , " Orava , R. 1910 : 1998 , p. 143-145 .
2 And in a series of islands in the ethnic Gemerze , Zvolen , in Liptov in Szaryszu , Zemplinie . Moreover, in the northern parts of Spis , Šariš and Zemplin and a number of islands mainly ethnic Spis Lower - Ruthenians . In turn, Germans residing in the middle and upper Spis region Spis and on the edge of Lower and Abauju , and in so-called . Hauerlandzie ( teak borderland , Turca and Upper Nitra ) and county pożońskim . Croats inhabit four villages around Bratislava , the remains of dozens of Croat village in the past quite a short circuit around the current capital of Slovakia.
3 Spell of the Highlander is an uppercase letter ethnographic differentiator , a particular part of etnikum Polish , as opposed to determining the highlander with small letters denoting inhabitant of the mountains. This is an important observation , because so far within the Polish nation is distinguished by Polish folk music , and such Carpathian Ruthenians ( Lemkos, Boykos , Subcarpathian Ruthenians and Huzuls ) are Ruthenian folk music (whether treated as a separate ethnic group is subject to the processes narodotwórczym - this view personally inclined , or highland part of the Ukrainian people ) or even in a clearly identifiable cultural Wallachian region of Moravia to the Czech equivalent of the Highlander , Highlander Slovak example covering a specified proportion of the Slovak nation , in such a manner characteristic separating culturally , one can not distinguish as closely as the Polish and Ruthenian ( only as oblasť Mountain culture, but with a very wide zone of transition to the lowland area of culture - see . Etnografický atlas Slovenska , Bratislava 1990, p. 103 , map XX.6 , and distinction to this part of Slovakia , which An area of Polish Highlander and Highlander Rus ). It is interesting , however, in the terminology of the Slovak something else. Well , the northern part of Slovakia inhabited by the Polish Highlanders , and this community in the Slovak language defines the word Highlanders , while the inhabitants of the mountains as such is Horal . Thus , regardless of the national consciousness of Poles in Slovakia ( it was an indigenous Polish Highlanders almost exclusively Polish , and Poles słowakizacja imposed in almost two centuries of mainly deformed their national consciousness , not the continuity of language or ethnic origin) , the term is a hallmark Goral Polish understood in terms of ethnicity. This is important for a researcher of ethnic relations in Slovakia. Some common cultural traits Poles from Slovaks in mountainous areas, are primarily related to the Wallachian elements common to both peoples in mountainous areas in the Carpathians.
4 See . M. Skawiński , Poles in Slovakia , " Plaj , z. 16: Spring 1998, p. 60-101 .
5 More generally, see:. Skawiński M. , Polish highlanders in Central Europe - the basics , " Diary of PTT ", vol 9: 2000, p. 1927-1936 .
6 czadeccy Highlanders - in Czadeckiem and emigrants from Bukovina in Gemerze and Turcu , Orawiacy - on the Upper Orava region , the islands of ethnic Lipton , Gemer and Zvolen and the post-war immigrants from the Polish Orava Hauerlandu in and near Bratislava ; Spiszacy - the Upper and Middle , and small clusters of the Lower Spis and border villages Šariš ; Podhale - Dry Up and hunger strike in the Orava region , the Lower Bukovynka Spis and Stream on Zamagurzu , and the official Polish Orava and Spis .
7 M. Skawiński , Poles ..., op. cit ; M. Gotkiewicz , Polish highlanders migration flows on the south side of Beskid , "Folia Geographica . Geographica series Oeconomica , Vol II : 1969, p. 5-55 .
8 Of the several thousand Poles from the north . -East . Slovakia just a thousand. people since 1945 repatriated to the Recovered Territories , mainly in the area Lubska .
9 su SR SCIT people Domov a bytov . Základná údaje : Národnostné submission obyvateľstva , Bratislava 2001.
10 And it is the image resulting from the census data , the assumption is often simplified , since no transition reflects the range of attitudes and motives of national declarations .
11 An example of the characteristics of the ethnic nationalities and a complex area in terms of these criteria , where at the same time there is a significant deformation of the structure of the ethnic nationalities in structure , ie the region there is an article by J. and M. Kamockiego Skawińskiego , issues of ethnicity and nationality as an example Spis [in: ] Terra Scepusiensis , R. Gładkiewicz , M. Homza (ed. ), Wroclaw - Levoca , 2003, p. 705-716 . See also : T. Siwek, Klasifikace Polish menšiny podle subjektivních a objektivních kritérií [in: ] " Národnostní menšiny a majoritní společnost v České republic av zemích Střední Evropy v 90th letech XX. Stoleti " , Praha 1998.
12 eloquently testifies to the source material from the Spis region , developed by M. Kaľavský 's : Narodnostné pomery 18th on the list v storočí and v 1 polovici 19th storočia , Bratislava 1993, p. 79-107 .
