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Re: In 1939 Poles assumed they were able to attack Berlin

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  • krupniak
    POLAND: Raid & Renunciation Monday, Nov. 27, 1933 A dictator who does everything with a flourish and is quite apt to do two opposite things at once is Poland s
    Message 1 of 7 , Sep 3, 2009
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      POLAND: Raid & Renunciation
      Monday, Nov. 27, 1933

      A dictator who does everything with a flourish and is quite apt to do two opposite things at once is Poland's gruff temperamental, walrus-whiskered Marshal Josef Pilsudski. On the same day last week the Polish Government made historic peace overtures to Adolf Hitler-whom most Poles hate and fear-and staged with real tear-gas bombs a sensational sham air raid on Warsaw, a capital to whose citizens "air raid" means a German air raid.

      http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,746356,00.html
    • krupniak
      Scenes from the Invasion of Poland Americans living in Germany during the 1939 offensive knew they were witnessing the beginning of something truly terrible.
      Message 2 of 7 , Sep 3, 2009
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        Scenes from the Invasion of Poland

        Americans living in Germany during the 1939 offensive knew they were witnessing the beginning of something truly terrible.




        Angus Thuermer is 92 now, a retired CIA agent living the quiet life in the picturesque horse country of northern Virginia. But 70 years ago, when war was about to break out in Europe, he was working as a junior reporter in the Berlin bureau of The Associated Press. In late August 1939, his bureau chief sent him to Gleiwitz, along the Polish border, since he knew "something was going to happen."



        http://www.newsweek.com/id/214528/page/1
      • krupniak
        Marshall Rydz-Smigly was born in Galicia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Rydz-%C5%9Amig%C5%82y Regarding the Marshall s purported message to his army
        Message 3 of 7 , Sep 4, 2009
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          Marshall Rydz-Smigly was born in Galicia:

          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Rydz-%C5%9Amig%C5%82y


          Regarding the Marshall's purported message to his army officers as reported in the Daily Mail on the 6th of August 1939 that "Poland wants war with Germany and Germany will not be able to avoid it even if she wants to", we need to understand the political leanings of the Daily Mail's owner, Lord Rothermere.


          Lord Rothermere:


          In 1922, when Lord Northcliffe died, Lord Rothermere took full control of the paper.

          In 1919, Alcock and Brown made the first flight across the Atlantic winning a prize of £10,000 from the Daily Mail. In 1930, the Mail made a great story of another aviation stunt, awarding another prize of £10,000 to Amy Johnson for making the first solo flight from England to Australia.[14]

          On 25th October, 1924 the Daily Mail published the forged Zinoviev Letter, which indicated that British Communists were planning violent revolution. This was a significant factor in the defeat of Ramsay MacDonald's Labour Party in the 1924 general election, held four days later.[15]

          From 1923, Lord Rothermere and the Daily Mail formed an alliance with the other great press baron, Lord Beaverbrook. Their opponent was the Conservative party politician and leader Stanley Baldwin. By 1929, George Ward Price was writing in the Mail that Baldwin should be deposed and Beaverbrook elected as leader. In early 1930, the two Lords launched the United Empire Party which the Daily Mail supported enthusiastically. The rise of the new party dominated the newspaper and, even though Beaverbrook soon withdrew, Rothermere continued to campaign. Vice Admiral Taylor fought the first by-election for the United Empire Party in October, defeating the official Conservative candidate by 941 votes. Baldwin's position was now in doubt but, in 1931, Duff Cooper, won the key by-election at St George's, Westminster, beating the UEP candidate, Sir Ernest Petter, supported by Rothermere, and this broke the political power of the press barons.[16]

          In early 1934, Rothermere and the Mail' were editorially sympathetic to Oswald Mosley and the radical National Socialist British Union of Fascists.[17] Rothermere wrote an article entitled "Hurrah for the Blackshirts", in January 1934, praising Mosley for his "sound, commonsense, Conservative doctrine".[18] However, pressure from advertisers in the Daily Mail grew significant when Rothermere proposed to set up a cigarette company and so Rothermere backed off and ceased to support them.[19]

