HCV & HIV info for Texas
- I have been scanning thru the Texas Dept of Health information and it's amazing what I find :) I wanted to share this with you. It will also be posted on my DFW Liver Diseaes Newsletter (http://community.dallasnews.com/dmn/dfwliver) ........... alley
excerpts from Substance Abuse Trends in Texas: June 1998
by Jane C. Maxwell, Ph.D.
Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse
AIDS cases among heterosexuals are increasing, as are cases involving females and African Americans. Programs are more aware of hepatitis C (HCV) and the lack of resources for testing and treatment, as well as the fact that recovering drug users who have not used in years are now testing positive for HCV.
As of March 31, 1998, the proportion of adult and adolescent AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) cases related to injecting drug use has gone from 15 percent in 1988 to 23 percent in 1998. Of these in 1988, 6 percent of the cases were injecting drug users (IDUs), and 9 percent were male-to-male sex and IDUs; in 1998, 17 percent of the cases were IDUs, and 6 percent were male-to-male sex and IDUs. The proportion of cases resulting from heterosexual contact has gone from 2 percent in 1988 to 10 percent in 1998. It should be noted that for first quarter 1998, the mode of exposure of 21 percent of the cases was still classified as "unspecified."
In 1988, 3 percent of the AIDS cases were females over age 12; for 1998, 17 percent were female. In 1988, 15 percent of the adult and adolescent cases were African Americans; in 1998, 38 percent were African American. Of the female cases, 56 percent were African American, and of the male cases, 34 percent were African American.
The Houston crack house study (Ross, 1997) found that 41.6 percent of 435 crack users interviewed on-site in Houston crack houses were infected with hepatitis C (HCV), and 13 percent were infected with syphilis, 61 percent with herpes simplex virus-2, and 12 percent with HIV.
The incidence rates for acute hepatitis C do not adequately reflect the overall prevalence of the disease, since reliable testing did not begin until 1992 and reporting is only mandatory for acute, not chronic, cases.
Incidence Rate of Acute Hepatitis C, Texas Department of Health: 1992-1997
1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Afr. American 2.4% 2.1% 1.9% 2.2% 0.9% 1.8%
Anglo 1.4% 1.9% 1.5% 1.6% 0.9% 1.2%
Hispanic 0.9% 2.0% 1.5% 1.9% 1.2% 2.2%
Statewide Rate 1.4% 2.1% 1.7% 1.8% 1.1% 1.9%
1998 TEWG REGIONAL REPORTS
In Austin, according to the Austin-Travis County MHMR CARE program, there has been a decrease from 1996 to 1997 in persons testing HIV-antibody positive who report intravenous drug use as a risk. Street addicts report that due to easier access to clean injecting equipment, there is a reduction in needle sharing. However, hepatitis C is prevalent in intravenous drug users. Many people who are testing positive for HCV are recovering intravenous drug users who have not used in five to 15 years. At this time, there are no services available for indigent clients who need to be tested for HCV.
In Houston, injecting drug users account for 20 percent of AIDS cases reported since 1986. The percentage of females reporting injection drug use as an HIV risk factor is steadily declining, with females having unprotected heterosexual sex replacing drug-injecting women. There are over 3.2 times as many African American female injecting drug users who are infected with HIV as Anglo female injecting drug users.
In Lubbock, seven new cases of females who reported heterosexual sex as the risk factor were reported in the first nine months of 1997; between 1983 and 1996, only six female cases were reported. Street drug users are reporting prostitution by both males and females in order to obtain drugs. And more individuals are reporting HCV infection, including recovering drug users who have not injected for five years or more. Very little information about HCV is on the street and testing is not readily available.
In San Antonio, HIV prevalence among heterosexual injectors who have never used crack remains at less than 1 percent. Prevalence among crack users who have never injected is 2.8 percent, and among drug users with a history of crack use and injection, the prevalence is 4 percent. Despite high levels of injection risk, HIV among injecting drug users appears to be sexually transmitted. Hepatitis C is a major problem. At the Community Outreach for Prevention of AIDS project, of 134 drug users who reported current or past injecting, 86 percent were HCV positive, and of 30 crack users who had never injected, 33 percent were HCV positive. In addition, a large treatment program reports that liver disease is now the leading cause of death among their patients.
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- --- Alley/Pat <alleypat@...> wrote:
> I have been scanning thru the Texas Dept of Healthfor
> information and it's amazing what I find :)
> In San Antonio, ...... At the Community Outreach
> Prevention of AIDS project, of 134 drug users whoThat is some pretty scary info alley. 86% ??? I
> reported current or past injecting, 86 percent were
> HCV positive, and of 30 crack users who had never
> injected, 33 percent were HCV positive. In addition,
> a large treatment program reports that liver disease
> is now the leading cause of death among their
remember about 3 years ago in the SA newspaper it was
stated that HCV was 'epidemic' in Bexar County. I
wonder when more up-to-date info will be available.
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