13 TM Trajdos status of national existence of Poles in Slovakia, "Think Poland , R. 1953 : 1994 No. 4, dod "Think of the Polish Borderlands , No. 1 (3 ), p. II; see . also idem, central and northern Record in our century , Warsaw 1987 , George M. Roszkowski , Role of the Church in the Spis region and in supporting Polish Orava and słowakizacji ( from medieval to modern times ) [in :] Record of the 75th and Orava Polish anniversary of the return to the northern parts of the two lands , TM Trajdos (ed.) , Kraków 1995, p. 1924-1937 . See . also M. Skawiński , Three Półgóry - contribution to the characteristics of the migratory routes of highlanders Orava , " Orava , R. 1910 : 1998 , p. 102nd
14 peculiar interpretation of such an approach gives P. Hunfalvy , Etnographie von Ungarn , Budapest 1877, p. 305th
15 AV Šembera , Základové Dialectology Československé , Vídeň 1864 , idem, Mnoho -li is a guild , and Moravanů Slováků a kde obývají , " Časopis Království Českého Muse ", 1876, sv. 3, 4 , F. Pastrnek , O nářečí Poland v horní stolici Trenčínské [in: ] Rozpravy filologické a Pedagogická věnované F. Gebauerovi , Praha 1898 , J. Polivka , Polština v horní stolici Oravska , "Letters and Filologické Pedagogická , T. 12: 1885, p. 463-471 , S. Czambel , Slovenská rec and its miesto v rodin slovanských jazykov , Turčiansky Svaty Martin 1906; Š. Mišík , Národopisné pomery the území Spiš for najnovšieho krajinského show off , " Slovenské pohľady , R. 1923 : 1903 , p. 418-420 , idem , Estee dakoľko Slov k národopisnej Mappe uherských Slovákov , " Slovenské pohľady , R. 1923 : 1903 , P. 477-479 , idem, Poliaci Spišska Sobota , " Slovenské pohľady , R. 1923 : 1903 , p. 373-375 ; V. VÁŽNY , Nářečí Slovenska [in:] Československé vlastivěda , III: jazyka , Praha 1934, s . 221st In addition, articles by J. Botto , J. Stanislav and A. Kavuljaka targeting Horehronie region , Lipton and Orava. editions are also important sources and the development of Russian historian L. Petrova , including Sbornik Pestyho - seznam v Uhrách sediment ( Helység névtára ), Praha 1927; idem, Národopisná mappa Uher podle uředního lexikonu sludge from 1773, Praha 1924.
16 See . cited studies and Czambela Mišíka and M. Skawiński , census Orava Polish in 1910 , " Orava , R. 1911 : 1999 , p. 95-115 .
17 Years 1895 to 1924 in recent years the subject of several studies , in particular the source - by George M. Roszkowski , most of them are shown in the Bibliography by M. Skawińskiego Orava , with each of editions for the years 1988 onwards are published in successive volumes " Yearbook Orava "( for the years 1998 to 1999 in the Orava region for the year 2000).
18 Reconstruction of the Polish settlement in the early twentieth century presents M. Skawiński , Polish national minority in Slovakia to 1914 , pr . Mag. prof. A. Jelonek , Kraków 1998 , the archival collections of the Tatra Museum [MT -ZA ].
1919 E. Orlof , Orava and Spis in 1918-1920 , Štiavnica 1990, p. 15
20 More on góralach czadeckich see . in monographic article by M. Skawińskiego , past and present day mountaineers czadeckich [in: ] Cases of ethnic Beskydy Euroregion . Materials from past conferences . Present . Future Euroregion Beskydy, Jaroslaw Reszczyński (ed.) , Bielsko-Biala , 2005, p. 1933-1952 .
21 is devoted to the mountain people Orava Monographic article: M. Skawiński , Orawiacy , "Think Poland , R. 1957 : 1998 , No. 24-25 ( 1352-1353 ), dod : "Think about Polish Borderlands , No. 6 (51) , P. I, IV .
22 See . also Kamocki J. , M. Skawiński , ethnicity issues ..., op. cit
23 Analysis of self based on the published source material : the current record and the census for the period 1950-2001 , including FSU , Historické statistická ročenka Czechoslovakia , Prague 1985, p. 630th
24 Polsky club - Polish Club ' Polonia Monitor , No. 0: Dec 1995, p. 3
25 Even locally mixed nature of the Polish- Slovak dialects of Polish Highlanders in ethnic islands , and in some villages of the valley and the western part of Poprady Czadeckiego determines the Polish ethnic character . Significant is the fact that the Polish language is the basis of these dialects and characteristics of the Polish are indigenous , while the Slovak secondary (mostly indeed lexical features ), in conjunction with the fact that the interference of the Polish- Slovak language in Slovakia , in practice there are only one-way, ie . inducements are Slovak Polish dialect , virtually no interference in the opposite direction from the area in particular Polish and Zaolzie . This determines that a mixed or transitional dialect of the Polish- Slovak evidence of Polish descent , and while maintaining the continuity of ethnic origin ( or in compact clusters with large percentage of endogamous marriages in a given ethnic group ) with Polish , continues in spite of gradual ethnic language zesłowaczenia . Overall, in Slovakia, this is a real reflection of the term Goral .
26 How ascertains Milan Ligos , Signály zo školy , " and the literature Slovenský jazyk v škola , R. 36: 1989-1990 , č. 5, p. 149, even in the last years of primary school fail to lead to that in spontaneous situations, students [ in the so-called . goralským ] used the oral form of the Slovak literary language. It is of secondary importance to them .
On the one hand this testifies to the incredible durability Polish. On the other hand , as worded proposal [ fail to lead - are nedarí dosiahnúť ] testifies to the fact that we are dealing with the Polish population , the differences , here : the language not be considered and for which the objective is wynarodowienie .
27 Observations on its own territory most of the Polish village of ethnic settlement . See . also: In search of lost Poles, Polish Daily , R. 1964 : 2004, No 272 (18 368) : 20 11th 2004. , dod , " Journal Podhalański ', p. I , V.
SCIT 1928 people, and bytov Domov first k 1970 v decembru Period for Stará Ľubovňa , Stará Ľubovňa 1973; SCIT people Domov a first bytov k 1980 v Novembru Period for Stará Ľubovňa , Stará Ľubovňa 1982; Premeny mesta Stará Ľubovňa , Stará Ľubovňa 1984.
29 T. M. Trajdos status of national existence ..., op. cit
1930 Statement of Cooperation Department of the Polish Historical Society in Nowy Targ , the Society of Friends of Orava, Highlanders Association , Polish Association of Spis , "Work Pieniny , R. 1914 : 2004 , pp 207-21
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