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Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

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  • graphixkat
    I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just can t get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great grandparents. I was just
    Message 1 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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      I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
      can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
      grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
      any knowledge.

      GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
      immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
      let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
      tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
      world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
      border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
      apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
      States.

      GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
      the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
      Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
      correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
      did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
      Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
      still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
      that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
      Ruthenian on border crossings.

      So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
      corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
      much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
      anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
      would mean a lot.
    • krupniak
      Her Accelina name is most likely Kalyna in her native community. Zalucze nad Czeremoszem, or the Ukrainian place name is Zaluche nad Cheremoshem. It was
      Message 2 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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        Her "Accelina" name is most likely Kalyna in her native community.



        Zalucze nad Czeremoszem, or the Ukrainian place name is Zaluche nad
        Cheremoshem. It was located in Sniatyn district.


        Note there is a Zaluche nad Prutom. This was one located in Kolomyja
        district.


        Fred Hoffman can discuss the various surname spellings. Petrovych
        and Romanivna are actually patronymics, not middle names.

        _______

        Lavrentiy







        graphixkat wrote:
        >
        > I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
        > can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
        > grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might
        have
        > any knowledge.
        >
        > GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
        > immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland.
        Please
        > let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
        > tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
        > world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
        > border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
        > apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
        > States.
        >
        > GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some
        of
        > the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
        > Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
        > correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
        > did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
        > Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
        > still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form
        of
        > that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
        > Ruthenian on border crossings.
        >
        > So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
        > corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it
        so
        > much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
        > anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
        > would mean a lot.
        >
      • Jim Stamm
        ... I believe it to be Aquilina, more often spelled, Acilina, and pronounced as above. -Jim
        Message 3 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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          On Sep 1, 2008, at 5:34 AM, krupniak wrote:

          > Her "Accelina" name is most likely Kalyna in her native community.

          I believe it to be Aquilina, more often spelled, Acilina, and
          pronounced as above.

          -Jim
        • Jim Onyschuk
          If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian. I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland, while your
          Message 4 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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            If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.



            I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.



            The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one gets with the Roman alphabet.



            What Immigration Records were you referring to?



            The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a common Polish variant.



            Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.



            Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.



            Regards,

            Jim Onyschuk

            http://www.onyschuk.com <http://www.onyschuk.com/>

            Http://www.torugg.org <http://www.torugg.org/>

            http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html





            Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

            Notes
            Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
            Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and Russian.
            Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

            on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

            Film Notes
            Note - Location [Film]
            Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
            Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
            Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
            Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
            Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
            Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
            Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film [ 1696788 Item 4 ]





            _____

            From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
            To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



            I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
            can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
            grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
            any knowledge.

            GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
            immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
            let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
            tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
            world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
            border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
            apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
            States.

            GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
            the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
            Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
            correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
            did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
            Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
            still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
            that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
            Ruthenian on border crossings.

            So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
            corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
            much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
            anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
            would mean a lot.





            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • Fred Hoffman
            Hi, Regarding the question on these surnames, ... Only research into the family history can settle this with certainty. But I can say that, given the obvious
            Message 5 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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              Hi,

              Regarding the question on these surnames,
              Lavrentiy wrote:

              > Fred Hoffman can discuss the various surname
              > spellings. Petrovych
              > and Romanivna are actually patronymics, not
              > middle names.

              Only research into the family history can settle
              this with certainty. But I can say that, given the
              obvious ethnic descent of the family, I would
              expect SEMELUK was the form they usually went by.
              Surnames ending with -UK are distinctively
              Belarusian or Ukrainian; the other Slavic
              languages don't generally use that suffix. So of
              the forms listed, I'd think SEMELUK is the one the
              family went by. I can easily see it being modified
              to SAMULAK and SIMILUK.

              SAMULAK strikes me as particularly likely to be
              the form used among Poles. It wasn't unusual for
              people to go by different versions of a name,
              depending on which linguistic environment they
              found themselves in. SAMULAK might have seemed
              somehow "more Polish." Still, it is unusual,
              because Poles have dealt with Belarusians and
              Ukrainians for so long that Poles find their names
              reasonably familiar. I would think Poles would
              find it just as easy to call someone SEMELUK; I
              don't know why they would modify the name.

              Still, I'm sitting in 21st-century Connecticut. It
              should come as no surprise that I might not be
              able to visualize everything that happened in late
              19th-century Ukraine....

              Fred Hoffman
            • Danuta Janina Wójcik
              Witam, Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even Polish descent. Pozdrawiam, Danuta ... From: Jim Onyschuk
              Message 6 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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                Witam,

                Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                Polish descent.

                Pozdrawiam,
                Danuta

                ----- Original Message -----
                From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
                To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


                If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.



                I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.



                The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                gets with the Roman alphabet.



                What Immigration Records were you referring to?



                The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                common Polish variant.



                Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.



                Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.



                Regards,

                Jim Onyschuk

                http://www.onyschuk.com <http://www.onyschuk.com/>

                Http://www.torugg.org <http://www.torugg.org/>

                http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html





                Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                Notes
                Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                Russian.
                Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                Film Notes
                Note - Location [Film]
                Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                [ 1696788 Item 4 ]





                _____

                From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
                Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                any knowledge.

                GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                States.

                GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                Ruthenian on border crossings.

                So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                would mean a lot.





                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


                ------------------------------------

                Yahoo! Groups Links
              • krupniak
                Jim, Aquilina is Latin version of Kalyna. Rusyns/Ukrainians wouldn t use Aquilina in their daily lives....just in the church register where priest was
                Message 7 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
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                  Jim,

                  Aquilina is Latin version of Kalyna. Rusyns/Ukrainians wouldn't
                  use Aquilina in their daily lives....just in the church register
                  where priest was required to use Latin.

                  Fred Hoffman's book discusses the origins of Kalyna...from kalina
                  (guilder rose), or Greek word kallimos (beautiful), or from the Latin
                  word aquila, which means eagle.

                  Since "Accelina" was called "Kathy" I suspect that her parents
                  knew that her name was Kalyna, not Accelina.

                  ______

                  Lavrentiy




                  Jim Stamm wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > On Sep 1, 2008, at 5:34 AM, krupniak wrote:
                  >
                  > > Her "Accelina" name is most likely Kalyna in her native community.
                  >
                  > I believe it to be Aquilina, more often spelled, Acilina, and
                  > pronounced as above.
                  >
                  > -Jim
                  >
                • Jim Onyschuk
                  Danuta, The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                  Message 8 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Danuta,



                    The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.



                    Regards,

                    Jim Onyschuk



                    The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism> self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine. In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it is often still used.

                    Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of Rus' <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                    Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to Slavic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1] <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                    After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian Empire <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the area were seen as a sub-group of Russians <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians as the name of the region of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in the area evolved from the Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                    Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek Catholic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches> inhabitants of Galicia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                    The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> Galicia. After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                    However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины". These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .







                    _____

                    From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina Wojcik
                    Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                    To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                    Witam,

                    Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                    Polish descent.

                    Pozdrawiam,
                    Danuta

                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                    To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                    Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                    If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                    I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                    Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                    slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                    of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                    a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                    Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                    The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                    gets with the Roman alphabet.

                    What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                    The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                    common Polish variant.

                    Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                    LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                    “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                    Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                    Regards,

                    Jim Onyschuk

                    http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/>

                    Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org <http://www.torugg <http://www.torugg.org/> org/>

                    http://www.torugg <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html> org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                    Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                    Notes
                    Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                    Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                    Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                    Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                    (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                    Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                    Russian.
                    Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                    on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                    Film Notes
                    Note - Location [Film]
                    Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                    Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                    Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                    Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                    Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                    Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                    Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                    Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                    [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                    _____

                    From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                    [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
                    Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                    To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                    Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                    I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                    can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                    grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                    any knowledge.

