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48372Re: [rusyns] Recruiting Immigrants to US and Canada

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  • Laurence Krupnak
    Aug 24, 2014
    • 0 Attachment
      Women of the Klondike:
      Mining the miners:
      the following is in Colorado:
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, August 24, 2014 7:17 PM
      Subject: [rusyns] Recruiting Immigrants to US and Canada



      Then, in 1874, gold was found in the Dakota territory.  American gold rush was on. 
      The American prospectors and politicians said, "if there is gold in the Black Hills then there is gold in Canada.  We'll just go up there and take that land.  What can Canada do about it?"
      Then gold was found in the Yukon River Valley (Alaska and Canada territories) in 1896:

      The borders in South-east Alaska were disputed between the US, Canada and Britain since the American purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[127] The US and Canada both claimed the ports of Dyea and Skagway.[127] This, combined with the numbers of American prospectors, the quantities of gold being mined and the difficulties in exercising government authority in such a remote area, made the control of the borders a sensitive issue.[128]

      Early on in the gold rush, the US Army sent a small detachment to Circle City, in case intervention was required in the Klondike, while the Canadian government considered excluding all American prospectors from the Yukon Territory.[129] Neither eventuality took place and instead the US agreed to make Dyea a sub-port of entry for Canadians, allowing British ships to land Canadian passengers and goods freely there, while Canada agreed to permit American miners to operate in the Klondike.[130] Both decisions were unpopular among their domestic publics: American businessmen complained that their right to a monopoly on regional trade was being undermined, while the Canadian public demanded action against the American miners.[130]

      The North-West Mounted Police set up control posts at the borders of the Yukon Territory or, where that was disputed, at easily controlled points such as the Chilkoot and White Passes.[131] These units were armed with Maxim guns.[132] Their tasks included enforcing the rules requiring that travellers bring a year's supply of food with them to be allowed into the Yukon Territory, checking for illegal weapons, preventing the entry of criminals and enforcing customs duties.[133]

      This last task was particularly unpopular with American prospectors, who faced paying an average of 25 percent of the value of their goods and supplies.[134] The Mounties had a reputation for running these posts honestly, although accusations were made that they took bribes.[135] Prospectors, on the other hand, tried to smuggle prize items like silk and whiskey across the pass in tins and bales of hay. The former item for the ladies, the latter for the saloons.[136]

      100,000+ Americans were on the way to Alaska and far-Western Canada. 
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, August 24, 2014 6:59 PM
      Subject: [GaliciaPoland-Ukraine] Recruiting Immigrants to US and Canada





      Here is why Canada wanted settlers for the Canadian prairie lands:
      The US has no reservations when it wants to take land by force.  The US got huge land mass from Mexico via an invasion of Mexico:
      US-MEXICAN WAR. The conflict between the United States and Mexico in 1846–48 had its roots in the annexation of Texas and the westward thrust of American settlers. On assuming the American presidency in 1845, James K. Polk attempted to secure Mexican agreement to setting the boundary at the Rio Grande and to the sale of northern California. What he failed to realize was that even his carefully orchestrated policy of graduated pressure would not work because no Mexican politician could agree to the alienation of any territory, including Texas.

      Frustrated by the Mexican refusal to negotiate, Polk, on January 13, 1846, directed Gen. Zachary Taylor's army at Corpus Christi to advance to the Rio Grande. The Mexican government viewed that as an act of war. On April 25 the Mexican troops at Matamoros crossed the river and ambushed an American patrol. Polk seized upon the incident to secure a declaration of war on May 13 on the basis of the shedding of "American blood upon American soil." Meanwhile, on May 8 and 9, Taylor's 2,200-man army defeated 3,700 Mexicans under Gen. Mariano Arista in the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.qqv

      Invading Western Canada in the 1890s was a possibility.

      Canada Day July 1st is an opportunity for Canadians to reflect on issues of national sovereignty.

      Territorial control over Canada has been part of Washington’s geopolitical and military agenda since the 1860s,  following the end of the American civil war.

      In 1867, Canada became a nation, a federation, under the British North America Act,  largely in response to the threat of annexation by the United States as formulated in a bill adopted by the US Congress in 1866:

      “A Bill for the admission of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada East, and Canada West, and for the organization of the Territories of Selkirk, Saskatchewan, and Columbia. (Annexation Bill)” (see map below)






      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, August 24, 2014 6:23 PM
      Subject: [GaliciaPoland-Ukraine] Recruiting Immigrants to US and Canada



