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22220Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

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  • Danuta Janina Wójcik
    Sep 1, 2008
    • 0 Attachment
      Witaj Jacobi,

      What village did your great grandfather come from? Did he come from
      Bukovina or near by?

      Pozdrawiam
      Danuta

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@...>
      To: <Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:20 PM
      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames


      Vitayu!



      Well here we go!



      When my Great Grandfather came over, the ship manifest listed 100s as
      Ruthenian, by which they meant Ukrainian-speaking. Others on the manifest
      were listed as Russian, and others as Polish. I have examined dozens of
      early ship manifests and they used the same references. The ship Pursers
      used this term to distinguish the origins of the passengers. Likewise, early
      census-takers used the same terminology when recording the origins of
      Ukrainian settlers. You will find this reference in Naturalization papers
      and other Immigration Records.



      So you don’t like the Wikipedia reference. Well, how about one from HalGal?
      The author has, I believe both Polish and Ukrainian in his back-ground, as
      do I. I have high-lighted some sections. I hope it clears up any confusion
      you may have.



      Z Povahoyu,



      Dzhim Onyshchook



      http://www.halgal.com/ruthenian.html




      An Understanding of the Terms
      'Ruthenia' and 'Ruthenians'


      The terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are quite complex to understand. The
      confusion comes from the fact that different authors in different times have
      used the terms to mean very different things.

      These terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians are often used during the times of the
      Austrian Empire (and in modern writings about the Austrian Empire) to mean
      Ukraine and Ukrainians found in the empire (in its province of Galicia, what
      is today western Ukraine). How could a similar people be called by two
      different names: Ruthenians and Ukrainians? The answer is a historical one
      and as we know, history is often written by the victors of wars and
      geopolitics. Thus, these terms (and even a history of Ukraine itself) come
      to us by way of foreign interpretation, namely Polish, Austrian and Russian
      interpretations.

      You'll often see the terms Ruthenia and Ruthenians to mean what we now know
      as Ukraine and Ukrainians in popular genealogical resources such as
      Naturalization Papers, Immigration records, Passenger Lists, and Census
      returns. Thus, a basic understanding of history is in order to understand
      these various terms.

      In the Middle Ages, there was a large East Slavic princedom called Rus or
      Kyivan Rus (Kievan Rus) <Kiev is Russian, Kyiv is Ukrainian> on the
      territory of what is today Ukraine. In the 14th Century, Poland took
      control of the western principality of Halich. Over a period of time,
      another East Slavic principality to the north, called Muscovy, grew to
      dominate the region including the central and eastern principalities of
      Kyivan Rus. Later, Muscovy adopted the name Russia taking advantage of the
      great legacy of the powerful and influential Kyivan Rus.

      Thus, the Ukrainian people were split between Poland and Russia. The term
      Ruthenian (coming from a Latin translation of Rus) was used for the western
      Ukrainian people. Russia, however, did not want to equate Ukrainians to the
      former great principalities of Rus, so settled on the term Ukrainian, which
      means "on the borderland". <It should be noted that Russia only formally
      accepted Ukrainians as a unique and separate ethnic group in the early 20th
      Century. Up to this that time they were often called derogatorily "Little
      Russians".>

      There was a conscious effort on the part of Poland, then subsequently the
      Austrian Empire, to keep the Ruthenians from acknowledging their common ties
      with the millions of Ukrainians living across the border in the Russian
      Empire. The Austrian Empire, being a multi-national empire, often played
      the Poles and Ruthenians against each other to keep both in check thus
      maintaining its own control in the region.