          During the great abdication crisis of 1936, the Daily Mail supported the King, but was only joined by the Daily Express, Evening Standard and Evening News.[20]

          Rothermere was a friend and supporter of both Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, which influenced the Mail's political stance towards them up to 1939.[21][22] Rothermere visited and corresponded with Hitler. On 1 October 1938, Rothermere sent Hitler a telegram in support of Germany's invasion of the Sudetenland, and expressing the hope that 'Adolf the Great' would become a popular figure in Britain. However, this was tempered by an awareness of the military threat from the resurgent Germany, of which he warned J.C. Davidson. Rothermere had an executive plane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company which, with a speed of 307 mph, was faster than any fighter. In 1935, this plane was presented to the RAF on behalf of the Daily Mail where it became the Bristol Blenheim bomber.[23]

          In 1937, the Mail's chief war correspondent, George Ward Price, to whom Mussolini once wrote in support of him and the newspaper, published a book, I Know These Dictators, in defence of Hitler and Mussolini. Evelyn Waugh was sent as a reporter for the Mail to cover the anticipated Italian invasion of Ethiopia.

          Rothermere and the Mail supported Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement, particularly during the events leading up to the Munich Agreement. After the Nazi invasion of Prague in 1939, the Mail changed its stance.


          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daily_Mail

          _______

          Lavrentiy






          --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak" <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
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          > The French Yellow Book
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          > Papers relative to the events and negotiations which preceded the opening of hostilities between Germany on the one hand, and Poland, Great Britain and France on the other hand.
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          > http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/fyb/fyb-preface.html
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          > http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/
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          > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
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          > > From: http://www.patriot.dk/poland.html
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          > > Germany, Poland and the outbreak of WW2
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          > > Edited by Ole Kreiberg
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          > > It was the conflict between Germany and Poland that triggered off the Second World War. And this conflict can be traced back to the drawing of the German-Polish border after the First World War.
          > >
          > > In agreement with the Versailles Treaty Poland annexed large areas of German West Prussia and Upper Silesia in 1919. The American President Wilson's advisor, Major General T.H: Bliss, said at the time: "Putting 2.1 million Germans under the rule of Poland will, in my opinion, necessarily lead to a new war in eastern Europe sooner or later". And the English Prime Minister, Lloyd George, went to the wall map during the peace negotiations in Versailles, pointed to Danzig and West Prussia and said: "This will be the cause of the next war".
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          > > As a matter of fact, already after the First World War Poland drove far more than a million Germans out of West Prussia and Upper Silesia, denounced the minority protection agreement imposed by the League of Nations, closed German schools and cultural institutions in large numbers and forbade German newspapers. Poland answered the German demand for self-determination in Danzig and West Prussia with mobilisation of it's troops. The Poles overestimated their own strength and underestimated that of the Germans. The Polish Foreign Minister Lipski told the English Ambassador Hendersen: "I do not think of advocating peace. If war comes, there will be revolution in Germany within three days and Poland can march in". In the Polish army "au revoir in Berlin" was introduced as a toast. Polish Marshal Rydz-Smigly said to his army officers (according to the English newspaper, Daily Mail on 6th August 1939): "Poland wants war with Germany and Germany will not be able to avoid it even if she wants to". During the months before the outbreak of the war, nearly all of the larger newspapers in Poland, such as Dzien Polski, Mosarstwowiec, Ilustrowany Kurier, demanded the annexation of at least East Prussia, but if possible the Oder-Neisse Line as a frontier. And the National Polish Youth League gave the following excitement: "In 1410 the Germans were defeated at Tannenberg. Now we shall beat them up at Berlin. Danzig, East Prussia and Silesia are minimal demands". In August 1939 alone more than 2,000 Germans in Poland were slain or shot without any indictment by a Polish prosecuting attorney.
