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slepak/slepach/stepach?

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  • einamaka
    Hello all, Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this... I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage records from Okno.
    Message 1 of 13 , Feb 25, 2007
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      Hello all,

      Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this...
      I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage
      records from Okno. (these are typed out from the films, not photo
      copies) and I have traced back some of my Namakas...

      Starting in about in about 1841, i start to see the surname listed in
      various ways for different people...
      Slepach v. Namaka
      Namaka vel. Slepak
      Namaka v Stepach
      etc.

      then it returns to just Namaka...
      in once instance the mother of a Namaka's surename happens to be
      Stepach, but this does not explain the other instances to me...

      any ideas what this could mean? what is "v" or "vel".
      I also see "olim" a few times...

      thanks for any help!
      Cheers!
      Erika
    • Roman
      v. = abbreviation for vel vel = Latin meaning also or or , normally used to indicate that the person is known by a second name; olim = Latin, formerly
      Message 2 of 13 , Feb 26, 2007
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        v. = abbreviation for "vel"

        vel = Latin meaning "also" or "or", normally used to indicate that the
        person is known by a second name;

        olim = Latin, "formerly" usually referring to a previous occupation
        rather than a different name.

        Roman

        einamaka wrote:
        > Hello all,
        >
        > Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this...
        > I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage
        > records from Okno. (these are typed out from the films, not photo
        > copies) and I have traced back some of my Namakas...
        >
        > Starting in about in about 1841, i start to see the surname listed in
        > various ways for different people...
        > Slepach v. Namaka
        > Namaka vel. Slepak
        > Namaka v Stepach
        > etc.
        >
        > then it returns to just Namaka...
        > in once instance the mother of a Namaka's surename happens to be
        > Stepach, but this does not explain the other instances to me...
        >
        > any ideas what this could mean? what is "v" or "vel".
        > I also see "olim" a few times...
        >
        > thanks for any help!
        > Cheers!
        > Erika
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >
        >
      • einamaka
        Interesting! thank you very much! Cheers! Erika
        Message 3 of 13 , Feb 26, 2007
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          Interesting!
          thank you very much!
          Cheers!
          Erika

          --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, Roman <romanka@...> wrote:
          >
          > v. = abbreviation for "vel"
          >
          > vel = Latin meaning "also" or "or", normally used to indicate that the
          > person is known by a second name;
          >
          > olim = Latin, "formerly" usually referring to a previous occupation
          > rather than a different name.
          >
          > Roman
          >
          > einamaka wrote:
          > > Hello all,
          > >
          > > Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this...
          > > I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage
          > > records from Okno. (these are typed out from the films, not photo
          > > copies) and I have traced back some of my Namakas...
          > >
          > > Starting in about in about 1841, i start to see the surname listed in
          > > various ways for different people...
          > > Slepach v. Namaka
          > > Namaka vel. Slepak
          > > Namaka v Stepach
          > > etc.
          > >
          > > then it returns to just Namaka...
          > > in once instance the mother of a Namaka's surename happens to be
          > > Stepach, but this does not explain the other instances to me...
          > >
          > > any ideas what this could mean? what is "v" or "vel".
          > > I also see "olim" a few times...
          > >
          > > thanks for any help!
          > > Cheers!
          > > Erika
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > Yahoo! Groups Links
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          >
        • krupniak
          Hello Erika, It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames. There are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least records of the person
          Message 4 of 13 , Feb 26, 2007
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            Hello Erika,

            It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames. There
            are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least records of
            the person that you found have the two surnames.

            _______

            Lavrentiy



            Roman wrote:
            >
            > v. = abbreviation for "vel"
            >
            > vel = Latin meaning "also" or "or", normally used to indicate that
            the
            > person is known by a second name;
            >
            > olim = Latin, "formerly" usually referring to a previous occupation
            > rather than a different name.
            >
            > Roman
            >
            > einamaka wrote:
            > > Hello all,
            > >
            > > Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this...
            > > I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage
            > > records from Okno. (these are typed out from the films, not photo
            > > copies) and I have traced back some of my Namakas...
            > >
            > > Starting in about in about 1841, i start to see the surname
            listed in
            > > various ways for different people...
            > > Slepach v. Namaka
            > > Namaka vel. Slepak
            > > Namaka v Stepach
            > > etc.
            > >
            > > then it returns to just Namaka...
            > > in once instance the mother of a Namaka's surename happens to be
            > > Stepach, but this does not explain the other instances to me...
            > >
            > > any ideas what this could mean? what is "v" or "vel".
            > > I also see "olim" a few times...
            > >
            > > thanks for any help!
            > > Cheers!
            > > Erika
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > Yahoo! Groups Links
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            >
          • Victor H Pankoski
            Hello Dont mean to be fecitious but my Grandfather often called me a Shlipahko whenever I bumped into something or tipped something when I was only trying to
            Message 5 of 13 , Feb 26, 2007
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              Hello

              Dont mean to be fecitious but my Grandfather often called me a Shlipahko whenever I bumped into
              something or tipped something when I was only trying to be helpfull ;-)

              Victor




              ----- Original Message -----
              From: krupniak
              To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Monday, February 26, 2007 3:31 PM
              Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Re: slepak/slepach/stepach?


              Hello Erika,

              It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames. There
              are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least records of
              the person that you found have the two surnames.

              _______

              Lavrentiy

              Roman wrote:
              >
              > v. = abbreviation for "vel"
              >
              > vel = Latin meaning "also" or "or", normally used to indicate that
              the
              > person is known by a second name;
              >
              > olim = Latin, "formerly" usually referring to a previous occupation
              > rather than a different name.
              >
              > Roman
              >
              > einamaka wrote:
              > > Hello all,
              > >
              > > Wonder if anyone one might be able to shed some light on this...
              > > I recently have access to a transcription of birth and marriage
              > > records from Okno. (these are typed out from the films, not photo
              > > copies) and I have traced back some of my Namakas...
              > >
              > > Starting in about in about 1841, i start to see the surname
              listed in
              > > various ways for different people...
              > > Slepach v. Namaka
              > > Namaka vel. Slepak
              > > Namaka v Stepach
              > > etc.
              > >
              > > then it returns to just Namaka...
              > > in once instance the mother of a Namaka's surename happens to be
              > > Stepach, but this does not explain the other instances to me...
              > >
              > > any ideas what this could mean? what is "v" or "vel".
              > > I also see "olim" a few times...
              > >
              > > thanks for any help!
              > > Cheers!
              > > Erika
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > > Yahoo! Groups Links
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > >
              >






              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • krupniak
              ... of ... ********* Example presence of alias surnames in village Strubowiska: From: http://www.members.tripod.com/warholic/stru4547.htm .... The house or
              Message 6 of 13 , Feb 26, 2007
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                krupniak wrote:
                >
                > Hello Erika,
                >
                > It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames. There
                > are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least records
                of
                > the person that you found have the two surnames.
                >
                > _______
                >
                > Lavrentiy


                *********

                Example presence of alias surnames in village Strubowiska:


                From: http://www.members.tripod.com/warholic/stru4547.htm





                .... The house or farm numbers shown on the map are listed below, by
                family name and nickname.


