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HCV - MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET

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  • claudine intexas
    http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/biosafty/msds/msds77e.html LABORATORY CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/biosafty/msds/msds77e.html
    Message 1 of 1 , Feb 28, 2001
      http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/biosafty/msds/msds77e.html

      LABORATORY CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL
      http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hpb/lcdc/biosafty/msds/msds77e.html

      LABORATORY CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL
      MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
      SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT
      NAME: Hepatitis C virus

      SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Parenterally transmitted
      non-A non-B
      hepatitis,
      Non-B transfusion-associated hepatitis,
      Post-transfusion non-A non-B
      hepatitis, HCV

      CHARACTERISTICS: Single stranded, positive sense RNA,
      enveloped, 50 nm
      diameter, Flaviviridae

      SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD
      PATHOGENICITY: Onset is insidious, with anorexia,
      vague abdominal
      discomfort, nausea and vomiting, progressing to
      jaundice (less
      frequently
      than hepatitis B); severity ranges from unapparent
      cases in
      approximately
      75% of infections to rare fulminating, fatal cases;
      chronic liver
      disease
      with fluctuating or persistently elevated liver
      enzymes is common,
      occurring after >60% of HCV infections in adults; of
      those with chronic
      liver disease, 30%-60% may develop chronic active
      hepatitis and 5%-20%
      may
      develop cirrhosis; chronic infection is often not
      symptomatic; there
      appears to be an association between HCV infection and
      hepatocellular
      carcinoma

      EPIDEMIOLOGY: HCV has been found in every part of the
      world where it
      has
      been sought; the virus is parenterally transmitted; in
      the United
      States,
      HCV accounts for about 20% of acute viral hepatitis
      cases, of which
      less
      than 5% are associated with blood transfusion;
      prevalence of anti-HCV
      is
      highest in injecting drug users and hemophilia
      patients (70%-90%),
      moderate
      in hemodialysis patients (10%-20%), low in
      heterosexuals with multiple
      sex
      partners, homosexual men, health care workers and
      family contacts of
      HCV-infected persons (1%-5%), and lowest in volunteer
      blood donors
      (0.3%-0.5%)

      HOST RANGE: Humans; has been experimentally
      transmitted to chimpanzees

      INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

      MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Percutaneous exposure to
      contaminated blood and
      plasma derivatives; contaminated needles and syringes
      are important
      vehicles of spread, especially among injecting drug
      users; risk of HCV
      transmission by household contact and sexual activity
      has not been well
      defined, but efficiency of transmission via these
      routes appears to be
      low;
      vertical transmission appears to be uncommon, however
      risk of
      transmission
      may increase when the mother is co-infected with HIV;
      in over 40% of
      cases,
      the risk factor(s) for HCV transmission cannot be
      identified

      INCUBATION PERIOD: Ranges from 2 weeks to 6 months;
      most commonly 6-9
      weeks

      COMMUNICABILITY: From one or more weeks before onset
      of first symptoms;
      may
      persist in most persons indefinitely

      SECTION III - DISSEMINATION
      RESERVOIR: Humans. Other reservoirs are unknown in the
      current
      literature

      ZOONOSIS: Not known

      VECTORS: Not known

      SECTION IV - VIABILITY
      DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

      SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: There is no data
      available in the
      current
      literature on the susceptibility of HCV to
      disinfectants. Because HCV
      is an
      enveloped virus, general disinfection measures against
      hepatitis B
      virus
      are applicable (1% sodium hypochlorite, 70% ethanol,
      2% glutaraldehyde,
      formaldehyde)

      PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: There is no data available in
      the current
      literature
      on the susceptibility of HCV to physical inactivation.
      Again, because
      HCV
      is an enveloped virus, general inactivation measures
      against hepatitis
      B
      virus are applicable (stable at 37�C for 60 min but
      not at temperatures
      above 60�C; stable at pH 2.4 for up to 6 hours). May
      not be inactivated
      by UV

      SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Not known. Suspected to be
      similar to hepatitis
      B
      virus (survives in dried blood for long periods-weeks)

      SECTION V - MEDICAL
      SURVEILLANCE: Testing of blood samples for elevated
      liver enzyme
      levels,
      anti-HCV or direct viral RNA detection by PCR
      amplification

      FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Interferon alpha has been shown
      to have an overall
      beneficial effect in about 25% of chronic hepatitis
      cases; a combined
      treatment of ribavirin-interferon alpha has been
      reported to be equally
      effective or better than alpha interferon alone for
      treatment of
      chronic
      hepatitis

      IMMUNIZATION: Applicability of immunization not known;
      repeated
      infections
      with HCV have been demonstrated in an experimental
      chimpanzee model

      PROPHYLAXIS: None available

      SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS
      LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Medical personnel have
      slightly higher
      antibody prevalence to HCV than the general
      population; therefore
      health
      care workers handling blood are at higher risk to HCV
      infection,
      however,
      not to the same degree as HBV infection

      SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood and blood products.
      Transmission through
      sexual
      and casual contact is not well documented

      PRIMARY HAZARDS: Parenteral inoculation of blood and
      plasma products.
      However, over half of HCV infections in the United
      States are due to
      factors other than percutaneous exposure to HCV. These
      other factors
      are
      yet unknown

      SPECIAL HAZARDS: Needle stick with infected blood

      SECTION VI1 - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS
      CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment level 2
      practices for activities
      utilizing infectious body fluids and tissues;
      Containment level 3 and
      personnel precautions for activities with high
      potential for droplet or
      aerosol production and high production quantities or
      concentrations;
      Animal
      Pathogen containment level 2 for work with non-human
      primates

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin
      contact is
      unavoidable and when working with animals; wrap-around
      gown and gloves
      for
      work in biosafety cabinet

      OTHER PRECAUTIONS: General needle safety precautions
      important - do not
      bend, break or recap needles; dispose directly into
      puncture-proof
      container

      SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION
      SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective
      clothing, gently
      cover
      spill with absorbent paper towel and apply 1% sodium
      hypochlorite
      (effective for HBV), starting at perimeter and working
      towards the
      centre;
      allow sufficient contact time (30 min-effective for
      HBV) before
      clean-up

      DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam
      sterilization, chemical
      disinfection, incineration

      STORAGE: In sealed containers that are properly
      labelled

      SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION
      Date prepared: September 1997 Prepared by: Office of
      Biosafety

      LCDC

      Although the information, opinions and recommendations
      contained in
      this
      Material Safety Data Sheet are compiled from sources
      believed to be
      reliable, we accept no responsibility for the
      accuracy, sufficiency, or
      reliability or for any loss or injury resulting from
      the use of this
      information. Newly discovered hazards are frequent and
      this information
      may
      not be completely up to date.


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