                    GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                    immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                    let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                    tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                    world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                    border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                    apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                    States.

                    GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                    the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                    Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                    correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                    did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                    Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                    still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                    that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                    Ruthenian on border crossings.

                    So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                    corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                    much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                    anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                    would mean a lot.

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                    ------------------------------------

                    Yahoo! Groups Links





                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Danuta Janina Wójcik
                    Witaj, That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from Canada for sure. So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get
                    Message 9 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Witaj,

                      That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                      Canada for sure.

                      So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                      their genealogy.

                      Pozdrawiam,
                      Danuta

                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
                      To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


                      Danuta,



                      The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                      Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                      their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                      to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.



                      Regards,

                      Jim Onyschuk



                      The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                      culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                      in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                      Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                      self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                      first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine.
                      In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                      is often still used.

                      Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                      ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                      Rus' <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                      through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                      Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                      Slavic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                      <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                      (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                      Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                      was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                      After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia>
                      (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                      Empire <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                      area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                      as the name of the region of White Russia
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                      Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                      the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                      Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                      Catholic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                      inhabitants of Galicia
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                      territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                      the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                      and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                      ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                      The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                      "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                      name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                      of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                      Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> Galicia.
                      After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                      Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                      However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                      Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                      These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .







                      _____

                      From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                      Wojcik
                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                      To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                      Witam,

                      Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                      Polish descent.

                      Pozdrawiam,
                      Danuta

                      ----- Original Message -----
                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                      If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                      I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                      Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                      slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                      of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                      a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                      Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                      The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                      gets with the Roman alphabet.

                      What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                      The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                      common Polish variant.

                      Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                      LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                      “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                      Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                      Regards,

                      Jim Onyschuk

                      http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com <http://www.onyschuk
                      <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/>

                      Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org <http://www.torugg
                      <http://www.torugg.org/> org/>

                      http://www.torugg
                      <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                      Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                      Notes
                      Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                      Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                      Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                      Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                      (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                      Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                      Russian.
                      Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                      on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                      Film Notes
                      Note - Location [Film]
                      Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                      Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                      Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                      Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                      Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                      Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                      Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                      Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                      [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                      _____

                      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                      Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                      I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                      can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                      grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                      any knowledge.

                      GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                      immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                      let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                      tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                      world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                      border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                      apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                      States.

                      GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                      the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                      Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                      correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                      did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                      Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                      still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                      that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                      Ruthenian on border crossings.

                      So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                      corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                      much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                      anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                      would mean a lot.

                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                      ------------------------------------

                      Yahoo! Groups Links





                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


                      ------------------------------------

                      Yahoo! Groups Links
                    • Jim Onyschuk
                      Vitayu! Well here we go! When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the
                      Message 10 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Vitayu!



                        Well here we go!



                        When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers and other Immigration Records.



                        So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal? The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion you may have.



                        Z Povahoyu,



                        Dzhim Onyshchook



                        http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html




                        An Understanding of the Terms
                        'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'


                        The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have used the terms to mean very different things.

                        These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian interpretations.

                        You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand these various terms.

                        In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time, another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

                        Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little Russians".>

                        There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus maintaining its own control in the region.

                        To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit these popular websites:

                        Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm> Genealogy Research Pages
                        Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/>

                        So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region, the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

                        As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul) are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics thus creating unique regional traits.)

                        The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this subject, you should read the following:


                        Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
                        Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
                        Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington Press. Seattle, 1996.
                        Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, 1982.
                        Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
                        Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto, 1988.





                        _____

                        From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina Wojcik
                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
                        To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                        Witaj,

                        That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                        Canada for sure.

                        So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                        their genealogy.

                        Pozdrawiam,
                        Danuta

                        ----- Original Message -----
                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                        To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                        Danuta,

                        The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                        Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                        their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                        to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

                        Regards,

                        Jim Onyschuk

                        The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                        culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                        in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                        Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                        self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                        first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
                        In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                        is often still used.

                        Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                        ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                        Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                        through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                        Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                        Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                        <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                        (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                        Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                        was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                        After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                        (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                        Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                        area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                        as the name of the region of White Russia
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                        Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language> ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                        the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                        Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                        Catholic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches> ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                        inhabitants of Galicia
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                        territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                        the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                        and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                        ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                        The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                        "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                        name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                        of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                        Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> Galicia.
                        After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                        Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                        However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                        Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                        These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

                        _____

                        From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                        Wojcik
                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                        To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                        Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                        Witam,

                        Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                        Polish descent.

                        Pozdrawiam,
                        Danuta

                        ----- Original Message -----
                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                        To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                        If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                        I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                        Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                        slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                        of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                        a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                        Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                        The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                        gets with the Roman alphabet.

                        What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                        The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                        common Polish variant.

                        Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                        LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                        “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                        Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                        Regards,

                        Jim Onyschuk

                        http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com> ..com <http://www.onyschuk
                        <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/> .com/>

                        Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org <http://www.torugg.
                        <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/>

                        http://www.torugg.
                        <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html> org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                        org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                        Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                        Notes
                        Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                        Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                        Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                        Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                        (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                        Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                        Russian.
                        Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                        on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                        Film Notes
                        Note - Location [Film]
                        Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                        Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                        Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                        Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                        Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                        Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                        Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                        Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                        [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                        _____

                        From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                        To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                        Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                        I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                        can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                        grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                        any knowledge.

                        GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                        immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                        let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                        tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                        world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                        border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                        apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                        States.

                        GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                        the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                        Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                        correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                        did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                        Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                        still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                        that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                        Ruthenian on border crossings.

                        So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                        corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                        much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                        anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                        would mean a lot.

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        ------------------------------------

                        Yahoo! Groups Links

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                        ------------------------------------

                        Yahoo! Groups Links





                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • Danuta Janina Wójcik
                        Witaj Jacobi, What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from Bukovina or near by? Pozdrawiam Danuta ... From: Jim Onyschuk
                        Message 11 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Witaj Jacobi,

                          What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from
                          Bukovina or near by?

                          Pozdrawiam
                          Danuta

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
                          To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:20 PM
                          Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


                          Vitayu!



                          Well here we go!



                          When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as
                          Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest
                          were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of
                          early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers
                          used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early
                          census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of
                          Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers
                          and other Immigration Records.



                          So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal?
                          The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as
                          do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion
                          you may have.



                          Z Povahoyu,



                          Dzhim Onyshchook



                          http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html




                          An Understanding of the Terms
                          'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'


                          The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The
                          confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have
                          used the terms to mean very different things.

                          These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the
                          Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean
                          Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what
                          is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two
                          different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one
                          and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and
                          geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come
                          to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian
                          interpretations.

                          You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know
                          as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as
                          Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census
                          returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand
                          these various terms.

                          In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or
                          Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the
                          territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took
                          control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time,
                          another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to
                          dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of
                          Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the
                          great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

                          Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term
                          Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western
                          Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the
                          former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which
                          means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally
                          accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th
                          Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little
                          Russians".>

                          There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the
                          Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties
                          with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian
                          Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played
                          the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus
                          maintaining its own control in the region.

                          To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term
                          Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian
                          mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or
                          Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This
                          group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel
                          to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit
                          these popular websites:

                          Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm>
                          Genealogy Research Pages
                          Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/>

                          So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian
                          Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your
                          ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region,
                          the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

                          As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't
                          create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that
                          believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul)
                          are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate
                          continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and
                          separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially
                          Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics
                          thus creating unique regional traits.)