                (Note: all names are translated and written phonetically using Polish
                spelling and pronunciations, J=Y, W=V, C=TS, etc. )

                No. Name Nickname

                1 School
                2 The Jew Wolosky Hershko
                3 Ferensewitch, Fedor & Iwan Halushka
                4 Moskal, Iwan Moskaliwski
                5 The Jew Koba Mihawchik
                6 Rusyn, Iwan
                7 Kopalciw Lazarishen
                8 Semania, Maria Moskal
                9 Sa»amaszczak, Dmetro Dzedziw
                10 Mi»awczak, Jurko
                11 Grendey, Iwan Wugreniw
                12 Rusyn, Iwan Ryzun (cut throat)
                13 Berezansky, Iwan & Stanko Mandrichkiw
                14 ºucyszka, Fedor Pazen
                15 Rusyn, Jurko Bowtuljak
                16 Rusyn, Wasyl Celkiw
                17 Cegan, Mykhailo Mitchen
                18 Cegan, Anna Dzendzowa
                19 Rusyn, Leso
                20 Oszczep, Wasyl Melnekivckij



                No. Name Nickname

                21 Podoljak, Wasyl
                22 Sa»amaszczak, Jurko Demkiw
                23 Rusynkiewicz, Mykhailo Juljanchek
                24 Oszczep, Jurko Krupchen
                25 Rusyn, Mykhailo Luzhanchen
                26 Rusyn, Mykhailo Witiw (W\jt-head of group of villages)
                27 Andrejko, Matwi
                28 Beca, Wasyl
                29 Kaniuk, Petro
                30 Swistock, Dmetro
                31 Rusyn, Stanko Gretskiw
                32 Swystak, Mykhailo & Stashko Berezhenechchen
                33 Warcholak, Mykola Shcherbatogo (missing teeth)
                34 Warcholak, Hric Krakusiw (from Krakow)
                35 Kowal, Jurko Luchkiw
                36 Maruszczak, Iwan Firkiw
                37 Kowal, Wasyl Antoniw
                38 Warcholak, Fedor Antoniw (of Anthony?)
                39 Warcholak, Ivan Wrubliw (sparrow)
                40 Rusyn, Tekla Na Kamience (of the stone)



                No. Name Nickname

                41 Cegan, Wasyl & Ivan Hreniw
                42 Rusyn, Mykola Wijtiw Mlen ("mayor’s mill")
                43 Popowicz, Fedo Bactrjanchen
                44 Rusyn, Fedor Berezchen (Birch tree)
                45 Kaniuk, Iwan Kurnekiw (chicken coop)
                46 Wowk, Hric
                47 Rusyn, Mykhailo Milkiw
                48 StachurÃ`kyj, Stanko
                49 Terlecki, Iwan Nastunjakiw
                50 Sa»amaszczak, Iwan Demkiw
                51 ºazoryszyn, Jurko Pazen
                52 Leszczy½ski, Wasyl & Iwan Jasjakiw
                53
                54 Kuca, Jewa Jewnya
                55 Cerkwa Church
                56 Rohanak, Kasia Kopaltsowa (miner)
                57 Kaniuk, Mykola Tsedanechiw
                58 Woloskoho, Jew Kasarnia (military barracks)


                /
              • Dennis Benarz
                Hi Lavrentiy The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized that the practice was so common in the highlands of central Galicia. I wonder why
                Message 7 of 13 , Feb 27, 2007
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                  Hi Lavrentiy

                  The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized that the
                  practice was so common in the highlands of central Galicia. I wonder
                  why they thought that the deception was necessary? (But I am not
                  curious enough to research it myself because it is outside of my
                  chosen area of focus.)

                  I haven't found any alias surnames among Poles in the Roman Catholic
                  parish records in western Galicia. The only timeframe in which I have
                  spotted the use of "aliases" was during World War II when members of
                  the AK (the underground Polish Home Army) were given code names. This
                  was done for the obvious reason of trying to limit the true
                  identities of its soldiers to only those from the same village in the
                  event that an AK member was captured and interrogated by the Nazis.

                  Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have seldom
                  found their way into the various records.

                  Dennis

                  --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak"
                  <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > krupniak wrote:
                  > >
                  > > Hello Erika,
                  > >
                  > > It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames.
                  There
                  > > are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least records
                  > of
                  > > the person that you found have the two surnames.
                  > >
                  > > _______
                  > >
                  > > Lavrentiy
                  >
                  >
                  > *********
                  >
                  > Example presence of alias surnames in village Strubowiska:
                  >
                  >
                  > From: http://www.members.tripod.com/warholic/stru4547.htm
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > .... The house or farm numbers shown on the map are listed below,
                  by
                  > family name and nickname.
                  >
                  >
                  > (Note: all names are translated and written phonetically using
                  Polish
                  > spelling and pronunciations, J=Y, W=V, C=TS, etc. )
                  >
                  > No. Name Nickname
                  >
                  > 1 School
                  > 2 The Jew Wolosky Hershko
                  > 3 Ferensewitch, Fedor & Iwan Halushka
                  > 4 Moskal, Iwan Moskaliwski
                  > 5 The Jew Koba Mihawchik
                  > 6 Rusyn, Iwan
                  > 7 Kopalciw Lazarishen
                  > 8 Semania, Maria Moskal
                  > 9 Sa»amaszczak, Dmetro Dzedziw
                  > 10 Mi»awczak, Jurko
                  > 11 Grendey, Iwan Wugreniw
                  > 12 Rusyn, Iwan Ryzun (cut throat)
                  > 13 Berezansky, Iwan & Stanko Mandrichkiw
                  > 14 ºucyszka, Fedor Pazen
                  > 15 Rusyn, Jurko Bowtuljak
                  > 16 Rusyn, Wasyl Celkiw
                  > 17 Cegan, Mykhailo Mitchen
                  > 18 Cegan, Anna Dzendzowa
                  > 19 Rusyn, Leso
                  > 20 Oszczep, Wasyl Melnekivckij
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > No. Name Nickname
                  >
                  > 21 Podoljak, Wasyl
                  > 22 Sa»amaszczak, Jurko Demkiw
                  > 23 Rusynkiewicz, Mykhailo Juljanchek
                  > 24 Oszczep, Jurko Krupchen
                  > 25 Rusyn, Mykhailo Luzhanchen
                  > 26 Rusyn, Mykhailo Witiw (W\jt-head of group of villages)
                  > 27 Andrejko, Matwi
                  > 28 Beca, Wasyl
                  > 29 Kaniuk, Petro
                  > 30 Swistock, Dmetro
                  > 31 Rusyn, Stanko Gretskiw
                  > 32 Swystak, Mykhailo & Stashko Berezhenechchen
                  > 33 Warcholak, Mykola Shcherbatogo (missing teeth)
                  > 34 Warcholak, Hric Krakusiw (from Krakow)
                  > 35 Kowal, Jurko Luchkiw
                  > 36 Maruszczak, Iwan Firkiw
                  > 37 Kowal, Wasyl Antoniw
                  > 38 Warcholak, Fedor Antoniw (of Anthony?)
                  > 39 Warcholak, Ivan Wrubliw (sparrow)
                  > 40 Rusyn, Tekla Na Kamience (of the stone)
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > No. Name Nickname
                  >
                  > 41 Cegan, Wasyl & Ivan Hreniw
                  > 42 Rusyn, Mykola Wijtiw Mlen ("mayor’s mill")
                  > 43 Popowicz, Fedo Bactrjanchen
                  > 44 Rusyn, Fedor Berezchen (Birch tree)
                  > 45 Kaniuk, Iwan Kurnekiw (chicken coop)
                  > 46 Wowk, Hric
                  > 47 Rusyn, Mykhailo Milkiw
                  > 48 StachurÃ`kyj, Stanko
                  > 49 Terlecki, Iwan Nastunjakiw
                  > 50 Sa»amaszczak, Iwan Demkiw
                  > 51 ºazoryszyn, Jurko Pazen
                  > 52 Leszczy½ski, Wasyl & Iwan Jasjakiw
                  > 53
                  > 54 Kuca, Jewa Jewnya
                  > 55 Cerkwa Church
                  > 56 Rohanak, Kasia Kopaltsowa (miner)
                  > 57 Kaniuk, Mykola Tsedanechiw
                  > 58 Woloskoho, Jew Kasarnia (military barracks)
                  >
                  >
                  > /
                  >
                • wfhoffman
                  Hi, In response to Lavrentiy s list of proper names and nicknames, Dennis ... It is a fascinating topic, but the use of English terms here generates
                  Message 8 of 13 , Feb 27, 2007
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                    Hi,