      To make matters more confusing, there is yet another meaning. The term
      Ruthenians is also used for a group of people living in the Carpathian
      mountains. These East Slavic peoples are also referred to as Rusyns or
      Carpatho-Rusyns. You'll also see terms like Lemko, Hutsul and Boyko. This
      group of people were dominated by the Hungarians, who were especially cruel
      to their non-Magyar subjects. For more reading on this ethnic group, visit
      these popular websites:

      Slovak and Carpatho-Rusyn <http://www.iarelative.com/slovakia.htm>
      Genealogy Research Pages
      Carpatho-Rusyn Society <http://www.carpathorusynsociety.org/>

      So, if your ancestors come from the immediate region of the Carpathian
      Mountains, the term Ruthenian would mean Rusyn or Carpatho-Rusyn. If your
      ancestors come from what is today Ukraine but not in a mountainous region,
      the term Ruthenian would mean the same as Ukrainian.

      As a final note I must add the following (which I sincerely hope doesn't
      create too much confusion). Please keep in mind that there are some that
      believe that Rusyns (aka Carpatho-Rusyns, aka Boyko, aka Lemko, aka Hutsul)
      are simply a regional variation of Ukrainians. The scholarly debate
      continues between the two camps (one states that Rusyns are a unique and
      separate ethnic group, the other states that Rusyns are essentially
      Ukrainian but who were cut off from Ukraine proper by mountains and politics
      thus creating unique regional traits.)

      The over-simplification above is meant to teach you about the terminology
      and is not intended to be a complete history. For more information on this
      subject, you should read the following:


      Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire 1526-1918. University of
      California Press. Berkeley, 1974.
      Kann, Robert A. The Multinational Empire: Nationalism and National Reform
      in the Habsburg Monarchy 1848-1918. Octagon Books. New York, 1964.
      Magocsi, Paul Robert. A History of Ukraine. University of Washington
      Press. Seattle, 1996.
      Markovits, Andrei S. and Sysyn, Frank E. (editors). Nationbuilding and the
      Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia. Harvard University
      Press. Cambridge, 1982.
      Potichnyj, Peter J. (editor). Poland and Ukraine: Past and Present.
      Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. Edmonton, 1980.
      Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. Toronto,
      1988.





      _____

      From: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
      Wojcik
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:08 PM
      To: Galicia_Poland-Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames



      Witaj,

      That google or wiki - linki was written by a Ukranian Nationalist from
      Canada for sure.

      So, please do not confuse people, who are trying to simply get bare facts on
      their genealogy.

      Pozdrawiam,
      Danuta

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com>
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 3:01 PM
      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

      Danuta,

      The term “Ruthenian” has always been a source of confusion. Immigrant
      Ukrainians at the turn of the 1900s were often referred to as Ruthenian on
      their immigration records. Rather than get into a debate, I will refer you
      to a Wikipedia article, which succinctly outlines the evolution of the term.

      Regards,

      Jim Onyschuk

      The term Ruthenians (Ukrainian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> : Русини, Rusyny) is a
      culturally loaded term and has different meanings according to the context
      in which it is used. Initially it was the ethnonym used for the Ukrainian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> people. With the emergence of
      Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_nationalism>
      self-awareness in the mid 19th century, the term initially went out of use
      first in eastern Ukraine, then central Ukraine and later in western Ukraine
      In western Ukraine and in Ukrainian ethnic territories outside of Ukraine it
      is often still used.

      Originally the term Rusyn was a ethnonym applied to eastern Slavic-speaking
      ethnic groups, who inhabit or inhabited the cultural and ethnic region of
      Rus' <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29>
      .org/wiki/Rus_%28region%29> (Русь) often written
      through its Latin <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin>
      .org/wiki/Latin> variant Ruthenia
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenia>
      ..org/wiki/Ruthenia> .

      Then, the terms "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were the Latin terms referring to
      Slavic <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavic_peoples>
      .org/wiki/Slavic_peoples> Orthodox
      <http://enwikipedia. <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy>
      org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodoxy> people who lived in Grand
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania>
      ..org/wiki/Grand_Duchy_of_Lithuania> Duchy of Lithuania
      (inhabiting the area that is now Belarus
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus>
      ..org/wiki/Belarus> and Ukraine
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine>
      ..org/wiki/Ukraine> .[1]
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0>
      .org/wiki/Ruthenians#cite_note-0> . They spoke the
      Ruthenian <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> language). It
      was also the ethnonym used by the Ukrainian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine>
      ..org/wiki/Ukraine> kozaks
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks>
      ..org/wiki/Zaporizhian_Cossacks> to describe themselves.