                          The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology
                          and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this
                          subject, you should read the following:


                          Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of
                          California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
                          Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform
                          in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
                          Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington
                          Press. Seattle, 1996.
                          Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the
                          Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University
                          Press. Cambridge, 1982.
                          Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.
                          Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
                          Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto,
                          1988.





                          _____

                          From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                          [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                          Wojcik
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
                          To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                          Witaj,

                          That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                          Canada for sure.

                          So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                          their genealogy.

                          Pozdrawiam,
                          Danuta

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                          To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                          Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                          Danuta,

                          The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                          Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                          their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                          to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

                          Regards,

                          Jim Onyschuk

                          The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                          culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                          in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                          Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                          self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                          first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
                          In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                          is often still used.

                          Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                          ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                          Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29>
                          .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                          through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin>
                          .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia>
                          ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                          Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                          Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
                          .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                          <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy>
                          org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                          ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                          (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus>
                          ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                          .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                          Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                          was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                          ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                          After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                          (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus>
                          ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                          Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire>
                          .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                          area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians>
                          ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                          as the name of the region of White Russia
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia>
                          ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians>
                          ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language>
                          ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                          Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                          the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                          Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                          Catholic <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                          ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                          inhabitants of Galicia
                          <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                          ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                          territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                          the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                          and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                          ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia>
                          ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                          The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                          "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia
                          <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                          name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                          of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                          Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.
                          <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                          Galicia.
                          After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                          ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                          Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                          However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States>
                          ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                          Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland>
                          org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia>
                          ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                          These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                          <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns>
                          ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

                          _____

                          From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                          [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                          Wojcik
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                          To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                          Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                          Witam,

                          Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                          Polish descent.

                          Pozdrawiam,
                          Danuta

                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                          To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                          Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                          If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                          I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                          Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                          slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                          of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                          a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                          Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                          The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                          gets with the Roman alphabet.

                          What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                          The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                          common Polish variant.

                          Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                          LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                          “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                          Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                          Regards,

                          Jim Onyschuk

                          http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com>
                          ..com <http://www.onyschuk
                          <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/> .com/>

                          Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org
                          <http://www.torugg.
                          <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/>

                          http://www.torugg.
                          <http://www.torugg.
                          <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                          org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                          org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                          Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                          Notes
                          Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                          Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                          Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                          Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                          (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                          Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                          Russian.
                          Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                          on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                          Film Notes
                          Note - Location [Film]
                          Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                          Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                          Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                          Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                          Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                          Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                          Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                          Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                          [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                          _____

                          From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                          [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                          graphixkat
                          Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                          To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                          Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                          Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                          I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                          can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                          grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                          any knowledge.

                          GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                          immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                          let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                          tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                          world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                          border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                          apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                          States.

                          GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                          the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                          Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                          correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                          did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                          Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                          still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                          that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                          Ruthenian on border crossings.

                          So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                          corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                          much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                          anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                          would mean a lot.

                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                          ------------------------------------

                          Yahoo! Groups Links

                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                          ------------------------------------

                          Yahoo! Groups Links





                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]


                          ------------------------------------

                          Yahoo! Groups Links
                        • Jim Onyschuk
                          Danuta, My Great Grandfather, Andrij Bojaczok, came over in 1898 from the village of Sucha Wola, then in Oleszyce, Galizien, Austria; next in Oleszyce
                          Message 12 of 21 , Sep 1, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            Danuta,



                            My Great Grandfather, Andrij Bojaczok, came over in 1898 from the village of Sucha Wola, then in Oleszyce, Galizien, Austria; next in Oleszyce (Lubaczow), Rzeszow, Poland now in the Podkarpacki Province of Poland. He settled in Zoria, Manitoba, Canada.



                            Regards,



                            Jim Onyschuk



                            _____

                            From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina Wojcik
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 5:55 PM
                            To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                            Witaj Jacobi,

                            What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from
                            Bukovina or near by?

                            Pozdrawiam
                            Danuta

                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                            To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:20 PM
                            Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            Vitayu!

                            Well here we go!

                            When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as
                            Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest
                            were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of
                            early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers
                            used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early
                            census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of
                            Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers
                            and other Immigration Records.

                            So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal?
                            The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as
                            do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion
                            you may have.

                            Z Povahoyu,

                            Dzhim Onyshchook

                            http://www.halgal. <http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html> com/ruthenian.html

                            An Understanding of the Terms
                            'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'

                            The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The
                            confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have
                            used the terms to mean very different things.

                            These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the
                            Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean
                            Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what
                            is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two
                            different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one
                            and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and
                            geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come
                            to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian
                            interpretations.

                            You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know
                            as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as
                            Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census
                            returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand
                            these various terms.

                            In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or
                            Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the
                            territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took
                            control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time,
                            another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to
                            dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of
                            Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the
                            great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

                            Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term
                            Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western
                            Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the
                            former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which
                            means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally
                            accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th
                            Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little
                            Russians".>

                            There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the
                            Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties
                            with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian
                            Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played
                            the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus
                            maintaining its own control in the region.

                            To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term
                            Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian
                            mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or
                            Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This
                            group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel
                            to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit
                            these popular websites:

                            Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelati <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm> ve.com/slovakia.htm>
                            Genealogy Research Pages
                            Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpatho <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/> rusynsociety.org/>

                            So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian
                            Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your
                            ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region,
                            the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

                            As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't
                            create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that
                            believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul)
                            are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate
                            continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and
                            separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially
                            Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics
                            thus creating unique regional traits.)

                            The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology
                            and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this
                            subject, you should read the following:

                            Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of
                            California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
                            Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform
                            in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
                            Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington
                            Press. Seattle, 1996.
                            Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the
                            Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University
                            Press. Cambridge, 1982.
                            Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.
                            Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
                            Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto,
                            1988.

                            _____

                            From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                            [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                            Wojcik
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
                            To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                            Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            Witaj,

                            That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                            Canada for sure.

                            So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                            their genealogy.

                            Pozdrawiam,
                            Danuta

                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                            To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                            Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            Danuta,

                            The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                            Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                            their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                            to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

                            Regards,

                            Jim Onyschuk

                            The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                            culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                            in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                            Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism> .org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                            self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                            first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
                            In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                            is often still used.

                            Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                            ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                            Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> ..org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29>
                            .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                            through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> .org/wiki/Latin>
                            .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .org/wiki/Ruthenia>
                            ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                            Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                            Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
                            .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                            <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy>
                            org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                            ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                            (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                            ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> ..org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                            .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                            Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                            was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                            ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                            After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> ..org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                            (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                            ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                            Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> .org/wiki/Russian_Empire>
                            .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                            area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> .org/wiki/Russians>
                            ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                            as the name of the region of White Russia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                            ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> .org/wiki/Belorusians>
                            ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> ..org/wiki/Russian_Language>
                            ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                            Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language> ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                            the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                            Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                            Catholic <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches> ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                            ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                            inhabitants of Galicia
                            <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                            ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                            territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                            the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                            and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                            ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> .org/wiki/Little_Russia>
                            ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                            The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                            "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                            name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                            of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                            Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.
                            <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                            Galicia.
                            After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                            ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                            Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                            However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> .org/wiki/United_States>
                            ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                            Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> .org/wiki/Poland>
                            org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> .org/wiki/Slovakia>
                            ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                            These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                            <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .org/wiki/Rusyns>
                            ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

                            _____

                            From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                            [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                            Wojcik
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                            To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                            Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            Witam,

                            Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                            Polish descent.

                            Pozdrawiam,
                            Danuta

                            ----- Original Message -----
                            From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                            To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                            Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                            I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                            Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                            slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                            of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                            a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                            Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                            The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                            gets with the Roman alphabet.

                            What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                            The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                            common Polish variant.