                    In response to Lavrentiy's list of "proper names" and "nicknames," Dennis
                    Benarz wrote:

                    > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized
                    > that the practice was so common in the highlands of central
                    > Galicia. I wonder why they thought that the deception was
                    > necessary?

                    It is a fascinating topic, but the use of English terms here generates
                    confusion. These names weren't really "nicknames" in the sense we use that
                    word, and the use of _alias_ did not have the connotation it does in
                    English. When you see a record identifies one of the parties as "X alias Y,"
                    it simply means some people called him X, some called him Y. It doesn't
                    necessarily imply anything about the person in question; the record keeper
                    is just recording a fact in hopes of better identifying him.

                    There wasn't usually any deception involved. How could there be? Most folks
                    grew up in rural settings where folks generally knew each other. If you've
                    ever lived in a small farming village, as I have, you realize how hard it is
                    to deceive the locals. I remember when someone told me, only
                    half-joking,"While driving, you don't need to bother using your turn signal.
                    We all know where you're going." (As a big-city boy, that kind of freaked me
                    out, actually.)

                    Anyway, I have to figure there was a lot of that mentality in rural Poland.
                    It wouldn't be easy putting anything over on the people who'd known you
                    since the day you were born. But given how stubborn Poles are, it is
                    entirely plausible that some folks would insist on calling a guy by one
                    name, and others would insist on calling him something entirely different.
                    It'd be kind of like those old Miller Lite commercials, "Tastes great! Less
                    filling!"

                    > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have seldom
                    > found their way into the various records.

                    I wouldn't disagree in general, especially as regards birth, marriage, and
                    death records. But Polish, at least traditionally, doesn't exactly have what
                    we call nicknames. They have _przydomki_ -- what they called you "at home,"
                    przy domu -- and those are numerous in the records, especially for nobles.
                    We don't see as many old documents recording _przydomki_ because for a long
                    time nobody bothered keeping records regarding peasants. But Jan Slomka's
                    memoirs, _From Serfdom to Self-Government: Memoirs of a Polish Mayor,
                    1842-1927_, say they were almost universal for peasants, at least in the
                    Tarnobrzeg area:

                    http://www.linux.net.pl/~wkotwica/slomka/slomka-06.html

                    > Prawie kazdy chlop w owych czasach mial jakies przezwisko albo
                    > przydomek, wedlug których byl we wsi znany i nazywany. Tak
                    > n. p. Wojciech Luczak z Podleze nazywany byl Ponczocha,
                    > Jozef Slomka z Podleza Rychlickim, Michal Wiacek z pod
                    > Nru 53 Kwapiszem, Jozef Wojcikowski Drabem, Ignacy
                    > Gronek Kozieja, Jan Szczytynski Rysiem, Jan Mortka
                    > z pod Nru 27 Karolikiem, Stanislaw Antonczyk
                    > Mastelarczakiem i t. d. i t. d.

                    "In those days amost every peasant had some kind of _przezwisko_ or
                    _przydomek_, by which he was known and called in the village. Thus for
                    instance Wojciech Luczek of Podleze was called Ponczocha [stocking], Jozef
                    Slomka of Podleze was called Rychlicki [one from Rychlik], Michal Wiacek
                    from Number 53 was Kwapisz [one always in a hurry, the little fluffy one),
                    Jozef Wojcikowski was Drab [thug, mercenary, or a kind of ladder], Ignacy
                    Gronek was Kozieja [goat], Jan Szczytynski was Rys [lynx], Jan Mortka from
                    Number 27 was Karolik [son of Karol], Stanislaw Antonczyk was Mastelarczak
                    [son of the stableman, groom], and so on."

                    _Przydomek_ is tough to translate well. In English we usually render it as
                    "by-name," and modern Polish usually uses it for the English term
                    "nickname." It is kind of like a nickname, but not really the same. It was
                    quite common for nobles and families of nobles to have by-names as well as
                    their "real names." You'll find mention in a court record of, say, "Jan
                    Nepomucen Bonawentura Stanislaw Szczurkowski, alias Nosala." Noblemen often
                    bore the same set of given names from generation to generation, and the
                    by-name was what everybody actually called him -- in this case Nosala means
                    "big-nose." (I made up this example, but if you like I can cite plenty of
                    actual cases from old records). Some by-names were associated only with
                    individuals; others were used as distinguishing names by specific branches
                    of noble families.

                    In some cases those by-names went on to become surnames. In other cases they
                    were actually handed down from generation to generation, always persisting
                    as by-names used by an individual or a family but never quite formalized as
                    surnames. If I'm not mistaken, a lot of the compound place names up in the
                    Mazowsze region came from by-names associated with specific noble heirs. You
                    started out with an estate Jankowo (little John's place), and then it was
                    subdivided into Jankowo-Nosala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy with the
                    big nose) and Jankowo-Brzuchala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy with the
                    big belly). And on and on it went.

