Employment Guarantee Act: What it Promises, What it Doesnt
- November 16, 2005
Employment Guarantee Act: What it Promises, What it Doesn't
The employment guarantee bill, passed by the Lok Sabha in August 2005
guarantees employment for one hundred days every year to every rural
household, at minimum wage. The act is a significant one with the
government for the first time acknowledging that it has responsibility
towards providing some measure of employment protection to the citizens.
The first part of this series carried the salient features of this
bill. This bill has been welcomed by all in its intent in that the
state is now acknowledging its responsibility in supporting employment
opportunities to the people. However, the bill that has been passed
has raised some concerns about the rural empowerment that was promised
and how the current legislation might have diluted those promises.
1. Employment is guaranteed to one adult per household below the
poverty line, irrespective of household size. Several issues arise
because of this: a. The central government proposes to fix wage rates,
at a minimum rate of Rs 60 per day. At this rate, families with only
one earning member would still remain under the poverty line
($1/person/day). Wages at Rs. 60/ day amounting to Rs. 6000 per
year, would not be sufficient to provide for an entire family. b.
Also, till the central government notifies different wage rates for
different areas, the state governments are free to pay their own
statutory minimum wage for agricultural/rural workers minimum wage
rate under the programme ( ranging from Rs. 25 per day in Nagaland to
Rs. 134 / day in Kerala ), which would mean people from some states
would have to sustain themselves and their families under even tighter
conditions. Delays by the centre in setting wage rates would further
aggravate this situation. c. Further, with only one adult member from
a household getting guaranteed work under the scheme - the selection
of the actual beneficiary of the scheme potentially can cause
friction, discontent in the family. Though the act does mandate that
at least one third of the beneficiaries of the scheme shall be women
who have registered for employment, it is feared that given family
dynamics, many women will not be allowed to register for the scheme.
2. People shall be employed under this scheme for doing manual,
unskilled labour. However, there is no provision for training these
people to upgrade their skills, so that they need not be permanently
reliant on such projects. The original draft of the bill did call for
providing training for these labourers, as far as possible; that
clause is not included in the final Act.
3. There is no provision in the final act for employment of citizens
with disabilities, though there was a clause to that effect in the
4. Finances: a. The scheme would cost about Rs 40,000 crore annually,
with the State governments funding about 10% of the costs. It is not
clear how many states will be able to foot the bill on their own,
given their fiscal conditions. Also, there is no provision for a
dedicated fund to generate funds for this scheme at a sustained level.
b. By the anti-corruption clause introduced in the act, the government
may order stoppage of funds to the scheme if there are complaints
about improper fund utilization. While the intent of this provision is
reasonable and ostensibly aims at preventing corruption, it can be
misused and funds may be stopped at slightest the slightest suspicion
of corruption, which would ultimately result in no work for the
people. More stringent monitoring and transparency clauses need to be
in place to help counter corruption in he first place.
5. Implementation: a. The administrative structure outlined by the act
is similar to the Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme model. No
major administrative reform has been suggested to increase efficiency
in implementation of this act. It is feared that states with histories
of bad governance will not be able to provide the empowerment
envisioned by the act, within the time frame set by it.
6. Redressal / Corruption check mechanisms a. One of the biggest
fears of failure or inefficacy of this scheme is vast opportunities
for corruption and siphoning of funds. With the Maharashtra Employment
Guarantee Scheme recently suffering a Rs 9-crore scam in Solapur
district , similar apprehensions about the national act naturally
arise. The redressal mechanism against contravention charges laid down
by the act at Rs. 1000 are too mild and need to be stiffer. An
independent monitoring entity, transparency in muster rolls (which
must be made available free of cost), public awareness, local
agitations can check abuses of the system.
- Ranjana Ghosh