                            Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                            LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                            “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                            Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                            Regards,

                            Jim Onyschuk

                            http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com> .com>
                            ..com <http://www.onyschuk
                            <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> ..com/> .com/> .com/>

                            Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org> org
                            <http://www.torugg.
                            <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/> org/>

                            http://www.torugg.
                            <http://www.torugg.
                            <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html> org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                            org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                            org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                            Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                            Notes
                            Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                            Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                            Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                            Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                            (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                            Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                            Russian.
                            Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                            on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                            Film Notes
                            Note - Location [Film]
                            Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                            Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                            Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                            Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                            Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                            Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                            Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                            Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                            [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                            _____

                            From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                            [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                            graphixkat
                            Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                            To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                            Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                            Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                            I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                            can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                            grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                            any knowledge.

                            GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                            immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                            let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                            tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                            world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                            border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                            apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                            States.

                            GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                            the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                            Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                            correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                            did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                            Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                            still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                            that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                            Ruthenian on border crossings.

                            So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                            corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                            much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                            anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                            would mean a lot.

                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          • graphixkat
                            First off I want to thank all of you who took the time to answer me, I really appreciate it and the links are great. The name Kalyna really makes sense
                            Message 13 of 21 , Sep 2, 2008
                            • 0 Attachment
                              First off I want to thank all of you who took the time to answer me,
                              I really appreciate it and the links are great.

                              The name Kalyna really makes sense actually. According to the tree
                              the lawyers had done the brother of my grgrandfather had two Kalyna's
                              as children, I think one must have died young. They seemed to name
                              their children after other family members. Also, I found a death
                              record in Windsor of a baby that died at birth or shortly after and
                              the baby's parents are listed as Mike (Dymitri went by Michael) and
                              Kallie Semeluk I was never sure if it was them but the baby's name
                              was yet another handed down name so I really suspected it was them.
                              I have been using records online from all different sources,
                              Ancestry, LDS (which I couldn't find much on the name derivatives)
                              and every other place I can find by endless hours of searching. I
                              have even found some sites in other languages and make good use of
                              online translators.

                              I mistyped myself, the tree from the lawyer says Zalucha, Sniatyn,
                              Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine for grgrandfather and brother...does that
                              make more sense? I get a little confused trying to find villages and
                              such because I have run into that fact that some have a Polish name,
                              a Ukrainian name and a third name of which origin I am not sure.

                              The Zalucze, Czerenosz (saw the C on closer inspection) is on a
                              microfilm image of 1936 Detroit Border Crossing for Grandma Kate. I
                              have actually submitted alternate names and such for some of these
                              records on Ancestry so if anyone else is looking for them they will
                              find them. I found one 1930 census with the family and the name was
                              listed as Somaleck. I only found that reading for hours anything
                              that looked possible.

                              So the biggest problem is the multiple spellings of the last name
                              which I why I sought help here. It's nice to hear from people with
                              more knowledge than I that Semeluk is most probably the correct one,
                              at least before immigration. That actually helps a lot. The
                              frustration has just made me want to scream..pick a name already and
                              stick with it!!

                              So again thank you all. I am also glad I found this group and am
                              very interested in learning from you. I have a lot of interest in
                              that portion of my heritage and have found so many fascinating things
                              about that part of the world.

                              Regards,

                              Tracie
                            • krupniak
                              Tracie, Zaluche (properly known as Zaluche nad Cheremoshem), Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk is a proper expression. nad Cheremoshem means on the Cheremosh River .
                              Message 14 of 21 , Sep 2, 2008
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Tracie,

                                Zaluche (properly known as Zaluche nad Cheremoshem), Sniatyn,
                                Ivano-Frankivsk is a proper expression.

                                nad Cheremoshem means "on the Cheremosh River". This is needed
                                because there is a Zaluche on the Prut River and a Zaluche near
                                Borschiv.


                                Sniatyn is the raion (district). Ivano-Frankivsk is the province
                                ("state").


                                Regarding Kalyna, yes that is her name..Aquilina would only appear
                                in her church baptismal record where Latin was mandatory. Sort of
                                like, for example, a John would only find Joannes in the church vital
                                record books and ask, "who is Joannes?"


                                Regarding two Kalynas, when a newborn died (or a child just lived
                                for a few months) it was common to name the next child of the same
                                gender that name.

                                _____

                                Lavrentiy




                                --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "graphixkat"
                                <lasheskat@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > First off I want to thank all of you who took the time to answer
                                me,
                                > I really appreciate it and the links are great.
                                >
                                > The name Kalyna really makes sense actually. According to the tree
                                > the lawyers had done the brother of my grgrandfather had two
                                Kalyna's
                                > as children, I think one must have died young. They seemed to name
                                > their children after other family members. Also, I found a death
                                > record in Windsor of a baby that died at birth or shortly after and
                                > the baby's parents are listed as Mike (Dymitri went by Michael) and
                                > Kallie Semeluk I was never sure if it was them but the baby's name
                                > was yet another handed down name so I really suspected it was
                                them.
                                > I have been using records online from all different sources,
                                > Ancestry, LDS (which I couldn't find much on the name derivatives)
                                > and every other place I can find by endless hours of searching. I
                                > have even found some sites in other languages and make good use of
                                > online translators.
                                >
                                > I mistyped myself, the tree from the lawyer says Zalucha, Sniatyn,
                                > Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine for grgrandfather and brother...does that
                                > make more sense? I get a little confused trying to find villages
                                and
                                > such because I have run into that fact that some have a Polish
                                name,
                                > a Ukrainian name and a third name of which origin I am not sure.
                                >
                                > The Zalucze, Czerenosz (saw the C on closer inspection) is on a
                                > microfilm image of 1936 Detroit Border Crossing for Grandma Kate.
                                I
                                > have actually submitted alternate names and such for some of these
                                > records on Ancestry so if anyone else is looking for them they will
                                > find them. I found one 1930 census with the family and the name
                                was
                                > listed as Somaleck. I only found that reading for hours anything
                                > that looked possible.
                                >
                                > So the biggest problem is the multiple spellings of the last name
                                > which I why I sought help here. It's nice to hear from people with
                                > more knowledge than I that Semeluk is most probably the correct
                                one,
                                > at least before immigration. That actually helps a lot. The
                                > frustration has just made me want to scream..pick a name already
                                and
                                > stick with it!!
                                >
                                > So again thank you all. I am also glad I found this group and am
                                > very interested in learning from you. I have a lot of interest in
                                > that portion of my heritage and have found so many fascinating
                                things
                                > about that part of the world.
                                >
                                > Regards,
                                >
                                > Tracie
                                >
                              • krupniak
                                Tracie, Now since you are eager to learn and are reading all the great knowledge that is present on this forum, I ll add more fact for your brain. Kalyna is
                                Message 15 of 21 , Sep 2, 2008
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  Tracie,

                                  Now since you are eager to learn and are reading all the great
                                  knowledge that is present on this forum, I'll add more fact for your
                                  brain. Kalyna is also used as a masculine first name. Ain't that
                                  great ;-) The masculine name was coined from the Greek masculine
                                  name Kallinikos, which means 'beautiful victory'. Those Greeks..they
                                  loved victories.

                                  The feminine name Kalyna probably just came from the Greek word
                                  kallimos, which means beautiful. Those Greeks..they love beautiful
                                  women.