                    Obviously in most cases the only way you're going to learn all you want to
                    know about how and why a by-name got attached to a specific person or family
                    is by digging into that family's history. But I've seen enough records to be
                    sure: there were plenty of cases where individuals were known by two
                    different names, and the priest or clerk recorded that fact. Sometimes the
                    names are linked semantically; sometimes they have nothing at all to do with
                    each other. Of course, those latter cases drive genealogists berserk!

                    I hope this clarifies things a bit.

                    Fred Hoffman
                    Author, _Polish Surnames: Origins & Meanings_
                  • krupniak
                    Hello Dennis, Fred wrote a very good essay on the term alias. I hope that the essay appears in Fred s _Gen Dobry_, an on-line genealogy journal. I jusrt want
                    Message 9 of 13 , Feb 27, 2007
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                      Hello Dennis,

                      Fred wrote a very good essay on the term alias. I hope that the
                      essay appears in Fred's _Gen Dobry_, an on-line genealogy journal.

                      I jusrt want to add, not sure if Fred included this, that alias
                      in Latin means:

                      o otherwise known as

                      o or

                      o called

                      o also (known as)


                      In modern times, in America, alias has a connotation of it being
                      associated with some fraudulent purpose.

                      There were many reasons why alias surnames were present.

                      _______

                      Lavrentiy







                      --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Dennis Benarz"
                      <benarz@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Hi Lavrentiy
                      >
                      > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized that
                      the
                      > practice was so common in the highlands of central Galicia. I
                      wonder
                      > why they thought that the deception was necessary? (But I am not
                      > curious enough to research it myself because it is outside of my
                      > chosen area of focus.)
                      >
                      > I haven't found any alias surnames among Poles in the Roman
                      Catholic
                      > parish records in western Galicia. The only timeframe in which I
                      have
                      > spotted the use of "aliases" was during World War II when members
                      of
                      > the AK (the underground Polish Home Army) were given code names.
                      This
                      > was done for the obvious reason of trying to limit the true
                      > identities of its soldiers to only those from the same village in
                      the
                      > event that an AK member was captured and interrogated by the Nazis.
                      >
                      > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have seldom
                      > found their way into the various records.
                      >
                      > Dennis
                      >
                      > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak"
                      > <Lkrupnak@> wrote:
                      > >
                      > > krupniak wrote:
                      > > >
                      > > > Hello Erika,
                      > > >
                      > > > It was fairly common for persons to have alias surnames.
                      > There
                      > > > are many reasons why double surnames were used. At least
                      records
                      > > of
                      > > > the person that you found have the two surnames.
                      > > >
                      > > > _______
                      > > >
                      > > > Lavrentiy
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > *********
                      > >
                      > > Example presence of alias surnames in village Strubowiska:
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > From: http://www.members.tripod.com/warholic/stru4547.htm
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > .... The house or farm numbers shown on the map are listed below,
                      > by
                      > > family name and nickname.
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > (Note: all names are translated and written phonetically using
                      > Polish
                      > > spelling and pronunciations, J=Y, W=V, C=TS, etc. )
                      > >
                      > > No. Name Nickname
                      > >
                      > > 1 School
                      > > 2 The Jew Wolosky Hershko
                      > > 3 Ferensewitch, Fedor & Iwan Halushka
                      > > 4 Moskal, Iwan Moskaliwski
                      > > 5 The Jew Koba Mihawchik
                      > > 6 Rusyn, Iwan
                      > > 7 Kopalciw Lazarishen
                      > > 8 Semania, Maria Moskal
                      > > 9 Sa»amaszczak, Dmetro Dzedziw
                      > > 10 Mi»awczak, Jurko
                      > > 11 Grendey, Iwan Wugreniw
                      > > 12 Rusyn, Iwan Ryzun (cut throat)
                      > > 13 Berezansky, Iwan & Stanko Mandrichkiw
                      > > 14 ºucyszka, Fedor Pazen
                      > > 15 Rusyn, Jurko Bowtuljak
                      > > 16 Rusyn, Wasyl Celkiw
                      > > 17 Cegan, Mykhailo Mitchen
                      > > 18 Cegan, Anna Dzendzowa
                      > > 19 Rusyn, Leso
                      > > 20 Oszczep, Wasyl Melnekivckij
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > No. Name Nickname
                      > >
                      > > 21 Podoljak, Wasyl
                      > > 22 Sa»amaszczak, Jurko Demkiw
                      > > 23 Rusynkiewicz, Mykhailo Juljanchek
                      > > 24 Oszczep, Jurko Krupchen
                      > > 25 Rusyn, Mykhailo Luzhanchen
                      > > 26 Rusyn, Mykhailo Witiw (W\jt-head of group of villages)
                      > > 27 Andrejko, Matwi
                      > > 28 Beca, Wasyl
                      > > 29 Kaniuk, Petro
                      > > 30 Swistock, Dmetro
                      > > 31 Rusyn, Stanko Gretskiw
                      > > 32 Swystak, Mykhailo & Stashko Berezhenechchen
                      > > 33 Warcholak, Mykola Shcherbatogo (missing teeth)
                      > > 34 Warcholak, Hric Krakusiw (from Krakow)
                      > > 35 Kowal, Jurko Luchkiw
                      > > 36 Maruszczak, Iwan Firkiw
                      > > 37 Kowal, Wasyl Antoniw
                      > > 38 Warcholak, Fedor Antoniw (of Anthony?)
                      > > 39 Warcholak, Ivan Wrubliw (sparrow)
                      > > 40 Rusyn, Tekla Na Kamience (of the stone)
                      > >
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > No. Name Nickname
                      > >
                      > > 41 Cegan, Wasyl & Ivan Hreniw
                      > > 42 Rusyn, Mykola Wijtiw Mlen ("mayor’s mill")
                      > > 43 Popowicz, Fedo Bactrjanchen
                      > > 44 Rusyn, Fedor Berezchen (Birch tree)
                      > > 45 Kaniuk, Iwan Kurnekiw (chicken coop)
                      > > 46 Wowk, Hric
                      > > 47 Rusyn, Mykhailo Milkiw
                      > > 48 Stachuràkyj, Stanko
                      > > 49 Terlecki, Iwan Nastunjakiw
                      > > 50 Sa»amaszczak, Iwan Demkiw
                      > > 51 ºazoryszyn, Jurko Pazen
                      > > 52 Leszczy½ski, Wasyl & Iwan Jasjakiw
                      > > 53
                      > > 54 Kuca, Jewa Jewnya
                      > > 55 Cerkwa Church
                      > > 56 Rohanak, Kasia Kopaltsowa (miner)
                      > > 57 Kaniuk, Mykola Tsedanechiw
                      > > 58 Woloskoho, Jew Kasarnia (military barracks)
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > /
                      > >
                      >
                    • amiak27
                      Dennis, It is sometimes hard to keep the different ethnic groups apart in my mind. Use of Aliasses has been discussed among Slovak forums quite a bit, and
                      Message 10 of 13 , Feb 27, 2007
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                        Dennis,

                        It is sometimes hard to keep the different ethnic groups apart in my
                        mind. Use of Aliasses has been discussed among Slovak forums quite a
                        bit, and while the use of dual names or switching names for a few
                        generations may stem from different reasons in Galicia, perhaps some
                        of these also occurred up there.