      Subject: Re: [bukovina-gen] Canadian Pacific Railroad recruitment

      Online resources related to the CPR immigrant recruitment program appear to be scarce.  The following quote may help to explain why CPR immigration promotional activities were not more overt:
      "European laws made it difficult or impossible for foreign government agents to advertise in many countries...Canadian officials resorted to contracting European steamship ticket agents to promote Canada, and paying a bonus on each agricultural immigrant sent from certain countries. The Laurier government turned a blind eye to the circumvention of European laws by their officials - as long as there were no problems."
      Jean Bruce
      The Last Best West: Advertising for Immigrants to Western Canada, 1870-1903
      Canadian Museum of History
      The following are good "visuals" related to CPR posters promoting immigration to Canada: CPR - immigration advertising posters, and http://tc2.ca/sourcedocs/uploads/history_docs/Immigration/Reasons-for-ukrainian-immigration-pre-1914.pdf.
      The collections at the Glenbow Museum in Calgary, AB appear to be promising as well, although I find their website search engine a bit clumsy to navigate:  http://www.glenbow.org/collections/
      Overall, I think any biography related to Sir Wilfred Laurier and Clifford Sifton would provide insight about how the CPR was organized and used as a strategic tool in encouraging immigration to Canada.  The following publications seem like they may be relevant resources, although I have not had an opportunity to vet them on the subject of attracting immigrants to Canada:
      Brown, Robert Craig and Ramsay Cook
      Canada 1896-1921: A Nation Transformed
      Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974
      Clippingdale, Richard
      Laurier: His Life and World
      Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1979
      Dafoe, John
      Clifford Sifton and His Times
      Toronto: Macmillan, 1931
      Dafoe, John
      Laurier : a study in Canadian politics
      Toronto : Thomas Allen, [c1922]
      Eagle, John A.
      The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Development of Western Canada, 1896-1914
      Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989
      Erickson, Charlotte, ed.
      Emigration from Europe, 1815-1914
      London: Adam and Charles Black, 1976
      Hall, David J.
      Clifford Sifton. Vol.1: The Young Napoleon, 1861-1900
      Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1985
      Macdonald, Norman
      Canada: Immigration and Colonization, 1841-1903
      Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press, 1966

      On 8/24/14 13:24, 'Laurence Krupnak' Lkrupnak@... [bukovina-gen] wrote:


      The opposite also occurred.  Many destined to the US were on ships which went to Canadian ports.  The US bound passengers were placed on trains an taken to Vermont for entry into US.  US National Archive has the border crossing records of entry into US from Canada, not vice versa.  For entry to Canada the NY, Baltimore, Philly books are all that are available.
      "By Way of Canada":
      U.S. Records of Immigration Across the U.S.-Canadian Border, 1895-1954 (St. Albans Lists)
      By Marian L. Smith
      Saint Albans, VT:
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, August 24, 2014 1:16 PM
      Subject: Re: [bukovina-gen] Canadian Pacific Railroad recruitment



      Saint Lawrence River was typically closed all Winter (for landing at Montreal or Ottawa).  Halifax was used.
      Now with the seaway and global climate change the river is seldom closed.
      As mentioned before, landing at US port was the typical alternative.
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Sunday, August 24, 2014 1:12 PM
      Subject: [bukovina-gen] Canadian Pacific Railroad recruitment



      Many also landed at Baltimore and Philadelphia.  Then were transferred to trains for transit to the border (Detroit, Niagara, Minneapolis, etc.) to enter Canada.
      ----- Original Message -----
      Sent: Saturday, August 23, 2014 5:53 PM
      Subject: Re: [bukovina-gen] Canadian Pacific Railroad recruitment


      I would suggest that you also check Ellis Island. According to family
      history, my maternal grandfather came to work on the Ontario railroad
      before he emigrated with his family to Canada in 1929. I found him on the
      Ellis Island ship passenger list along with a couple of other
      relatives/men from his village in April 1908. He would have had to go to
      Ellis Island and then cross over from USA into Canada because the St.
      Lawrence Seaway might have not been open due to weather at that time. I
      have yet to find any records as to where he would have found seasonal work
      before returning. Janet

      > Thanks. I will explore these.
      > Don
      > On Sat, Aug 23, 2014 at 1:02 PM, 'Laurence Krupnak' Lkrupnak@...
      > [bukovina-gen] <bukovina-gen@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
      >> The following were on the Yahoo Galicia Group:
      >> http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/publications/legacy/chap-2a.asp
      >> http://www.torugg.org/History/history_of_ukrainians_in_canada.html
      >> http://jubilation.uwaterloo.ca/~marj/genealogy/europesouth.html
      >> http://www.stclementsheritage.com/index.php/our-heritage/transportation/influence-of-the-railway/canadian-pacific-raliway-cpr/the-canadian-pacific-railway-a-story-for-kids
      >> /
      >> ----- Original Message -----
      >> *From:* Don Precosky don.precosky@... [bukovina-gen]
      >> <don.precosky@...+[bukovina-gen]>
      >> *To:* bukovina-gen@yahoogroups.com
      >> *Sent:* Saturday, August 23, 2014 2:56 PM
      >> *Subject:* [bukovina-gen] Canadian Pacific Railroad recruitment
      >> Hi
      >> Does anybody know of any online resources pertaining to recruitment of
      >> Bukovinian immigrants to Canada by the Canadian Pacific Railroad (CPR)?
      >> There is a book about the CPR shipping line called "Sailing the Seven
      >> Seas"
      >> by Piggott which touches upon the topic peripherally, but I would be
      >> interested in more specific information. Thanks in advance.
      >> Don
      >> --
      >> “The life of leisure doesn’t give us a moment’s rest.” —James
      >> Merrill
      >> Don Precosky
      >> Prince George, BC
      > --
      > “The life of leisure doesn’t give us a moment’s rest.” —James
      > Merrill
      > Don Precosky
      > Prince George, BC