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          > > From all this it should be clear that the Second World War could easily have started without any nazis in Germany. There were already enough political dynamite between Germany and Poland.
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          > > --- In GaliciaPoland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak" <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
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          > > > Prelude to the campaign
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          > > > Main article: Causes of World War II
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          > > > In 1933, the National-Socialist German Workers' Party, under their leader Adolf Hitler, came to power in Germany. Germany sought to gain hegemony in Europe, and to take over Soviet Union's territory, acquiring "Living Space" (Lebensraum) and expanding "Greater Germany" (Großdeutschland), to be eventually surrounded by a ring of allied states, satellite or puppet states.[23] As part of this long term policy, at first, Hitler pursued a policy of rapprochement with Poland, trying to improve German…quot;Polish relations, culminating in the German…quot;Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934.[24] Earlier, Hitler's foreign policy worked to weaken the ties between Poland and France, and to manoeuvre Poland into the Anti-Comintern Pact, forming a cooperative front against the Soviet Union.[24][25] Poland would be granted territory of its own, to its northeast, but the concessions the Poles were expected to make meant that their homeland would become largely dependent on Germany, functioning as little more than a client state and Polish independence would eventually be threatened altogether.[25]
          > > >
          > > > In addition to Soviet territory, the National-Socialists were also interested in establishing a new border with Poland because the German exclave of East Prussia was separated from the rest of the Reich by the "Polish Corridor". The Corridor constituted land long disputed by Poland and Germany, and inhabited by both groups. Taken by Prussia in the Partitions of Poland in 1772, the corridor was later acquired by Poland after the Treaty of Versailles. Many Germans also wanted to incorporate into Germany the Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk), an important port city with a predominantly German population, also gained by Germany in the 18th century, and that was split off Germany after Versailles into a nominally independent entity. Hitler sought to reverse those territorial losses, and on many occasions made an appeal to German nationalism, promising to "liberate" the German minority still in the Corridor, as well as Danzig.[26]
          > > >
          > > > Poland participated in the partition of Czechoslovakia that followed the Munich Agreement, although they were not part of the agreement. It coerced Czechoslovakia to surrender the city of Český Těšín by issuing an ultimatum to that effect on 30 September 1938, which was accepted by Czechoslovakia on 1 October.[27]
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          > > > In 1938, Germany began to increase its demands for Danzig, while proposing that a roadway be built in order to connect East Prussia with Germany proper, running through the Polish Corridor.[28] Poland rejected this proposal, fearing that after accepting these demands, it would become increasingly subject to the will of Germany and eventually lose its independence as the Czechs had.[29] The Poles also distrusted Hitler and his intentions.[29] At the same time, Germany's collaboration with anti-Polish Ukrainian nationalists from the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists further weakened German credibility in Polish eyes, which was seen as an effort to isolate and weaken Poland. The British were also aware of this. On 31 March, Poland was backed by a guarantee from Britain and France, though neither country was willing to pledge military support in Poland's defence. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and his Foreign Secretary, Lord Halifax, still hoped to strike a deal with Hitler regarding Danzig (and possibly the Polish Corridor), and Hitler hoped for the same. Chamberlain and his supporters believed war could be avoided and hoped Germany would agree to leave the rest of Poland alone. German hegemony over Central Europe was also at stake.