      After the area of White Russia <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia> .org/wiki/White_Russia>
      (Belarus <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belarus>
      ..org/wiki/Belarus> ) became part of the Russian
      Empire <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Empire>
      .org/wiki/Russian_Empire> , the people of the
      area were seen as a sub-group of Russians
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russians>
      ..org/wiki/Russians> , and they were named White Russians
      as the name of the region of White Russia
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Russia>
      ..org/wiki/White_Russia> (Belorusians
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusians>
      ..org/wiki/Belorusians> in Ruthenian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> and Russian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Language>
      ..org/wiki/Russian_Language> means White Russians). The
      Belorusian <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belorusian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Belorusian_language> language in
      the area evolved from the Ruthenian language
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> .

      Later "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" were used as a generic term for Greek
      Catholic <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
      ..org/wiki/Eastern_Catholic_Churches>
      inhabitants of Galicia
      <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29>
      ..org/wiki/Galicia_%28Eastern_Europe%29> and adjoining
      territories up until the early 20th century who spoke Western dialects of
      the Ukrainian <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> language
      and called themselves "Русины" (Rusyny). The other English name for the same
      ethnic group was "Little Russians" (see Little Russia
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Russia>
      ..org/wiki/Little_Russia> ).

      The language these "Ruthenians" or "Ruthenes" spoke was also called the
      "Ruthenian language <http://en.wikipedia
      <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruthenian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ruthenian_language> ", the
      name "Ukrajins’ka mova" (Ukrainian language
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainian_language>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainian_language> ) became accepted by much
      of the Ukrainian literary class only in the early twentieth century in
      Austro-Hungarian <http://enwikipedia.
      <http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/Austria-Hungary> org/wiki/Austria-Hungary>
      Galicia.
      After the dissolution of Austria-Hungary in 1918 the term "Ukrainian
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainians>
      ..org/wiki/Ukrainians> " was usually applied to all
      Ukrainian-speaking inhabitants of Galicia.

      However, descendants of emigrants from Galicia residing in the United States
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States>
      ..org/wiki/United_States> , and minorities in western
      Ukraine, Poland <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poland>
      org/wiki/Poland> , and Slovakia
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovakia>
      ..org/wiki/Slovakia> , still call themselves "Русины".
      These are treated under the Wikipedia article on Rusyns
      <http://en.wikipedia <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusyns>
      ..org/wiki/Rusyns> .

      _____

      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com] On Behalf Of Danuta Janina
      Wojcik
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 2:27 PM
      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

      Witam,

      Ruthenian does not mean Ukranian. I would not exclude Russian or even
      Polish descent.

      Pozdrawiam,
      Danuta

      ----- Original Message -----
      From: "Jim Onyschuk" <jodanji@aci. <mailto:jodanji%40aci.on.ca> on.ca>
      To: <Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com>
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 10:41 AM
      Subject: RE: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

      If “race was always Ruthenian,” then they were Ukrainian.

      I find it interesting that your GGrandmother was born in Zalucze, Zeremosz,
      Poland, while your GGrandfather was born in Zaluczne, Sniatyn, Ukraine. A
      slight spelling difference. According to the Lenius “Genealogical Gazetteer
      of Galicia,” there is no Zaluczne associated with Sniatyn, there however is
      a “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem” associated with Sniatyn. This is no doubt, the
      Zalucze, “Zeremosz” of your GGrandmother and it’s not in Poland.

      The trouble with transliterating from Cyrillic is the many variations one
      gets with the Roman alphabet.

      What Immigration Records were you referring to?

      The “uk” ending was usually found in Western Ukraine. An “ak” ending is a
      common Polish variant.

