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Component Marking

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  • mikhaylyants@sbcglobal.net
    I would like to get good at component selection, and I would like to know how to make sense of the marking on a component, for example a transistor. Does
    Message 1 of 20 , Jul 17, 2014

      I would like to get good at component selection, and I would like to know how to make sense of the marking on a component, for example a transistor. Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.?

    • patrick_mcstorm
      Hello Mikhaylyants This is a BIG subject. Transistors are often not marked at all- though you can build an assortment of transistors cheaply by buy buying
      Message 2 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
        Hello Mikhaylyants

        This is a BIG subject

        Transistors are often not marked at all- though you can build an assortment of transistors cheaply by buy buying small bags of them on eBay and from other suppliers. These come in marked packages and you can get ten or so transistors in many instances at a good price. A good example are these 2N2222 transistors on eBay; (as luck would have it, the first item on this page are marked 2N2222 transistors...so sometimes they are marked):

        URL:


        The vacuum tube days did have a marking system of sorts, but even this wasn't 100% consistent...a tube could have a different number in Europe than the same tube in the U.S.

        Unfortunately, diodes are seldom marked either.

        Capacitors are generally marked clearly- though there are exceptions where no markings are given. Occasionally a capacitor will be color coded.

        If I were you, I would start by memorizing the resistor color code marking system (if you don't already know it).

        Try this link to get started:
        URL: Electronic color code - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

        I also recommend a good electronics text book to study- though if your primary language is not English it would be a difficult study.

        Basic Electronics Theory by Delton Horn is a good and inexpensive choice for a beginner- and it's the one I use.


        It takes effort, but getting into electronics will provide you with years of  fun and fascinating enjoyment.

        Also, stay in this group- there are many VERY knowledgeable and helpful people here.

        I wish I had more to offer you..., but I'm a beginner too.

        Good Luck and Best Regards

        Patrick


        p.s. NOTE: NO TYPO CHECK WAS DONE HERE; please forgive any that are present.

         
      • patrick_mcstorm
        Hello BIG typo there: though you can build an assortment of transistors cheaply by buy buying small bags of them... Of course should be: though you can
        Message 3 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
          Hello

          "BIG typo there: though you can build an assortment of transistors cheaply by buy buying small bags of them..."

          Of course should be: "though you can build an assortment of transistors cheaply by buying small bags of them..."

          Sorry

          Patrick


          p.s. NOTE: NO TYPO CHECK WAS DONE HERE; please forgive any that are present. 

        • rtstofer
          I buy my components from suppliers like DigiKey and Mouser. They will be marked except in the case of SMD capacitors. The transistors, resistors and inductors
          Message 4 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014

             

             

             

            I buy my components from suppliers like DigiKey and Mouser.  They will be marked except in the case of SMD capacitors.

             

            The transistors, resistors and inductors are all marked.  The resistors and inductors with their values, the transistors with their part number.

             

            For transistors, there is no particular relationship between part number and characteristics.  You just have to know.

             

            For the hobbyist, general purpose transistors are 2N2222A, 2N3904, 2N3905 and the diodes are 1N4148, 1N914A, 1N4001,2,3,4.

             

            MOSFETS are all over the place as are Op Amps.  These take a little more study.

             

            Richard


             

          • Derek
            For larger components such as through-hole and larger SMT devices, much of the part number should be marked as the part number. For smaller components such as
            Message 5 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
              For larger components such as through-hole and larger SMT devices, much of the part number should be marked as the part number.

              For smaller components such as SOT23, there is usually a marking code. The marking code is relative to each manufacturer. The code is usually found on the data sheet. I have not seen a general list of codes cross referenced to part numbers on any manufacturer's web site. But if you call them with the general description of the component and tell them the code, they should be able to tell you the actual part number; info they will need is package and part type (type of transistor [NPN, PNP, N-MOSFET, P-MOSFET], type of IC, etc). Having a small component checker helps with the basic identification.

              If you are looking for general part number relevancy, few manufacturers will cross each other except in the cases of popular parts. But even then the preceeding marking before the actual number would be specific to manufacturers. For example, TL431 from TI may be LM431 from National or Fairchild or NXP (now TI), or SM431 from Samtech, or ADR431 from Analog Devices, or TLV431 from Diodes Inc, or SPX431 from Exar. For just a few examples.

              Derek Koonce
              DDK Interactive Consulting Services
              On 7/18/2014 5:58 AM, rstofer@... [Electronics_101] wrote:
               

               

               

               

              I buy my components from suppliers like DigiKey and Mouser.  They will be marked except in the case of SMD capacitors.

               

              The transistors, resistors and inductors are all marked.  The resistors and inductors with their values, the transistors with their part number.

               

              For transistors, there is no particular relationship between part number and characteristics.  You just have to know.