                                  ______

                                  Lavrentiy



                                  --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak"
                                  <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Tracie,
                                  >
                                  > Zaluche (properly known as Zaluche nad Cheremoshem), Sniatyn,
                                  > Ivano-Frankivsk is a proper expression.
                                  >
                                  > nad Cheremoshem means "on the Cheremosh River". This is needed
                                  > because there is a Zaluche on the Prut River and a Zaluche near
                                  > Borschiv.
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Sniatyn is the raion (district). Ivano-Frankivsk is the
                                  province
                                  > ("state").
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Regarding Kalyna, yes that is her name..Aquilina would only
                                  appear
                                  > in her church baptismal record where Latin was mandatory. Sort of
                                  > like, for example, a John would only find Joannes in the church
                                  vital
                                  > record books and ask, "who is Joannes?"
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > Regarding two Kalynas, when a newborn died (or a child just
                                  lived
                                  > for a few months) it was common to name the next child of the same
                                  > gender that name.
                                  >
                                  > _____
                                  >
                                  > Lavrentiy
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  >
                                  > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "graphixkat"
                                  > <lasheskat@> wrote:
                                  > >
                                  > > First off I want to thank all of you who took the time to answer
                                  > me,
                                  > > I really appreciate it and the links are great.
                                  > >
                                  > > The name Kalyna really makes sense actually. According to the
                                  tree
                                  > > the lawyers had done the brother of my grgrandfather had two
                                  > Kalyna's
                                  > > as children, I think one must have died young. They seemed to
                                  name
                                  > > their children after other family members. Also, I found a death
                                  > > record in Windsor of a baby that died at birth or shortly after
                                  and
                                  > > the baby's parents are listed as Mike (Dymitri went by Michael)
                                  and
                                  > > Kallie Semeluk I was never sure if it was them but the baby's
                                  name
                                  > > was yet another handed down name so I really suspected it was
                                  > them.
                                  > > I have been using records online from all different sources,
                                  > > Ancestry, LDS (which I couldn't find much on the name
                                  derivatives)
                                  > > and every other place I can find by endless hours of searching.
                                  I
                                  > > have even found some sites in other languages and make good use
                                  of
                                  > > online translators.
                                  > >
                                  > > I mistyped myself, the tree from the lawyer says Zalucha,
                                  Sniatyn,
                                  > > Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine for grgrandfather and brother...does
                                  that
                                  > > make more sense? I get a little confused trying to find villages
                                  > and
                                  > > such because I have run into that fact that some have a Polish
                                  > name,
                                  > > a Ukrainian name and a third name of which origin I am not sure.
                                  > >
                                  > > The Zalucze, Czerenosz (saw the C on closer inspection) is on a
                                  > > microfilm image of 1936 Detroit Border Crossing for Grandma
                                  Kate.
                                  > I
                                  > > have actually submitted alternate names and such for some of
                                  these
                                  > > records on Ancestry so if anyone else is looking for them they
                                  will
                                  > > find them. I found one 1930 census with the family and the name
                                  > was
                                  > > listed as Somaleck. I only found that reading for hours anything
                                  > > that looked possible.
                                  > >
                                  > > So the biggest problem is the multiple spellings of the last name
                                  > > which I why I sought help here. It's nice to hear from people
                                  with
                                  > > more knowledge than I that Semeluk is most probably the correct
                                  > one,
                                  > > at least before immigration. That actually helps a lot. The
                                  > > frustration has just made me want to scream..pick a name already
                                  > and
                                  > > stick with it!!
                                  > >
                                  > > So again thank you all. I am also glad I found this group and am
                                  > > very interested in learning from you. I have a lot of interest
                                  in
                                  > > that portion of my heritage and have found so many fascinating
                                  > things
                                  > > about that part of the world.
                                  > >
                                  > > Regards,
                                  > >
                                  > > Tracie
                                  > >
                                  >
                                • krupniak
                                  Yes indeed..the term Ruthenian is extremely complex, for it s meaning changed over time every non- Ruthenian had their own understanding of who were the
                                  Message 16 of 21 , Sep 2, 2008
                                  • 0 Attachment
                                    Yes indeed..the term Ruthenian is extremely complex, for it's meaning
                                    changed over time every non-"Ruthenian" had their own understanding
                                    of who were the Ruthenians.


                                    I would add to Jim's introduction to the wiki article on Ruthenians
                                    that at the turn of the 1900s US immigration service (and I suspect
                                    the British immigration service in Canada, is that correct ...our
                                    Canadian members can give us the correct exporession) used the term
                                    Ruthenian to mean the East Slavs of the Austro-Hungarian
                                    Empire. "East Slavs of the Austro-Hungarian Empire" were not
                                    necessarily a person that we would now regard as being a Ukrainian.
                                    An East Slav from the A-H E could have been a Carpatho-Rusyn. But,
                                    Carpatho-Rusyn vis-a-vis Ukrainian is another can of worms (i.e. a
                                    complex subject).

                                    ______

                                    Lavrentiy



                                    --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Jim Onyschuk"
                                    <jodanji@...> wrote:
                                    >
                                    > Danuta,
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion.
                                    Immigrant Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to
                                    as Ruthenian on their immigration records. Rather than get into a
                                    debate, I will refer you to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly
                                    outlines the evolution of the term.
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > Regards,
                                    >
                                    > Jim Onyschuk
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny)
                                    is a culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to
                                    the context in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used
                                    for the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> people.
                                    With the emergence of Ukrainian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism> self-awareness
                                    in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use first in
                                    eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine.
                                    In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of
                                    Ukraine it is often still used.
                                    >
                                    > Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-
                                    speaking ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and
                                    ethnic region of Rus' <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%
                                    29> (Русь) often written through its Latin
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .
                                    >
                                    > Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms
                                    referring to Slavic <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
                                    Orthodox <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who
                                    lived in Grand
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of
                                    Lithuania (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke
                                    the Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                    language). It was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe
                                    themselves.
                                    >
                                    > After the area of White Russia
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belarus
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                                    Empire <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of
                                    the area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White
                                    Russians as the name of the region of White Russia
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White
                                    Russians). The Belorusian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in the
                                    area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .
                                    >
                                    > Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for
                                    Greek Catholic
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches> inhabitants
                                    of Galicia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%
                                    29> and adjoining territories up until the early 20th century who
                                    spoke Western dialects of the Ukrainian
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language and
                                    called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the
                                    same ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).
                                    >
                                    > The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called
                                    the "Ruthenian language
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                                    name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted
                                    by much of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth
                                    century in Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-
                                    Hungary> Galicia. After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918
                                    the term "Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was
                                    usually applied to all Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.
                                    >
                                    > However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the
                                    United States <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> , and
                                    minorities in western Ukraine, Poland
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call
                                    themselves "Русины". These are treated under the Wikipedia article on
                                    Rusyns <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > _____
                                    >
                                    > From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com [mailto:Galicia_Poland-
                                    Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina Wojcik
                                    > Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                                    > To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                    > Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk
                                    Surnames
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > Witam,
                                    >
                                    > Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or
                                    even
                                    > Polish descent.
                                    >
                                    > Pozdrawiam,
                                    > Danuta
                                    >
                                    > ----- Original Message -----
                                    > From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca>
                                    on.ca>
                                    > To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%
                                    40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                                    > Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                                    > Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk
                                    Surnames
                                    >
                                    > If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.
                                    >
                                    > I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze,
                                    Zeremosz,
                                    > Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn,
                                    Ukraine. A
                                    > slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical
                                    Gazetteer
                                    > of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there
                                    however is
                                    > a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no
                                    doubt, the
                                    > Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.
                                    >
                                    > The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many
                                    variations one
                                    > gets with the Roman alphabet.
                                    >
                                    > What Immigration Records were you referring to?
                                    >
                                    > The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak”
                                    ending is a
                                    > common Polish variant.
                                    >
                                    > Have you done your own search using the microfilms available
                                    through the
                                    > LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become
                                    available for
                                    > “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.
                                    >
                                    > Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.
                                    >
                                    > Regards,
                                    >
                                    > Jim Onyschuk
                                    >
                                    > http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com
                                    <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/>
                                    >
                                    > Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org <http://www.torugg.
                                    <http://www.torugg.org/> org/>
                                    >
                                    > http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%
                                    20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html> org/TUGG%
                                    20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html
                                    >
                                    > Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main
                                    Author)
                                    >
                                    > Notes
                                    > Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                                    > Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                                    > Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in
                                    Załucze nad
                                    > Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad
                                    Czeremoszem
                                    > (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and
                                    Dolishnie
                                    > Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin,
                                    Ukrainian and
                                    > Russian.
                                    > Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.
                                    >
                                    > on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.
                                    >
                                    > Film Notes
                                    > Note - Location [Film]
                                    > Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                    Film
                                    > [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) -
                                    FHL INTL
                                    > Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL
                                    INTL Film
                                    > [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                    Film
                                    > [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                    Film
                                    > [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                    Film
                                    > [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                                    > Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                    Film
                                    > [ 1696788 Item 4 ]
                                    >
                                    > _____
                                    >
                                    > From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%
                                    40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                    > [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%
                                    40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of graphixkat
                                    > Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                                    > To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%
                                    40yahoogroups.com> Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                    > Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk
                                    Surnames
                                    >
                                    > I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                                    > can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                                    > grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                                    > any knowledge.
                                    >
                                    > GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                                    > immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                                    > let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                                    > tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                                    > world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                                    > border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                                    > apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                                    > States.
                                    >
                                    > GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some
                                    of
                                    > the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                                    > Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                                    > correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                                    > did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                                    > Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                                    > still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                                    > that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                                    > Ruthenian on border crossings.
                                    >
                                    > So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                                    > corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it
                                    so
                                    > much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                                    > anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                                    > would mean a lot.
                                    >
                                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    >
                                    > ------------------------------------
                                    >
                                    > Yahoo! Groups Links
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    >
                                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    >
                                  • Danuta Janina Wójcik
                                    Witaj Jim, We are neighbours, but not Kiss n Cousins. Your great-grandfather s village is in my neck of the woods in Poland, but further north from Jaroslaw.
                                    Message 17 of 21 , Sep 3, 2008
                                    • 0 Attachment
                                      Witaj Jim,