                        Sometimes family became too extended and the names too common in one
                        village. On my mother's side I come from the "Paul" Vallos in Lozin,
                        not the "other" Vallos, for one specific example. I can't say how many
                        generations that goes back. The same method could also lead to a
                        nickname by bodily feature, as "longnose" or "fast walker" to invent
                        two. Sometimes these nicknames would just be assigned by some well
                        known feature fo the indivicual.

                        Sometimes a man would adapt the wife's family name when there was no
                        male heir, as part of an agreement to keep the name of the wealthier
                        family viable.

                        Then again if a "John White" moved in from another village, the family
                        might be tagged as "Lipnik John White" if they came from Lipnik.

                        In Slovakia/Northern Hungary the use of multiple names or changed
                        names was not terribly rare.

                        Ron


                        --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "Dennis Benarz"
                        <benarz@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Hi Lavrentiy
                        >
                        > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized that
                        the > practice was so common in the highlands of central Galicia. I
                        wonder > why they thought that the deception was necessary? (But I am
                        not > curious enough to research it myself because it is outside of my
                        > chosen area of focus.)
                        >
                        > I haven't found any alias surnames among Poles in the Roman Catholic
                        > parish records in western Galicia. The only timeframe in which I
                        have > spotted the use of "aliases" was during World War II when
                        members of > the AK (the underground Polish Home Army) were given code
                        names. This > was done for the obvious reason of trying to limit the true
                        > identities of its soldiers to only those from the same village in
                        the > event that an AK member was captured and interrogated by the Nazis.
                        >
                        > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have seldom
                        > found their way into the various records.
                        >
                        > Dennis
                        >
                      • einamaka
                        Thank you Fred and all... I m finding this information very interesting! The usage in my situation seems that it wasn t just a certain individual who had the
                        Message 11 of 13 , Feb 27, 2007
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                          Thank you Fred and all...
                          I'm finding this information very interesting!

                          The usage in my situation seems that it wasn't just a certain
                          individual who had the "Namaka v. Stepach" or "Slepach vel. Namaka"
                          etc., but the usage was also given to the father's children, and
                          also see it on his brother's entries. So it went through about a
                          genreation or two, but was not there before or after...

                          so it doesn't seem like an "alias" for a particular individual, but
                          seems like a brief family name change that lasted a gereation or
                          so...

                          any idea what Stepach/Slepach means?
                          Cheers!
                          Erika






                          --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "wfhoffman"
                          <WFHoffman@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Hi,
                          >
                          > In response to Lavrentiy's list of "proper names" and "nicknames,"
                          Dennis
                          > Benarz wrote:
                          >
                          > > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized
                          > > that the practice was so common in the highlands of central
                          > > Galicia. I wonder why they thought that the deception was
                          > > necessary?
                          >
                          > It is a fascinating topic, but the use of English terms here
                          generates
                          > confusion. These names weren't really "nicknames" in the sense we
                          use that
                          > word, and the use of _alias_ did not have the connotation it does
                          in
                          > English. When you see a record identifies one of the parties as "X
                          alias Y,"
                          > it simply means some people called him X, some called him Y. It
                          doesn't
                          > necessarily imply anything about the person in question; the
                          record keeper
                          > is just recording a fact in hopes of better identifying him.
                          >
                          > There wasn't usually any deception involved. How could there be?
                          Most folks
                          > grew up in rural settings where folks generally knew each other.
                          If you've
                          > ever lived in a small farming village, as I have, you realize how
                          hard it is
                          > to deceive the locals. I remember when someone told me, only
                          > half-joking,"While driving, you don't need to bother using your
                          turn signal.
                          > We all know where you're going." (As a big-city boy, that kind of
                          freaked me
                          > out, actually.)
                          >
                          > Anyway, I have to figure there was a lot of that mentality in
                          rural Poland.
                          > It wouldn't be easy putting anything over on the people who'd
                          known you
                          > since the day you were born. But given how stubborn Poles are, it
                          is
                          > entirely plausible that some folks would insist on calling a guy
                          by one
                          > name, and others would insist on calling him something entirely
                          different.
                          > It'd be kind of like those old Miller Lite commercials, "Tastes
                          great! Less
                          > filling!"
                          >
                          > > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have seldom
                          > > found their way into the various records.
                          >
                          > I wouldn't disagree in general, especially as regards birth,
                          marriage, and
                          > death records. But Polish, at least traditionally, doesn't exactly
                          have what
                          > we call nicknames. They have _przydomki_ -- what they called
                          you "at home,"
                          > przy domu -- and those are numerous in the records, especially for
                          nobles.
                          > We don't see as many old documents recording _przydomki_ because
                          for a long
                          > time nobody bothered keeping records regarding peasants. But Jan
                          Slomka's
                          > memoirs, _From Serfdom to Self-Government: Memoirs of a Polish
                          Mayor,
                          > 1842-1927_, say they were almost universal for peasants, at least
                          in the
                          > Tarnobrzeg area:
                          >
                          > http://www.linux.net.pl/~wkotwica/slomka/slomka-06.html
                          >
                          > > Prawie kazdy chlop w owych czasach mial jakies przezwisko albo
                          > > przydomek, wedlug których byl we wsi znany i nazywany. Tak
                          > > n. p. Wojciech Luczak z Podleze nazywany byl Ponczocha,
                          > > Jozef Slomka z Podleza Rychlickim, Michal Wiacek z pod
                          > > Nru 53 Kwapiszem, Jozef Wojcikowski Drabem, Ignacy
                          > > Gronek Kozieja, Jan Szczytynski Rysiem, Jan Mortka
                          > > z pod Nru 27 Karolikiem, Stanislaw Antonczyk
                          > > Mastelarczakiem i t. d. i t. d.
                          >
                          > "In those days amost every peasant had some kind of _przezwisko_
                          or
                          > _przydomek_, by which he was known and called in the village. Thus
                          for
                          > instance Wojciech Luczek of Podleze was called Ponczocha
                          [stocking], Jozef
                          > Slomka of Podleze was called Rychlicki [one from Rychlik], Michal
                          Wiacek
                          > from Number 53 was Kwapisz [one always in a hurry, the little
                          fluffy one),
                          > Jozef Wojcikowski was Drab [thug, mercenary, or a kind of ladder],
                          Ignacy
                          > Gronek was Kozieja [goat], Jan Szczytynski was Rys [lynx], Jan
                          Mortka from
                          > Number 27 was Karolik [son of Karol], Stanislaw Antonczyk was
                          Mastelarczak
                          > [son of the stableman, groom], and so on."
                          >
                          > _Przydomek_ is tough to translate well. In English we usually
                          render it as
                          > "by-name," and modern Polish usually uses it for the English term
                          > "nickname." It is kind of like a nickname, but not really the
                          same. It was
                          > quite common for nobles and families of nobles to have by-names as
                          well as
                          > their "real names." You'll find mention in a court record of,
                          say, "Jan
                          > Nepomucen Bonawentura Stanislaw Szczurkowski, alias Nosala."
                          Noblemen often
                          > bore the same set of given names from generation to generation,
                          and the
                          > by-name was what everybody actually called him -- in this case
                          Nosala means
                          > "big-nose." (I made up this example, but if you like I can cite
                          plenty of
                          > actual cases from old records). Some by-names were associated only
                          with
                          > individuals; others were used as distinguishing names by specific
                          branches
                          > of noble families.
                          >
                          > In some cases those by-names went on to become surnames. In other
                          cases they
                          > were actually handed down from generation to generation, always
                          persisting
                          > as by-names used by an individual or a family but never quite
                          formalized as
                          > surnames. If I'm not mistaken, a lot of the compound place names
                          up in the
                          > Mazowsze region came from by-names associated with specific noble
                          heirs. You
                          > started out with an estate Jankowo (little John's place), and then
                          it was
                          > subdivided into Jankowo-Nosala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                          with the
                          > big nose) and Jankowo-Brzuchala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                          with the
                          > big belly). And on and on it went.
                          >
                          > Obviously in most cases the only way you're going to learn all you
                          want to
                          > know about how and why a by-name got attached to a specific person
                          or family
                          > is by digging into that family's history. But I've seen enough
                          records to be
                          > sure: there were plenty of cases where individuals were known by
                          two
                          > different names, and the priest or clerk recorded that fact.
                          Sometimes the
                          > names are linked semantically; sometimes they have nothing at all
                          to do with
                          > each other. Of course, those latter cases drive genealogists
                          berserk!
                          >
                          > I hope this clarifies things a bit.
                          >
                          > Fred Hoffman
                          > Author, _Polish Surnames: Origins & Meanings_
                          >
                        • krupniak
                          Hello Erika, Is the following in play in your case: an illegitimately born child takes the family name of the mother. If the mother marries the child would
                          Message 12 of 13 , Feb 28, 2007
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                            Hello Erika,