      Have you done your own search using the microfilms available through the
      LDS? There are a number of films that have recently become available for
      “Zalucze. nad Czeremoszem”.

      Here are excerpts from the Family History Library Catalogue.

      Regards,

      Jim Onyschuk

      http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com> .com>
      ..com <http://www.onyschuk
      <http://www.onyschuk <http://www.onyschuk.com/> .com/> .com/>

      Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg. <Http://www.torugg.org> org> org
      <http://www.torugg.
      <http://www.torugg. <http://www.torugg.org/> org/> org/>

      http://www.torugg.
      <http://www.torugg.
      <http://www.torugg.org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html>
      org/TUGG%20Projects/trip_to_ukraine.html

      Greek Catholic Church. Załucze nad Czeremoszem (Sniatyn) (Main Author)

      Notes
      Microreproduction of original manuscripts at the State Archives of
      Ivano-Frankivs′k Region, Ukraine.
      Greek Catholic Church records (births, marriages, deaths) in Załucze nad
      Czeremoszem (Sniatyn), Galizien, Austria; later Załucze nad Czeremoszem
      (Sniatyn), Stanisławów, Poland; now Horishnie Zaluchchia and Dolishnie
      Zaluchchia, Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivs′k, Ukraine. Text in Latin, Ukrainian and
      Russian.
      Record group 631, series 1, files 521-523, 536-538.

      on 3 microfilm reels ; 35 mm.

      Film Notes
      Note - Location [Film]
      Volume 631-1/521 Births 1902-1906 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696908 Item 6 ]
      Volume 631-1/521 (cont.) Births 1906-1923 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL
      Film [ 1696909 Item 1 ]
      Volume 631-1/522 Marriages 1882-1920 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696909 Item 2 ]
      Volume 631-1/523 Deaths 1883-1914 (Horishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696909 Item 3 ]
      Volume 631-1/536 Births 1868-1886 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696788 Item 2 ]
      Volume 631-1/537 Births 1887-1902 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696788 Item 3 ]
      Volume 631-1/538 Deaths 1859-1883 (Dolishnie Zaluchchia) - FHL INTL Film
      [ 1696788 Item 4 ]

      _____

      From: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
      [mailto:Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com] On Behalf Of
      graphixkat
      Sent: Monday, September 01, 2008 4:02 AM
      To: Galicia_Poland- <mailto:Galicia_Poland-Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com>
      Ukraine@yahoogroups <mailto:Ukraine%40yahoogroups.com> .com
      Subject: [Galicia_Poland-Ukraine] Similuk/Samulak and Myroniuk Surnames

      I have been working on a family tree for years. Problem is I just
      can't get anything beyond the Detroit Border Crossing for my great
      grandparents. I was just wondering if anyone reading this might have
      any knowledge.

      GrGrandmother Accelina Katherine Myroniuk born according to
      immigration records 31 Mar 1888 in Zalucze, Zeremosz, Poland. Please
      let me know if these places are wrongly named since though I have
      tried, my geography is still not very good for that portion of the
      world. She had a sister named Caterina Solowon according to the
      border crossing records. Accelina "Kate" and her husband were
      apparently also in Canada for a time before immigrating to the
      States.

      GrGrandfather Dymitri Samulak..Similuk in States at least for some of
      the siblings and some used Samulak. He was born abt 1888 in
      Zaluczne, Dist.of Sniatyn, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine, again please
      correct me on names if I am wrong. According to a genealogist who
      did a tree for a lawyer because of a death, his brother Ivan
      Petrovych Semeluk and his wife Paraska Romanivna Kuzenko, family
      still in Ukraine, used the name Semeluk. I am curious which form of
      that name would be correct in Poland/Ukraine. Race was always
      Ruthenian on border crossings.

      So if anyone can give me anything helpful..even if it's just
      corrrections on spelling, locations whatever I would appreciate it so
      much. I have more family member names of Ivan still in Ukraine if
      anyone is interested. Thanks in advance and even the smallest help
      would mean a lot.

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