                                      We are neighbours, but not Kiss'n Cousins. Your great-grandfather's village
                                      is in my neck of the woods in Poland, but further north from Jaroslaw. And
                                      Zoria is close to Dauphin. I am a south-east - Manitobian. :)

                                      Milego dnia,
                                      Danuta

                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
                                      To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 11:56 PM
                                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


                                      Danuta,



                                      My Great Grandfather, Andrij Bojaczok, came over in 1898 from the village of
                                      Sucha Wola, then in Oleszyce, Galizien, Austria; next in Oleszyce
                                      (Lubaczow), Rzeszow, Poland now in the Podkarpacki Province of Poland. He
                                      settled in Zoria, Manitoba, Canada.



                                      Regards,



                                      Jim Onyschuk



                                      _____

                                      From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                                      Wojcik
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 5:55 PM
                                      To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                                      Witaj Jacobi,

                                      What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from
                                      Bukovina or near by?

                                      Pozdrawiam
                                      Danuta

                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:20 PM
                                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      Vitayu!

                                      Well here we go!

                                      When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as
                                      Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest
                                      were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of
                                      early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers
                                      used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early
                                      census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of
                                      Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers
                                      and other Immigration Records.

                                      So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal?
                                      The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as
                                      do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion
                                      you may have.

                                      Z Povahoyu,

                                      Dzhim Onyshchook

                                      http://www.halgal. <http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html> com/ruthenian.html

                                      An Understanding of the Terms
                                      'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'

                                      The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The
                                      confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have
                                      used the terms to mean very different things.

                                      These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the
                                      Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean
                                      Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what
                                      is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two
                                      different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one
                                      and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and
                                      geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come
                                      to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian
                                      interpretations.

                                      You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know
                                      as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as
                                      Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census
                                      returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand
                                      these various terms.

                                      In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or
                                      Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the
                                      territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took
                                      control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time,
                                      another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to
                                      dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of
                                      Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the
                                      great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

                                      Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term
                                      Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western
                                      Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the
                                      former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which
                                      means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally
                                      accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th
                                      Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little
                                      Russians".>

                                      There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the
                                      Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties
                                      with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian
                                      Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played
                                      the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus
                                      maintaining its own control in the region.

                                      To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term
                                      Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian
                                      mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or
                                      Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This
                                      group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel
                                      to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit
                                      these popular websites:

                                      Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelati
                                      <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm> ve.com/slovakia.htm>
                                      Genealogy Research Pages
                                      Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpatho
                                      <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/> rusynsociety.org/>

                                      So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian
                                      Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your
                                      ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region,
                                      the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

                                      As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't
                                      create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that
                                      believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul)
                                      are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate
                                      continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and
                                      separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially
                                      Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics
                                      thus creating unique regional traits.)

                                      The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology
                                      and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this
                                      subject, you should read the following:

                                      Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of
                                      California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
                                      Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform
                                      in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
                                      Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington
                                      Press. Seattle, 1996.
                                      Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the
                                      Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University
                                      Press. Cambridge, 1982.
                                      Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.
                                      Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
                                      Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto,
                                      1988.

                                      _____

                                      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                                      Wojcik
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
                                      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      Witaj,

                                      That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                                      Canada for sure.

                                      So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                                      their genealogy.

                                      Pozdrawiam,
                                      Danuta

                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      Danuta,

                                      The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                                      Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                                      their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                                      to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

                                      Regards,

                                      Jim Onyschuk

                                      The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                                      culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                                      in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                                      Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                      .org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                      self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                                      first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
                                      In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                                      is often still used.

                                      Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                                      ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                                      Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> ..org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29>
                                      .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                                      through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> .org/wiki/Latin>
                                      .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .org/wiki/Ruthenia>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                                      Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                                      Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
                                      .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                                      <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.
                                      <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy>
                                      org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                                      ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                                      ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                                      (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                                      ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                                      .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                                      Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                                      was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                                      ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                                      ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                                      After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                      ..org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                      (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                                      ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                                      Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> .org/wiki/Russian_Empire>
                                      .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                                      area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> .org/wiki/Russians>
                                      ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                                      as the name of the region of White Russia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                      ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> .org/wiki/Belorusians>
                                      ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> ..org/wiki/Russian_Language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                                      Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                                      the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                                      Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                                      Catholic <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                      ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                      ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                      inhabitants of Galicia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                                      ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                                      ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                                      territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                                      the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                                      and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                                      ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> .org/wiki/Little_Russia>
                                      ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                                      The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                                      "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                                      name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                                      of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                                      Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.
                                      <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                                      org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                                      Galicia.
                                      After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                                      ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                                      Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                                      However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> .org/wiki/United_States>
                                      ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                                      Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> .org/wiki/Poland>
                                      org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> .org/wiki/Slovakia>
                                      ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                                      These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                                      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .org/wiki/Rusyns>
                                      ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

                                      _____

                                      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                                      Danuta Janina
                                      Wojcik
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                                      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      Witam,

                                      Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                                      Polish descent.

                                      Pozdrawiam,
                                      Danuta

                                      ----- Original Message -----
                                      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                                      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                                      I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                                      Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                                      slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                                      of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                                      a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                                      Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                                      The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                                      gets with the Roman alphabet.

                                      What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                                      The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                                      common Polish variant.