                            Is the following in play in your case:


                            an illegitimately born child takes the family name of the mother. If
                            the mother marries the child would have two surnames.

                            ______

                            Lavrentiy


                            --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "einamaka"
                            <einamaka@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > Thank you Fred and all...
                            > I'm finding this information very interesting!
                            >
                            > The usage in my situation seems that it wasn't just a certain
                            > individual who had the "Namaka v. Stepach" or "Slepach vel. Namaka"
                            > etc., but the usage was also given to the father's children, and
                            > also see it on his brother's entries. So it went through about a
                            > genreation or two, but was not there before or after...
                            >
                            > so it doesn't seem like an "alias" for a particular individual, but
                            > seems like a brief family name change that lasted a gereation or
                            > so...
                            >
                            > any idea what Stepach/Slepach means?
                            > Cheers!
                            > Erika
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "wfhoffman"
                            > <WFHoffman@> wrote:
                            > >
                            > > Hi,
                            > >
                            > > In response to Lavrentiy's list of "proper names"
                            and "nicknames,"
                            > Dennis
                            > > Benarz wrote:
                            > >
                            > > > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized
                            > > > that the practice was so common in the highlands of central
                            > > > Galicia. I wonder why they thought that the deception was
                            > > > necessary?
                            > >
                            > > It is a fascinating topic, but the use of English terms here
                            > generates
                            > > confusion. These names weren't really "nicknames" in the sense we
                            > use that
                            > > word, and the use of _alias_ did not have the connotation it does
                            > in
                            > > English. When you see a record identifies one of the parties
                            as "X
                            > alias Y,"
                            > > it simply means some people called him X, some called him Y. It
                            > doesn't
                            > > necessarily imply anything about the person in question; the
                            > record keeper
                            > > is just recording a fact in hopes of better identifying him.
                            > >
                            > > There wasn't usually any deception involved. How could there be?
                            > Most folks
                            > > grew up in rural settings where folks generally knew each other.
                            > If you've
                            > > ever lived in a small farming village, as I have, you realize how
                            > hard it is
                            > > to deceive the locals. I remember when someone told me, only
                            > > half-joking,"While driving, you don't need to bother using your
                            > turn signal.
                            > > We all know where you're going." (As a big-city boy, that kind of
                            > freaked me
                            > > out, actually.)
                            > >
                            > > Anyway, I have to figure there was a lot of that mentality in
                            > rural Poland.
                            > > It wouldn't be easy putting anything over on the people who'd
                            > known you
                            > > since the day you were born. But given how stubborn Poles are, it
                            > is
                            > > entirely plausible that some folks would insist on calling a guy
                            > by one
                            > > name, and others would insist on calling him something entirely
                            > different.
                            > > It'd be kind of like those old Miller Lite commercials, "Tastes
                            > great! Less
                            > > filling!"
                            > >
                            > > > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have
                            seldom
                            > > > found their way into the various records.
                            > >
                            > > I wouldn't disagree in general, especially as regards birth,
                            > marriage, and
                            > > death records. But Polish, at least traditionally, doesn't
                            exactly
                            > have what
                            > > we call nicknames. They have _przydomki_ -- what they called
                            > you "at home,"
                            > > przy domu -- and those are numerous in the records, especially
                            for
                            > nobles.
                            > > We don't see as many old documents recording _przydomki_ because
                            > for a long
                            > > time nobody bothered keeping records regarding peasants. But Jan
                            > Slomka's
                            > > memoirs, _From Serfdom to Self-Government: Memoirs of a Polish
                            > Mayor,
                            > > 1842-1927_, say they were almost universal for peasants, at least
                            > in the
                            > > Tarnobrzeg area:
                            > >
                            > > http://www.linux.net.pl/~wkotwica/slomka/slomka-06.html
                            > >
                            > > > Prawie kazdy chlop w owych czasach mial jakies przezwisko albo
                            > > > przydomek, wedlug któ²¹£h byl we wsi znany i nazywany. Tak
                            > > > n. p. Wojciech Luczak z Podleze nazywany byl Ponczocha,
                            > > > Jozef Slomka z Podleza Rychlickim, Michal Wiacek z pod
                            > > > Nru 53 Kwapiszem, Jozef Wojcikowski Drabem, Ignacy
                            > > > Gronek Kozieja, Jan Szczytynski Rysiem, Jan Mortka
                            > > > z pod Nru 27 Karolikiem, Stanislaw Antonczyk
                            > > > Mastelarczakiem i t. d. i t. d.
                            > >
                            > > "In those days amost every peasant had some kind of _przezwisko_
                            > or
                            > > _przydomek_, by which he was known and called in the village.
                            Thus
                            > for
                            > > instance Wojciech Luczek of Podleze was called Ponczocha
                            > [stocking], Jozef
                            > > Slomka of Podleze was called Rychlicki [one from Rychlik], Michal
                            > Wiacek
                            > > from Number 53 was Kwapisz [one always in a hurry, the little
                            > fluffy one),
                            > > Jozef Wojcikowski was Drab [thug, mercenary, or a kind of
                            ladder],
                            > Ignacy
                            > > Gronek was Kozieja [goat], Jan Szczytynski was Rys [lynx], Jan
                            > Mortka from
                            > > Number 27 was Karolik [son of Karol], Stanislaw Antonczyk was
                            > Mastelarczak
                            > > [son of the stableman, groom], and so on."
                            > >
                            > > _Przydomek_ is tough to translate well. In English we usually
                            > render it as
                            > > "by-name," and modern Polish usually uses it for the English term
                            > > "nickname." It is kind of like a nickname, but not really the
                            > same. It was
                            > > quite common for nobles and families of nobles to have by-names
                            as
                            > well as
                            > > their "real names." You'll find mention in a court record of,
                            > say, "Jan
                            > > Nepomucen Bonawentura Stanislaw Szczurkowski, alias Nosala."
                            > Noblemen often
                            > > bore the same set of given names from generation to generation,
                            > and the
                            > > by-name was what everybody actually called him -- in this case
                            > Nosala means
                            > > "big-nose." (I made up this example, but if you like I can cite
                            > plenty of
                            > > actual cases from old records). Some by-names were associated
                            only
                            > with
                            > > individuals; others were used as distinguishing names by specific
                            > branches
                            > > of noble families.
                            > >
                            > > In some cases those by-names went on to become surnames. In other
                            > cases they
                            > > were actually handed down from generation to generation, always
                            > persisting
                            > > as by-names used by an individual or a family but never quite
                            > formalized as
                            > > surnames. If I'm not mistaken, a lot of the compound place names
                            > up in the
                            > > Mazowsze region came from by-names associated with specific noble
                            > heirs. You
                            > > started out with an estate Jankowo (little John's place), and
                            then
                            > it was
                            > > subdivided into Jankowo-Nosala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                            > with the
                            > > big nose) and Jankowo-Brzuchala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                            > with the
                            > > big belly). And on and on it went.
                            > >
                            > > Obviously in most cases the only way you're going to learn all
                            you
                            > want to
                            > > know about how and why a by-name got attached to a specific
                            person
                            > or family
                            > > is by digging into that family's history. But I've seen enough
                            > records to be
                            > > sure: there were plenty of cases where individuals were known by
                            > two
                            > > different names, and the priest or clerk recorded that fact.
                            > Sometimes the
                            > > names are linked semantically; sometimes they have nothing at all
                            > to do with
                            > > each other. Of course, those latter cases drive genealogists
                            > berserk!
                            > >
                            > > I hope this clarifies things a bit.
                            > >
                            > > Fred Hoffman
                            > > Author, _Polish Surnames: Origins & Meanings_
                            > >
                            >
                          • einamaka
                            Hi Lavrentiy, That could be the case but I haven t found an instance of it yet. There are no comments that say this part of the family had illegitimate births
                            Message 13 of 13 , Feb 28, 2007
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Hi Lavrentiy,