               

              For the hobbyist, general purpose transistors are 2N2222A, 2N3904, 2N3905 and the diodes are 1N4148, 1N914A, 1N4001,2,3,4.

               

              MOSFETS are all over the place as are Op Amps.  These take a little more study.

               

              Richard


               


            • rtstofer
              If you buy your components from commercial suppliers (eg DigiKey and Mouser) they will come in plastic envelopes with all of the identification. You can come
              Message 6 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014

                 

                 

                 

                If you buy your components from commercial suppliers (eg DigiKey and Mouser) they will come in plastic envelopes with all of the identification.  You can come up with a way to store the devices along with their nomenclature.  Bin boxes, pill boxes, pill bottles, whatever...

                 

                If you know what they are when you buy them, it should be pretty easy to keep things organized.  I do NOT buy bargain bags of questionable floor sweepings.  I have enough trouble getting things to work, I don't want to have to diagnose junk components.

                 

                Richard


                 

              • Andy
                Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.? The answer to your question depends on where you got the components. New? Grey market /
                Message 7 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
                     "Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.?"

                  The answer to your question depends on where you got the components.  New?  Grey market / overstock / ebay?  Or are you looking at components on circuit boards that you are trying to figure out?

                  I see questions all the time from repair people, who need to know what some component is, because the markings don't agree with anything they know.  Many components (especially ICs and sometimes transistors) have special custom markings on them, unique to the company that buys them.  For these, there is no way to tell, unless you work for the company that made the boards that use those parts.

                  Most American diodes and BJT and some FET transistors use the JEDEC 1Nxxxx and 2Nxxxx numbering schemes.  Transistors for the European and Japanese markets use their own number plans.  Many transistors are not marked with their full number, but only a portion of it.  It can be a guessing game.

                  The JEDEC numbering has other sequences for other types of parts; I think I've seen 3Nxxxx for some kinds of FETs (dual-gate?), and 4Nxxx for opto-isolators, or something like that.

                  But there are tons of exceptions ... tons of them.

                  You also need to recognize when a number on a part is a manufacturing date code, rather than a part number.

                  Some SMD passive parts are marked with their value in some sort of engineering notation.  For example, three digits, where the first two are the mantissa and the third is the exponent (of 10) for the multiplier.

                  The simple rule about marking is, there is no rule.  Not even a few dozen.  I think the best way to learn it, is from lots of experience.  Aside from the usual guidelines for parts that conform to the simple rules (resistor and capacitor color codes (though now mostly defunct), and parts clearly stamped), I am unaware of any texts that describe all the myriads of ways that parts can be identified and marked.  Some may attempt to show a few of them, but not all.

                  Regards,
                  Andy


                • Howard Hansen
                  In the US a 1N prefix means diode and 2N prefix means transistor. But there is no organizer pattern for the numbers or letters that follow the prefix. Europe
                  Message 8 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
                    In the US a 1N prefix means diode and 2N prefix means transistor. But there is no organizer pattern for the numbers or letters that follow the prefix.

                    Europe has a registration system for naming active components.  Part numbers that follow the European naming conventions provide more information than the US system.  See:
                    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro_Electron>

                    For surface mount parts see:
                    <http://www.topline.tv/SMT_Nomenclature.pdf>

                    The other Howard


                    On 7/17/2014 11:28 PM, mikhaylyants@... [Electronics_101] wrote:
                     

                    I would like to get good at component selection, and I would like to know how to make sense of the marking on a component, for example a transistor. Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.?


                  • redderek
                    Interesting resources Howard. The first reference on the EU registration seems to have run out of letters already. Newer parts seem to be limited in fitting
                    Message 9 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
                      Interesting resources Howard.

                      The first reference on the EU registration seems to have run out of letters already. Newer parts seem to be limited in fitting into the table Wiki has.

                      I looked at the surface mount pdf file and see it has to be quite old since they talk about 0402 in prototype. I know they currently make 01005 parts now for production.

                      Derek Koonce
                      DDK Interactive Consulting Services
                    • harry jenkins
                      The first number for active devices is the number of junctions, hence diodes use to always start with a 1 and transistors a 2 . But when the number of
                      Message 10 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
                        The first number for active devices is the number of junctions, hence diodes
                        use to always start with a '1' and transistors a '2'. But when the number
                        of different packages started to explode, a single part could wind up with
                        more than one, so the prefix was changed usually to alpha characters such as
                        'mps' and 'mmbt' while generally maintaining the numeric suffix. Many moons
                        ago the transistor numbers were assigned sequentially but they soon ran out
                        of numbers. After that manufacturers sort of used systems specific to their
                        brand. Typically IRF mosfet comes from International Rectifier etc.
                        --------------------------------------------
                        On Fri, 7/18/14, Howard Hansen hrhan@... [Electronics_101] <Electronics_101@yahoogroups.com> wrote:

                        Subject: Re: [Electronics_101] Component Marking
                        To: Electronics_101@yahoogroups.com
                        Date: Friday, July 18, 2014, 12:37 PM


                         












                        In the US
                        a 1N prefix means diode and
                        2N prefix means transistor. But there is no organizer
                        pattern for
                        the numbers or letters that follow the prefix.