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          > > > Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, a German…quot;Soviet non-aggression pact.With tensions mounting, Germany turned to aggressive diplomacy. On 28 April 1939, it unilaterally withdrew from both the German-Polish Non-Aggression Pact of 1934 and the London Naval Agreement of 1935. In early 1939, Hitler had already issued orders to prepare for a possible "solution of the Polish problem by military means." Another crucial step towards war was the surprise signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August, the denouement of secret Nazi-Soviet talks held in Moscow, which capitalized on France and Britain's own failure to secure an alliance with the Soviet Union. As a result, Germany neutralized the possibility of Soviet opposition to a campaign against Poland. In a secret protocol of this pact, the Germans and the Soviets agreed to divide Eastern Europe, including Poland, into two spheres of influence; the western third of the country was to go to Germany and the eastern two-thirds to the Soviet Union.
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          > > > The German assault was originally scheduled to begin at 04:00 on 26 August. However, on 25 August the Polish-British Common Defence Pact was signed as an annex to the Franco-Polish Military Alliance. In this accord, Britain committed itself to the defence of Poland, guaranteeing to preserve Polish independence. At the same time, the British and the Poles were hinting to Berlin that they were willing to resume discussions …quot; not at all how Hitler hoped to frame the conflict. Thus, he wavered and postponed his attack until 1 September managing to halt the entire invasion "in mid-leap", with the exception of a few units that were out of communication, towards the south (the Nazi press announced that fanatical Slovakians were behind a cross border raid).
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          > > > Planned and actual divisions of Poland, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, with later adjustmentsOn 26 August Hitler tried to dissuade the British and the French from interfering in the upcoming conflict, even pledging that the Wehrmacht forces would be made available to Britain's empire in the future.[30] In any case, the negotiations convinced Hitler that there was little chance the Western Allies would declare war on Germany, and even if they did, because of the lack of territorial guarantees to Poland, they would be willing to negotiate a compromise favourable to Germany after its conquest of Poland. Meanwhile, the number of increased overflights by high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft and cross border troop movements signalled that war was imminent.
          > > >
          > > > On 29 August prompted by the British, Germany issued one last diplomatic offer, with Case White yet to be rescheduled. At midnight on 29 August German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop handed British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson the list of terms which would allegedly ensure peace in regards to Poland. Danzig was to be returned to Germany (Gdynia would remain with Poland), and there was to be a plebiscite in the Polish Corridor, based on residency in 1919, within the year.[31] An exchange of minority populations between the two countries was proposed.[32] A Polish plenipotentiary was to arrive in Berlin and accept these terms by noon the next day.[32] The British Cabinet viewed the terms as "reasonable", except the demand for the urgent plenipotentiary, a form of an ultimatum.[clarification needed][33] When Polish Ambassador Lipski went to see Ribbentrop on 30 August he announced that he did not have the full power to sign, and Ribbentrop dismissed him. It was then broadcast that Poland had rejected Germany's offer, and negotiations with Poland came to an end.[34]
          > > >
          > > > On 30 August the Polish Navy sent its destroyer flotilla to Britain, executing Operation Peking. On the same day, Marshal of Poland Edward Rydz-Śmigły announced the mobilization of Polish troops. However, he was pressured into revoking the order by the French, who apparently still hoped for a diplomatic settlement, failing to realize that the Germans were fully mobilized and concentrated at the Polish border.[35] During the night of 31 August the Gleiwitz incident, a false flag attack on the radio station, was staged near the border city of Gleiwitz by German units posing as Polish troops, in Upper Silesia as part of the wider Operation Himmler.[36] On 31 August 1939, Hitler ordered hostilities against Poland to start at 4:45 the next morning. Because of the prior stoppage, Poland managed to mobilize only 70% of its planned forces, and many units were still forming or moving to their designated frontline positions.
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          > > > From:
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          > > > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland_(1939)
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          > > > > http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yoNnt3uv-FA&eurl=http%3A%2F%2Fnews%2Egoogle%2Eca%2Fnews%3Fhl%3Den%26source%3Dhp%26q%3Drussian%2Bnews%26lr%3Dlang%5Fen%257Clang%5Fpl%26um%3D1%26ie%3DUTF%2D8%26ei%3Dz3CdSrzxFqXgnQf6nZiLBA%26sa%3DX%26oi%3Dn&feature=player_embedded#t=23
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