                              That could be the case but I haven't found an instance of it yet.
                              There are no comments that say this part of the family had
                              illegitimate births (although i see it elsewhere!)

                              here are examples of what is see on this list:

                              Birthdate: 1894.03.25 (my great grandfather)
                              Son: Namaka Alexius
                              Father: Namaka Bartholemeus
                              Father's Father: Namaka Theodori
                              Father's Mother: Stepach Apollonia
                              Mother: Nawrocki Eudoxia

                              Birthdate :1846.09.04 (great great grandfather)
                              Son: Namaka v Stepach Bartholomus
                              Father: Namaka v Stepazh Theodorus
                              Father's father: Namaka v Stepazh Thimotei (olim)
                              Father's mother: Antoniszyn Ahaphia
                              Mother: Jaszczyszyn Pelagia


                              Marriage Date: 1840.02.09
                              Groom: Slepak Joannes age 43
                              Groom's father: Slepak Joannes
                              comment: widow from Okno, or Stepak
                              Bride: Iwaszkow Euphemia age 22


                              Marriage date: 1841.10.24
                              Groom: Namaka v Slepach Theodore age 26
                              Groom's father: Slepach v Namaka Thimothei
                              Bride: Konenko Barbara age 18

                              Marriage date: 1841.01.25
                              Groom: Slepak vel Namaka Joannes age 44
                              Groom's father: Namaka v Slepak Joannes
                              Bride: Konenko Melania age 39


                              I have seen other record's where Bartko's mother is listed as Jacyszyn
                              Pelagia and via brother's birth record, there is listed a Czajkowski
                              Apollonia (Pelagia). Could Pelagia and Apollonia Stepach might be the
                              same person??