                                      Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                                      LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                                      “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                                      Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                                      Regards,

                                      Jim Onyschuk

                                      http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk
                                      <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com> .com>
                                      ..com <http://www.onyschuk
                                      <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> ..com/>
                                      .com/> .com/>

                                      Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.
                                      <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org> org
                                      <http://www.torugg.
                                      <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/>
                                      org/>

                                      http://www.torugg.
                                      <http://www.torugg.
                                      <http://www.torugg.
                                      <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                                      Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                                      Notes
                                      Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                                      Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                                      Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                                      Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                                      (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                                      Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                                      Russian.
                                      Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                                      on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                                      Film Notes
                                      Note - Location [Film]
                                      Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                      Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                                      Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                      [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                                      _____

                                      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                                      graphixkat
                                      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                                      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                      Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                      I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                                      can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                                      grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                                      any knowledge.

                                      GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                                      immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                                      let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                                      tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                                      world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                                      border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                                      apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                                      States.

                                      GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                                      the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                                      Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                                      correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                                      did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                                      Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                                      still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                                      that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                                      Ruthenian on border crossings.

                                      So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                                      corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                                      much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                                      anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                                      would mean a lot.

                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                                    • Danuta Janina Wójcik
                                      Witaj Jim, I forgot to mention that Bojaczok may have gone through a name change. The possiblity is that it could have been - Bojaczek, Bojaczuk or Bojaczyk.
                                      Message 18 of 21 , Sep 3, 2008
                                      • 0 Attachment
                                        Witaj Jim,

                                        I forgot to mention that Bojaczok may have gone through a name change. The
                                        possiblity is that it could have been - Bojaczek, Bojaczuk or Bojaczyk.

                                        Pozdrawiam Ci,
                                        Danuta
                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
                                        To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 11:56 PM
                                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


                                        Danuta,



                                        My Great Grandfather, Andrij Bojaczok, came over in 1898 from the village of
                                        Sucha Wola, then in Oleszyce, Galizien, Austria; next in Oleszyce
                                        (Lubaczow), Rzeszow, Poland now in the Podkarpacki Province of Poland. He
                                        settled in Zoria, Manitoba, Canada.



                                        Regards,



                                        Jim Onyschuk



                                        _____

                                        From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                                        Wojcik
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 5:55 PM
                                        To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                        Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



                                        Witaj Jacobi,

                                        What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from
                                        Bukovina or near by?

                                        Pozdrawiam
                                        Danuta

                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                        To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:20 PM
                                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        Vitayu!

                                        Well here we go!

                                        When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as
                                        Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest
                                        were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of
                                        early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers
                                        used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early
                                        census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of
                                        Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers
                                        and other Immigration Records.

                                        So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal?
                                        The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as
                                        do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion
                                        you may have.

                                        Z Povahoyu,

                                        Dzhim Onyshchook

                                        http://www.halgal. <http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html> com/ruthenian.html

                                        An Understanding of the Terms
                                        'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'

                                        The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The
                                        confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have
                                        used the terms to mean very different things.

                                        These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the
                                        Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean
                                        Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what
                                        is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two
                                        different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one
                                        and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and
                                        geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come
                                        to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian
                                        interpretations.

                                        You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know
                                        as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as
                                        Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census
                                        returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand
                                        these various terms.

                                        In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or
                                        Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the
                                        territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took
                                        control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time,
                                        another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to
                                        dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of
                                        Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the
                                        great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

                                        Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term
                                        Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western
                                        Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the
                                        former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which
                                        means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally
                                        accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th
                                        Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little
                                        Russians".>

                                        There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the
                                        Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties
                                        with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian
                                        Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played
                                        the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus
                                        maintaining its own control in the region.

                                        To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term
                                        Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian
                                        mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or
                                        Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This
                                        group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel
                                        to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit
                                        these popular websites:

                                        Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelati
                                        <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm> ve.com/slovakia.htm>
                                        Genealogy Research Pages
                                        Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpatho
                                        <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/> rusynsociety.org/>

                                        So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian
                                        Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your
                                        ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region,
                                        the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

                                        As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't
                                        create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that
                                        believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul)
                                        are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate
                                        continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and
                                        separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially
                                        Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics
                                        thus creating unique regional traits.)

                                        The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology
                                        and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this
                                        subject, you should read the following:

                                        Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of
                                        California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
                                        Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform
                                        in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
                                        Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington
                                        Press. Seattle, 1996.
                                        Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the
                                        Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University
                                        Press. Cambridge, 1982.
                                        Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.
                                        Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
                                        Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto,
                                        1988.

                                        _____

                                        From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
                                        Wojcik
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
                                        To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                        Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        Witaj,

                                        That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
                                        Canada for sure.

                                        So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
                                        their genealogy.

                                        Pozdrawiam,
                                        Danuta

                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                        To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
                                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        Danuta,

                                        The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
                                        Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
                                        their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
                                        to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

                                        Regards,

                                        Jim Onyschuk

                                        The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
                                        culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
                                        in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
                                        Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                        .org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
                                        self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
                                        first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
                                        In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
                                        is often still used.

                                        Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
                                        ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
                                        Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> ..org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29>
                                        .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
                                        through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin> .org/wiki/Latin>
                                        .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia> .org/wiki/Ruthenia>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

                                        Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
                                        Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
                                        .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
                                        <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.
                                        <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy>
                                        org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                                        ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
                                        ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
                                        (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                                        ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
                                        .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
                                        Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
                                        was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine> .org/wiki/Ukraine>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                                        ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
                                        ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

                                        After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                        ..org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                        (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus> .org/wiki/Belarus>
                                        ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
                                        Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire> .org/wiki/Russian_Empire>
                                        .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
                                        area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians> .org/wiki/Russians>
                                        ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
                                        as the name of the region of White Russia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
                                        ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians> .org/wiki/Belorusians>
                                        ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language> ..org/wiki/Russian_Language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
                                        Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
                                        the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

                                        Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
                                        Catholic <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                        ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                        ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
                                        inhabitants of Galicia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                                        ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
                                        ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
                                        territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
                                        the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
                                        and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
                                        ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia> .org/wiki/Little_Russia>
                                        ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

                                        The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
                                        "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
                                        name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
                                        of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
                                        Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.
                                        <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                                        org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
                                        Galicia.
                                        After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians> .org/wiki/Ukrainians>
                                        ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
                                        Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

                                        However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States> .org/wiki/United_States>
                                        ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
                                        Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland> .org/wiki/Poland>
                                        org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia> .org/wiki/Slovakia>
                                        ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
                                        These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
                                        <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia
                                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns> .org/wiki/Rusyns>
                                        ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

                                        _____

                                        From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                                        Danuta Janina
                                        Wojcik
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
                                        To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                        Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        Witam,

                                        Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
                                        Polish descent.

                                        Pozdrawiam,
                                        Danuta

                                        ----- Original Message -----
                                        From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
                                        To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
                                        Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

                                        I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
                                        Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
                                        slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
                                        of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
                                        a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
                                        Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

                                        The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
                                        gets with the Roman alphabet.

                                        What Immigration Records were you referring to?

                                        The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
                                        common Polish variant.

                                        Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
                                        LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
                                        “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

                                        Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

                                        Regards,

                                        Jim Onyschuk

                                        http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk
                                        <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com> .com>
                                        ..com <http://www.onyschuk
                                        <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> ..com/>
                                        .com/> .com/>

                                        Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.
                                        <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org> org
                                        <http://www.torugg.
                                        <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/>
                                        org/>

                                        http://www.torugg.
                                        <http://www.torugg.
                                        <http://www.torugg.
                                        <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                        org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                        org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
                                        org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

                                        Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

                                        Notes
                                        Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
                                        Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
                                        Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
                                        Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
                                        (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
                                        Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
                                        Russian.
                                        Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

                                        on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

                                        Film Notes
                                        Note - Location [Film]
                                        Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
                                        Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
                                        Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
                                        [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

                                        _____

                                        From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                        [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
                                        graphixkat
                                        Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
                                        To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
                                        Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
                                        Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

                                        I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
                                        can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                                        grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
                                        any knowledge.