                        Europe has a registration system for naming active
                        components. 
                        Part numbers that follow the European naming
                        conventions provide
                        more information than the US system.  See:

                        <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pro_Electron>



                        For surface mount parts see:

                        <http://www.topline.tv/SMT_Nomenclature.pdf>



                        The other Howard





                        On 7/17/2014 11:28 PM, mikhaylyants@...
                        [Electronics_101] wrote:


                         


                        I would like to get good at component
                        selection,
                        and I would like to know how to make sense
                        of the
                        marking on a component, for example a
                        transistor. Does
                        anyone know how they are named, and grouped
                        here in the
                        U.S.?



















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                      • mikhaylyants@sbcglobal.net
                        Anyone know if Russia s components are considered EU. I know they have a good codex, the question is weather their parts are any good?
                        Message 11 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014
                          Anyone know if Russia's components are considered EU. I know they have a good codex, the question is weather their parts are any good?
                        • mikhaylyants@sbcglobal.net
                          A good way to memorize the color code is using the analogy to light. If you like physics and know that light packets contain energy, then you know that the
                          Message 12 of 20 , Jul 18, 2014

                            A good way to memorize the color code is using the analogy to light. If you like physics and know that light packets contain energy, then you know that the color of light can reveal a lot of information, frequency for example. It was found that the higher the frequency of the radiant light, the more energy the packets of light hold. I use this analogy because the resistor's colors are ordered "consistent" to the color spectrum. The color code is simply spaced in increments of 1.


                            Hope this helps. 

                          • lt_wright_flg
                            Most all good components have the labeling on them. Like some post stated very small like surface mount might not, but usually something still. If you buy say
                            Message 13 of 20 , Jul 19, 2014
                              Most all good components have the labeling on them.  Like some post stated very small like surface mount might not, but usually something still.

                              If you buy say transistor or about any thing else that normally has markings, but you get say bag like off ebay that does not it probably means they were run of rejects.  Usually one of the last things done in manuf is putting on the labels and if manuf have rejected the lot then why go to trouble of putting on the markerings.   Many might be good, but manuf thru their probability testing found too many failures and rejected the lot.

                              Many manuf of gear put their own labels on components, there own part number.  This can make it hard to find what a part is.  See this with transistors a lot.  Caps, Inductors and resistors are almost always marked with value.

                              For components that are marked most time it is with numbered values (203 would be 20 with 3 0s or 20,000)  This is often on caps (105 is 10 with 5 0s or 1,000,000 pf or 1 uf, caps are often marked in pf, but for large like 100uf the actual value is written...they are large enough to have most info including voltage).  The other issue is part number to allow one to go to spec sheet and find more detailed specs like tolerance, temp specs, size, lead spacing,etc. So component will have some reference to line of component for the manuf.   Most resistors use color code with colored bands around them.  Each color reps 2 numbers followed by nr of 0s and possibly tolerance and temp spec.   Most all components follow this.  1% resistors most often have at least 4 digits for value, actual numbers.  5% and above use color bands.

                              I use drawer bends with labels on drawers for storage.  And some resistors that are small like 1/8W where my old eyes cannot see colors well I get out Ohm meter to verify value.  Caps and inductors and transistors another issue, but do keep in drawer with label on front.

                              JameCo sells a resistor assortment set, both 1/8 and 1/4W sets with drawers.  I bought both, put all the resistors in one, mixed the 1/8 & 1/4 watt with like 3 values per drawer.  Used the other drawer set for other components.  Makes it easy when I need certain value, but still often use Ohm meter to check.

                              73, ron, n9ee/r



                              ---In Electronics_101@yahoogroups.com, <mikhaylyants@...> wrote :

                              I would like to get good at component selection, and I would like to know how to make sense of the marking on a component, for example a transistor. Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.?

                            • chuck merja
                              IAN published a very slick way of organizing and storing resistors and capacitors. I have my 1/4 watt in a separate box from my 1/2 watt. Don t have any 1/8
                              Message 14 of 20 , Jul 19, 2014
                                IAN published a very slick way of organizing and storing resistors and capacitors. I have my 1/4 watt in a separate box from my 1/2 watt.  Don't have any 1/8 watts yet.  I modified his SS for a different plastic container and would email it to you if you like.

                                I have not done his capacitor storage scheme yet, as I'm still operating out of an Elenco

                                http://blog.ianlee.info/2011/12/oop-operation-organize-my-partsresistor.html

                                Cap kit - http://www.amazon.com/Elenco-100-Capacitor-Component-Kit/dp/B004YHZDW0
                                They also have diode, resistor... kits. I only needed the caps, so that's all i have experience with.