                              Cheers!
                              Erika






                              --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "krupniak"
                              <Lkrupnak@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > Hello Erika,
                              >
                              > Is the following in play in your case:
                              >
                              >
                              > an illegitimately born child takes the family name of the mother. If
                              > the mother marries the child would have two surnames.
                              >
                              > ______
                              >
                              > Lavrentiy
                              >
                              >
                              > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "einamaka"
                              > <einamaka@> wrote:
                              > >
                              > > Thank you Fred and all...
                              > > I'm finding this information very interesting!
                              > >
                              > > The usage in my situation seems that it wasn't just a certain
                              > > individual who had the "Namaka v. Stepach" or "Slepach vel. Namaka"
                              > > etc., but the usage was also given to the father's children, and
                              > > also see it on his brother's entries. So it went through about a
                              > > genreation or two, but was not there before or after...
                              > >
                              > > so it doesn't seem like an "alias" for a particular individual, but
                              > > seems like a brief family name change that lasted a gereation or
                              > > so...
                              > >
                              > > any idea what Stepach/Slepach means?
                              > > Cheers!
                              > > Erika
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > >
                              > > --- In Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com, "wfhoffman"
                              > > <WFHoffman@> wrote:
                              > > >
                              > > > Hi,
                              > > >
                              > > > In response to Lavrentiy's list of "proper names"
                              > and "nicknames,"
                              > > Dennis
                              > > > Benarz wrote:
                              > > >
                              > > > > The article and topic are both interesting. I never realized
                              > > > > that the practice was so common in the highlands of central
                              > > > > Galicia. I wonder why they thought that the deception was
                              > > > > necessary?
                              > > >
                              > > > It is a fascinating topic, but the use of English terms here
                              > > generates
                              > > > confusion. These names weren't really "nicknames" in the sense we
                              > > use that
                              > > > word, and the use of _alias_ did not have the connotation it does
                              > > in
                              > > > English. When you see a record identifies one of the parties
                              > as "X
                              > > alias Y,"
                              > > > it simply means some people called him X, some called him Y. It
                              > > doesn't
                              > > > necessarily imply anything about the person in question; the
                              > > record keeper
                              > > > is just recording a fact in hopes of better identifying him.
                              > > >
                              > > > There wasn't usually any deception involved. How could there be?
                              > > Most folks
                              > > > grew up in rural settings where folks generally knew each other.
                              > > If you've
                              > > > ever lived in a small farming village, as I have, you realize how
                              > > hard it is
                              > > > to deceive the locals. I remember when someone told me, only
                              > > > half-joking,"While driving, you don't need to bother using your
                              > > turn signal.
                              > > > We all know where you're going." (As a big-city boy, that kind of
                              > > freaked me
                              > > > out, actually.)
                              > > >
                              > > > Anyway, I have to figure there was a lot of that mentality in
                              > > rural Poland.
                              > > > It wouldn't be easy putting anything over on the people who'd
                              > > known you
                              > > > since the day you were born. But given how stubborn Poles are, it
                              > > is
                              > > > entirely plausible that some folks would insist on calling a guy
                              > > by one
                              > > > name, and others would insist on calling him something entirely
                              > > different.
                              > > > It'd be kind of like those old Miller Lite commercials, "Tastes
                              > > great! Less
                              > > > filling!"
                              > > >
                              > > > > Nicknames certainly existed and still exist, but they have
                              > seldom
                              > > > > found their way into the various records.
                              > > >
                              > > > I wouldn't disagree in general, especially as regards birth,
                              > > marriage, and
                              > > > death records. But Polish, at least traditionally, doesn't
                              > exactly
                              > > have what
                              > > > we call nicknames. They have _przydomki_ -- what they called
                              > > you "at home,"
                              > > > przy domu -- and those are numerous in the records, especially
                              > for
                              > > nobles.
                              > > > We don't see as many old documents recording _przydomki_ because
                              > > for a long
                              > > > time nobody bothered keeping records regarding peasants. But Jan
                              > > Slomka's
                              > > > memoirs, _From Serfdom to Self-Government: Memoirs of a Polish
                              > > Mayor,
                              > > > 1842-1927_, say they were almost universal for peasants, at least
                              > > in the
                              > > > Tarnobrzeg area:
                              > > >
                              > > > http://www.linux.net.pl/~wkotwica/slomka/slomka-06.html
                              > > >
                              > > > > Prawie kazdy chlop w owych czasach mial jakies przezwisko albo
                              > > > > przydomek, wedlug któ²¹£h byl we wsi znany i nazywany. Tak
                              > > > > n. p. Wojciech Luczak z Podleze nazywany byl Ponczocha,
                              > > > > Jozef Slomka z Podleza Rychlickim, Michal Wiacek z pod
                              > > > > Nru 53 Kwapiszem, Jozef Wojcikowski Drabem, Ignacy
                              > > > > Gronek Kozieja, Jan Szczytynski Rysiem, Jan Mortka
                              > > > > z pod Nru 27 Karolikiem, Stanislaw Antonczyk
                              > > > > Mastelarczakiem i t. d. i t. d.
                              > > >
                              > > > "In those days amost every peasant had some kind of _przezwisko_
                              > > or
                              > > > _przydomek_, by which he was known and called in the village.
                              > Thus
                              > > for
                              > > > instance Wojciech Luczek of Podleze was called Ponczocha
                              > > [stocking], Jozef
                              > > > Slomka of Podleze was called Rychlicki [one from Rychlik], Michal
                              > > Wiacek
                              > > > from Number 53 was Kwapisz [one always in a hurry, the little
                              > > fluffy one),
                              > > > Jozef Wojcikowski was Drab [thug, mercenary, or a kind of
                              > ladder],
                              > > Ignacy
                              > > > Gronek was Kozieja [goat], Jan Szczytynski was Rys [lynx], Jan
                              > > Mortka from
                              > > > Number 27 was Karolik [son of Karol], Stanislaw Antonczyk was
                              > > Mastelarczak
                              > > > [son of the stableman, groom], and so on."
                              > > >
                              > > > _Przydomek_ is tough to translate well. In English we usually
                              > > render it as
                              > > > "by-name," and modern Polish usually uses it for the English term
                              > > > "nickname." It is kind of like a nickname, but not really the
                              > > same. It was
                              > > > quite common for nobles and families of nobles to have by-names
                              > as
                              > > well as
                              > > > their "real names." You'll find mention in a court record of,
                              > > say, "Jan
                              > > > Nepomucen Bonawentura Stanislaw Szczurkowski, alias Nosala."
                              > > Noblemen often
                              > > > bore the same set of given names from generation to generation,
                              > > and the
                              > > > by-name was what everybody actually called him -- in this case
                              > > Nosala means
                              > > > "big-nose." (I made up this example, but if you like I can cite
                              > > plenty of
                              > > > actual cases from old records). Some by-names were associated
                              > only
                              > > with
                              > > > individuals; others were used as distinguishing names by specific
                              > > branches
                              > > > of noble families.
                              > > >
                              > > > In some cases those by-names went on to become surnames. In other
                              > > cases they
                              > > > were actually handed down from generation to generation, always
                              > > persisting
                              > > > as by-names used by an individual or a family but never quite
                              > > formalized as
                              > > > surnames. If I'm not mistaken, a lot of the compound place names
                              > > up in the
                              > > > Mazowsze region came from by-names associated with specific noble
                              > > heirs. You
                              > > > started out with an estate Jankowo (little John's place), and
                              > then
                              > > it was
                              > > > subdivided into Jankowo-Nosala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                              > > with the
                              > > > big nose) and Jankowo-Brzuchala (the Jankowo belonging to the guy
                              > > with the
                              > > > big belly). And on and on it went.
                              > > >
                              > > > Obviously in most cases the only way you're going to learn all
                              > you
                              > > want to
                              > > > know about how and why a by-name got attached to a specific
                              > person
                              > > or family
                              > > > is by digging into that family's history. But I've seen enough
                              > > records to be
                              > > > sure: there were plenty of cases where individuals were known by
                              > > two
                              > > > different names, and the priest or clerk recorded that fact.
                              > > Sometimes the
                              > > > names are linked semantically; sometimes they have nothing at all
                              > > to do with
                              > > > each other. Of course, those latter cases drive genealogists
                              > > berserk!
                              > > >
                              > > > I hope this clarifies things a bit.
                              > > >
                              > > > Fred Hoffman
                              > > > Author, _Polish Surnames: Origins & Meanings_
                              > > >
                              > >
                              >
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