                                        GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                                        immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
                                        let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                                        tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                                        world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                                        border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                                        apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                                        States.

                                        GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
                                        the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                                        Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                                        correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                                        did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                                        Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                                        still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
                                        that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                                        Ruthenian on border crossings.

                                        So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                                        corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
                                        much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                                        anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                                        would mean a lot.

                                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                                        ------------------------------------

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                                        ------------------------------------

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                                        ------------------------------------

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                                      • Larry
                                        Is it possible that Myroniuk and Myroniak are the same surname? Larry Researching: Myroniak, Sapowicz, & Laszynski ... From: graphixkat
                                        Message 19 of 21 , Sep 3, 2008
                                        • 0 Attachment
                                          Is it possible that Myroniuk and Myroniak are the same surname?

                                          Larry

                                          Researching: Myroniak, Sapowicz, & Laszynski

                                          --- On Mon, 9/1/08, graphixkat <lasheskat@...> wrote:
                                          From: graphixkat <lasheskat@...>
                                          Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames
                                          To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                          Date: Monday, September 1, 2008, 3:02 AM











                                          I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just

                                          can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great

                                          grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have

                                          any knowledge.



                                          GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to

                                          immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please

                                          let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have

                                          tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the

                                          world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the

                                          border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were

                                          apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the

                                          States.



                                          GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of

                                          the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in

                                          Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please

                                          correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who

                                          did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan

                                          Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family

                                          still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of

                                          that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always

                                          Ruthenian on border crossings.



                                          So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just

                                          corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so

                                          much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if

                                          anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help

                                          would mean a lot.





























                                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                        • krupniak
                                          Fred Hoffman s surname book has that Mironiuk was present in 1990. I suppose Mironiuk was present too..Fred didn t include all surnames. Myroniuk/Myroniak are
                                          Message 20 of 21 , Sep 3, 2008
                                          • 0 Attachment
                                            Fred Hoffman's surname book has that Mironiuk was present in 1990. I
                                            suppose Mironiuk was present too..Fred didn't include all surnames.

                                            Myroniuk/Myroniak are the preferred transliterations of the surnames
                                            in Ukrainian cyrillic.

                                            Are Myroniuk and Myroniak the same surname...they have the same root -
                                            Myron, which is a masculine given name. -iak and -iuk are suffixes
                                            denoting connection with a person or occupation or object. iuk is a
                                            popular Ukrainian patronymic (suffix denoting connection to a
                                            person..in this case Myron..thus name means son of Myron.


                                            ______

                                            Lavrentiy

                                            --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, Larry <llaszynski@...>
                                            wrote:
                                            >
                                            > Is it possible that Myroniuk and Myroniak are the same surname?
                                            >
                                            > Larry
                                            >
                                            > Researching: Myroniak, Sapowicz, & Laszynski
                                            >
                                            > --- On Mon, 9/1/08, graphixkat <lasheskat@...> wrote:
                                            > From: graphixkat <lasheskat@...>
                                            > Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk
                                            Surnames
                                            > To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                            > Date: Monday, September 1, 2008, 3:02 AM
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > I have been working on a family tree for years.
                                            Problem is I just
                                            >
                                            > can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
                                            >
                                            > grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might
                                            have
                                            >
                                            > any knowledge.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                                            >
                                            > immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland.
                                            Please
                                            >
                                            > let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                                            >
                                            > tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
                                            >
                                            > world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                                            >
                                            > border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                                            >
                                            > apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                                            >
                                            > States.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some
                                            of
                                            >
                                            > the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                                            >
                                            > Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                                            >
                                            > correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
                                            >
                                            > did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                                            >
                                            > Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                                            >
                                            > still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form
                                            of
                                            >
                                            > that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                                            >
                                            > Ruthenian on border crossings.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                                            >
                                            > corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it
                                            so
                                            >
                                            > much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
                                            >
                                            > anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
                                            >
                                            > would mean a lot.
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                            >
                                          • krupniak
                                            ... i.e. in Poland in 1990. There are probably many more Myroniuks in Ukraine. No comprehensive database of surnames in Ukraine exist....at this time, but I
                                            Message 21 of 21 , Sep 4, 2008
                                            • 0 Attachment
                                              krupniak wrote:
                                              >
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > Fred Hoffman's surname book has that Mironiuk was present in 1990.




                                              i.e. in Poland in 1990.


                                              There are probably many more Myroniuks in Ukraine.

                                              No comprehensive database of surnames in Ukraine exist....at this
                                              time, but I would not be surprised if one will appear on the
                                              Internet. A few years ago I thought that Ellis Island records would
                                              never be available on the Interent...then one day there they were and
                                              fully indexed! That took a big chunk of my business away (i.e trek
                                              to National Archives for customers)...oh well.



                                              _____

                                              Lavrentiy





                                              > I
                                              > suppose Mironiuk was present too..Fred didn't include all surnames.
                                              >
                                              > Myroniuk/Myroniak are the preferred transliterations of the
                                              surnames
                                              > in Ukrainian cyrillic.
                                              >
                                              > Are Myroniuk and Myroniak the same surname...they have the same
                                              root -
                                              > Myron, which is a masculine given name. -iak and -iuk are
                                              suffixes
                                              > denoting connection with a person or occupation or object. iuk is
                                              a
                                              > popular Ukrainian patronymic (suffix denoting connection to a
                                              > person..in this case Myron..thus name means son of Myron.
                                              >
                                              >
                                              > ______
                                              >
                                              > Lavrentiy
                                              >
                                              > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, Larry <llaszynski@>
                                              > wrote:
                                              > >
                                              > > Is it possible that Myroniuk and Myroniak are the same surname?
                                              > >
                                              > > Larry
                                              > >
                                              > > Researching: Myroniak, Sapowicz, & Laszynski
                                              > >
                                              > > --- On Mon, 9/1/08, graphixkat <lasheskat@> wrote:
                                              > > From: graphixkat <lasheskat@>
                                              > > Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk
                                              > Surnames
                                              > > To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
                                              > > Date: Monday, September 1, 2008, 3:02 AM
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > > I have been working on a family tree for years.
                                              > Problem is I just
                                              > >
                                              > > can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my
                                              great
                                              > >
                                              > > grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might
                                              > have
                                              > >
                                              > > any knowledge.
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > > GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
                                              > >
                                              > > immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland.
                                              > Please
                                              > >
                                              > > let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
                                              > >
                                              > > tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of
                                              the
                                              > >
                                              > > world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
                                              > >
                                              > > border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
                                              > >
                                              > > apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
                                              > >
                                              > > States.
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > > GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for
                                              some
                                              > of
                                              > >
                                              > > the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
                                              > >
                                              > > Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
                                              > >
                                              > > correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist
                                              who
                                              > >
                                              > > did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
                                              > >
                                              > > Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
                                              > >
                                              > > still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form
                                              > of
                                              > >
                                              > > that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
                                              > >
                                              > > Ruthenian on border crossings.
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > > So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
                                              > >
                                              > > corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate
                                              it
                                              > so
                                              > >
                                              > > much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine
                                              if
                                              > >
                                              > > anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest
                                              help
                                              > >
                                              > > would mean a lot.
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > >
                                              > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                              > >
                                              >
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