                                --
                                Chuck Merja
                                GO NERDS!
                                FIRST Robotics YouTube
                              • lt_wright_flg
                                That is excellent way of storing small qty of resistors. Need draws the width of the length of the resistors or could put length wise. My drawers are narrow
                                Message 15 of 20 , Jul 20, 2014
                                  That is excellent way of storing small qty of resistors.  Need draws the width of the length of the resistors or could put length wise.  My drawers are narrow and long.

                                  I am not sure if I would put color code on the labels, but having the value spelled out is most useful and quick to find what you have.  Also this approach takes up little room so can put lots of values in one drawer.

                                  I buy some resistors in large quantity, like 1000 at a time so I do have larger drawers for each of these, but for development work where various small qty needed this would be great.

                                  thanks for the post/links

                                  73, ron, n9ee/r
                                • Howard Chester
                                  by lt_wright_flg Hello lt wright, You posted a request for SMD Markings;- ... Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.? I ve collated
                                  Message 16 of 20 , Jul 22, 2014
                                    by lt_wright_flg

                                    Hello lt wright,
                                    You posted a request for SMD Markings;-
                                    >I would like to get good at component selection, and I would like to know how
                                    >to make sense of the marking on a component, for example a transistor.>
                                    Does anyone know how they are named, and grouped here in the U.S.?

                                    I've collated a few SMD Code guides/books from various sources. This includes
                                    a SMD Soldering Guide.
                                    The RAR(see footnote)folder is available for 30 Days only(free upload restrictions)
                                    The U/Load link;-

                                    http://ul.to/xtgw4fx4

                                    Click on the slow/free button, wait the 60 second delay and key in the onscreen Capture
                                    code to D/Load.

                                    Note;- WinRAR is a free RAR package available from WinRAR(google & D/Load the Installer)
                                    After installing, right click on the SMD file to open
                                    Hope that this useful to you(and any others!)
                                    chester
                                  • Andy
                                    Howard Chester posted: http://ul.to/xtgw4fx4 ARRGH!!! Annoying, deceptive pop-ups on that website! Danger, Will Robinson! Andy
                                    Message 17 of 20 , Jul 22, 2014
                                      Howard Chester posted:


                                      ARRGH!!!

                                      Annoying, deceptive pop-ups on that website!  Danger, Will Robinson!

                                      Andy


                                    • Howard Chester
                                       Howard Chester posted: http://ul.to/xtgw4fx4 ARRGH!!! Annoying, deceptive pop-ups on that website! Danger, Will Robinson! Andy No Problem Andy, Please
                                      Message 18 of 20 , Jul 23, 2014
                                         Howard Chester posted:
                                        "http://ul.to/xtgw4fx4"

                                        ARRGH!!!
                                        Annoying, deceptive pop-ups on that website! Danger, Will Robinson!
                                        Andy


                                        No Problem Andy,
                                        Please sugest a more suitable site/s and I will re-upload.
                                        Chester
                                      • Andy
                                        Chester wrote: Please sugest a more suitable site/s and I will re-upload. Beats me. I don t use online file storage sites, except to occasionally download
                                        Message 19 of 20 , Jul 23, 2014
                                          Chester wrote:

                                             "Please sugest a more suitable site/s and I will re-upload."

                                          Beats me.  I don't use online file storage sites, except to occasionally download things others have put there.  So I am unfamiliar with the pluses and minuses of them.  I have heard good things said about Dropbox, but like I say, I don't use it myself for storage.

                                          I was just sending along a warning to others here, to be very careful about those pop-ups, and NOT pressing anything that has nothing to do with the file download itself.  It's easy to get tricked, so read and interpret carefully.

                                          Andy


                                        • Donald H Locker
                                          Any problem putting it in our files section? Donald.
                                          Message 20 of 20 , Jul 24, 2014
                                            Any problem putting it in our files section?

                                            Donald.

                                            ----- Original Message -----
                                            > From: "Howard Chester howard.chester@... [Electronics_101]" <Electronics_101@yahoogroups.com>
                                            > To: "Electronics 101" <Electronics_101@yahoogroups.com>
                                            > Sent: Wednesday, July 23, 2014 2:57:39 PM
                                            > Subject: [Electronics_101] Re: Component Marking
                                            >
                                            >  Howard Chester posted:
                                            > "http://ul.to/xtgw4fx4"
                                            >
                                            > ARRGH!!!
                                            > Annoying, deceptive pop-ups on that website! Danger, Will Robinson!
                                            > Andy
                                            >
                                            >
                                            > No Problem Andy,
                                            > Please sugest a more suitable site/s and I will re-upload.
                                            > Chester
                                            >
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