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7714MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES - HCV

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  • claudine intexas
    Nov 1, 2001
      http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/msds-ftss/msds77e.html

      MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES

      SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT

      NAME: Hepatitis C virus

      SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Parenterally transmitted
      non-A non-B hepatitis, non-B transfusion-associated
      hepatitis, post-transfusion non-A non-B hepatitis
      (PT-NANB), HCV

      CHARACTERISTICS: Single stranded, small, positive
      sense RNA, enveloped, 50 nm diameter, Flaviviridae

      SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD

      PATHOGENICITY: Onset is insidious, with anorexia,
      vague abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting,
      progressing to jaundice (less frequent than hepatitis
      B); severity ranges from unapparent cases in
      approximately 90% of infections to rare fulminating,
      fatal cases; chronic liver disease with fluctuating or
      persistently elevated liver enzymes is common,
      occurring after 50-80% of HCV infections in adults; of
      those with chronic liver disease, 30-60% may develop
      chronic active hepatitis and 5-20% may develop
      cirrhosis; chronic infection is often not symptomatic;
      there appears to be an association between HCV
      infection and hepatocellular carcinoma, of these
      chronically infected persons, approximately 50% will
      develop cirrhosis or cancer of the liver

      EPIDEMIOLOGY: HCV has been found in every part of the
      world where it has been sought; the virus is
      parenterally transmitted; in the United States, HCV
      accounts for about 20% of acute viral hepatitis cases,
      of which less than 5% are associated with blood
      transfusion; prevalence of anti-HCV is highest in
      injecting drug users and hemophilia patients (70-90%),
      moderate in hemodialysis patients (10-20%), low in
      heterosexuals with multiple sex partners, homosexual
      men, health care workers and family contacts of
      HCV-infected persons (1-5%), and lowest in volunteer
      blood donors (0.3-0.5%); major cause of parenterally
      transmitted non A, non B hepatitis

      HOST RANGE: Humans; has been experimentally
      transmitted to chimpanzees

      INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known

      MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Percutaneous exposure to
      contaminated blood (102-103 infectious particles / mL
      of blood) and plasma derivatives; contaminated needles
      and syringes are important vehicles of spread,
      especially among injecting drug users; risk of HCV
      transmission by household contact and sexual activity
      has not been well defined, but efficiency of
      transmission via these routes appears to be low;
      vertical transmission appears to be uncommon, however
      risk of transmission may increase when the mother is
      co-infected with HIV; in over 40% of cases, the risk
      factor(s) for HCV transmission cannot be identified

      INCUBATION PERIOD: Ranges from 2 weeks to 6 months;
      most commonly 7-10 weeks; chronic infection may
      persist for up to 20 years before onset of cirrhosis
      or heptoma

      COMMUNICABILITY: From 1 or more weeks before onset of
      first symptoms; may persist in most persons
      indefinitely

      SECTION III - DISSEMINATION

      RESERVOIR: Humans. Other reservoirs are unknown in the
      current literature

      ZOONOSIS: Not known

      VECTORS: Not known

      SECTION IV - VIABILITY

      DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: No specific antivirals

      SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: There is no data
      available in the current literature on the
      susceptibility of HCV to disinfectants. Because HCV is
      an enveloped virus, general disinfection measures
      against hepatitis B virus are applicable (1% sodium
      hypochlorite, 70% ethanol, 2% glutaraldehyde,
      formaldehyde)

      PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: There is no data available in
      the current literature on the susceptibility of HCV to
      physical inactivation. Again, because HCV is an
      enveloped virus, general inactivation measures against
      hepatitis B virus are applicable (stable at 37� C for
      60 min but not at temperatures above 60� C; stable at
      pH 2.4 for up to 6 hours). May not be inactivated by
      UV

      SURVIVAL OUTSIDE HOST: Not known. Suspected to be
      similar to hepatitis B virus (survives in dried blood
      for long periods-weeks)

      SECTION V - MEDICAL

      SURVEILLANCE: Testing of blood samples for elevated
      liver enzyme levels, anti-HCV or direct viral RNA
      detection by PCR amplification

      FIRST AID/TREATMENT: Interferon alpha has been shown
      to have an overall beneficial effect in about 25% of
      chronic hepatitis cases; a combined treatment of
      ribavirin-interferon alpha has been reported to be
      equally effective or better than alpha interferon
      alone for treatment of chronic hepatitis

      IMMUNIZATION: Applicability of immunization not known;
      repeated infections with HCV have been demonstrated in
      an experimental chimpanzee model

      PROPHYLAXIS: None available

      SECTION VI - LABORATORY HAZARDS

      LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: Medical personnel have
      slightly higher antibody prevalence to HCV than the
      general population; therefore health care workers
      handling blood are at higher risk to HCV infection,
      however, not to the same degree as HBV infection

      SOURCES/SPECIMENS: Blood and blood products.
      Transmission through sexual and casual contact is not
      well documented

      PRIMARY HAZARDS: Parenteral inoculation of blood and
      plasma products. However, over half of HCV infections
      in the United States are due to factors other than
      percutaneous exposure to HCV. These other factors are
      yet unknown

      SPECIAL HAZARDS: Needle stick with infected blood

      SECTION VII - RECOMMENDED PRECAUTIONS

      CONTAINMENT REQUIREMENTS: Containment level 2
      practices for activities utilizing infectious body
      fluids and tissues; Containment level 3 and personnel
      precautions for activities with high potential for
      droplet or aerosol production and high production
      quantities or concentrations; animal pathogen
      containment level 2 for work with non-human primates

      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Laboratory coat; gloves when skin
      contact is unavoidable and when working with animals;
      wrap-around gown and gloves for work in biosafety
      cabinet

      OTHER PRECAUTIONS: General needle safety precautions
      important - do not bend, break or recap needles;
      dispose directly into puncture-proof container;
      universal precautions for blood

      SECTION VIII - HANDLING INFORMATION

      SPILLS: Allow aerosols to settle; wearing protective
      clothing, gently cover spill with absorbent paper
      towel and apply 1% sodium hypochlorite (effective for
      HBV), starting at perimeter and working towards the
      centre; allow sufficient contact time (30
      min-effective for HBV) before clean-up

      DISPOSAL: Decontaminate before disposal; steam
      sterilization, chemical disinfection, incineration


      STORAGE: In sealed containers that are properly
      labelled

      SECTION IX - MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION

      Date prepared: June, 2001

      Prepared by: Office of Laboratory Security, PPHB

      Although the information, opinions and recommendations
      contained in this Material Safety Data Sheet are
      compiled from sources believed to be reliable, we
      accept no responsibility for the accuracy,
      sufficiency, or reliability or for any loss or injury
      resulting from the use of the information. Newly
      discovered hazards are frequent and this information
      may not be completely up to date.

      Copyright �
      Health Canada, 2001

      [Material Safety Data Sheets - Index


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