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[Net-Gold] Re: Direct Instruction Rocks: Or Does It?

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  • David P. Dillard
    . Date: Mon, 1 Apr 2013 16:00:00 -0700 From: Richard Hake Reply-To: Net-Gold@yahoogroups.com To: AERA-L@listserv.aera.net Cc:
    Message 1 of 1 , Apr 2, 2013
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      Date: Mon, 1 Apr 2013 16:00:00 -0700
      From: Richard Hake <rrhake@...>
      Reply-To: Net-Gold@yahoogroups.com
      To: AERA-L@...
      Cc: Net-Gold@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [Net-Gold] Re: Direct Instruction rocks: Or does it?




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      ABSTRACT: The conclusion of my response "Direct Instruction rocks: Or
      does it?" [Hake (2013b)] at <http://bit.ly/10k3iN3> to David Klahr's
      (2012) "Inquiry Science rocks: Or does it?" at <http://bit.ly/WmqHMj>
      is (see the complete post for the references):

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      "A. Klahr's (2012) Fig. 1 histogram and the research of Chen & Klahr
      (1999) and Klahr & Nigam (2004) suggest that if one's goal is the
      enhancement of a process skill such as the "Control of Variables
      Strategy" (CVS) among elementary-school students then (s)he should
      probably consider utilizing Klahr's direct-instruction-like
      "Training-Probe (TP)" pedagogy rather than discovery-learning-like
      "No Training - No Probe (NTNP)" method with near zero teacher
      guidance.

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      B. Hake's (2012) Fig. 1 [histogram taken Hake (1998a)], its
      corroboration by others listed in Hake (2008), and the high positive
      correlation of post-test conceptual FCI and problem-solving MB tests,
      suggest that if one's goal is the enhancement of conceptual
      understanding and problem-solving ability among high-school or
      undergraduate students then (s)he should probably consider utilizing
      discovery-learning-like "Interactive Engagement" pedagogy rather than
      direct-instruction-like 'Traditional' pedagogy."

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      *******************************************

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      If you reply to this long (11 kB) post please don't hit the reply
      button unless you prune the copy of this post that may appear in your
      reply down to a few relevant lines, otherwise the entire already
      archived post may be needlessly resent to subscribers.

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      David Klahr's (2012) provocative "Back Page" essay in the December
      APS News "Inquiry Science rocks: Or does it?" stimulated over 100
      posts on the Physics Education Research (PER) discussion list
      PhysLrnR - see "Responses to David Klahr's Criticism of Inquiry
      Science" [Hake (2013a), none of which addressed Joe Bellina's (2013)
      lead question: "HAS ANYONE THOUGHT OF RESPONDING?" [My CAPS.]

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      In my default response to Klahr "Direct Instruction rocks: Or does
      it?" [Hake (2013b)], I wrote [bracketed by lines "HHHH. . . . ";
      slightly edited]:

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      HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH

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      [Klahr] makes three points in his introduction:

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      1. "the relative effectiveness of different types of instructional
      'approaches' is not always investigated with the same rigor that
      permeates all strong scientific disciplines - clear definitions,
      well-defined empirical procedures, and data-driven conclusions";

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      2. "for many aspects of science instruction, 'discovery learning' is
      often a less effective way to teach than a direct, didactic, and
      explicit type of instruction"; and

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      3. "some in the physics education community may regard point (2) as a
      foolhardy heresy, while for others it may be a dark secret that they
      have been reluctant to share with their colleagues."

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      . . . . . . . . . . . .considering the work of Chen & Klahr (1999)
      and Klahr & Nigam (2004), I would agree with point (2) IF "discovery
      learning" is defined as by Klahr & Nigam (2004) as including NEAR
      ZERO TEACHER GUIDANCE.

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      However . . . . . .I would amend point (3) to read:

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      "few physicists who read Klahr (2012) CAREFULLY will regard point (2)
      as 'heresy, or a dark secret to be kept from their colleagues'." . .
      . . . for good reason: the apparent superiority of the
      direct-instruction-like "Training-Probe (TP)" over
      discovery-learning-like "No Training - No Probe (NTNP)" in the study
      of Chen & Klahr (1999) has almost nothing to do to do with the
      demonstration by physics education researchers that
      discovery-learning-like "interactive engagement" (IE) courses are
      superior to direct-instruction-like traditional (T) courses for
      promoting conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics in
      introductory physics courses - by about two standard deviations in
      average normalized gain <g> [Hake (1998a,b)]. . . . . . . . . . . .
      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In conclusion:

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      A. Klahr's (2012) Fig. 1 histogram and the research of Chen & Klahr
      (1999) and Klahr & Nigam (2004) suggest that if one's goal is the
      enhancement of a process skill such as the "Control of Variables
      Strategy" (CVS) among elementary-school students then (s)he should
      probably consider utilizing Klahr's direct-instruction-like
      "Training-Probe (TP)" pedagogy rather than discovery-learning-like
      "No Training - No Probe (NTNP)" method with near zero teacher
      guidance.

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      B. Hake's (2012) Fig. 1 [histogram taken Hake (1998a)], its
      corroboration by others listed in Hake (2008), and the high positive
      correlation of post-test conceptual FCI and problem-solving MB tests,
      suggest that if one's goal is the enhancement of conceptual
      understanding and problem-solving ability among high-school or
      undergraduate students then (s)he should probably consider utilizing
      discovery-learning-like "Interactive Engagement" pedagogy rather than
      direct-instruction-like "Traditional" pedagogy.

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      HHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH

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      Richard Hake, Emeritus Professor of Physics, Indiana University
      Links to Articles: <http://bit.ly/a6M5y0>
      Links to Socratic Dialogue Inducing (SDI) Labs: <http://bit.ly/9nGd3M>
      Academia: <http://bit.ly/a8ixxm>
      Blog: <http://bit.ly/9yGsXh>
      GooglePlus: <http://bit.ly/KwZ6mE>
      Google Scholar: <http://bit.ly/Wz2FP3>
      Twitter: <http://bit.ly/juvd52>
      Facebook: <http://on.fb.me/XI7EKm>

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      REFERENCES [All URL's shortened by <http://bit.ly/> and accessed on
      01 APRIL 2013.]

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      Bellina, J.J. 2013. "Klahr in Dec. APS News," online on the CLOSED
      PhysLrnr archives at <http://bit.ly/W28x1k>. To access the archives
      of PhysLnR one needs to subscribe : - ( , but that takes only a few
      minutes by clicking on <http://bit.ly/nG318r> and then clicking on
      "Join or Leave PHYSLRNR-LIST." If you're busy, then subscribe using
      the "NOMAIL" option under "Miscellaneous." Then, as a subscriber, you
      may access the archives and/or post messages at any time, while
      receiving NO MAIL from the list!

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      Chen, Z. & D. Klahr. 1999. "All Other Things being Equal: Children's
      Acquisition of the Control of Variables Strategy," Child Development
      70 (5): 1098 - 1120; online as a 950 kB pdf at <http://bit.ly/VzI2A8>.

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      Hake, R.R. 1998a. "Interactive-engagement vs traditional methods: A
      six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data for introductory
      physics courses," Am. J. Phys. 66: 64-74; online as an 84 kB pdf at
      <http://bit.ly/9484DG> . See also the crucial but ignored companion
      paper Hake (1998b).

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      Hake, R.R. 1998b. "Interactive-engagement methods in introductory
      mechanics courses," online as a 108 kB pdf at
      <http://bit.ly/aH2JQN>. A crucial companion paper to Hake (1998a):
      average pre/post test scores, standard deviations, instructional
      methods, materials used, institutions, and instructors for each of
      the survey courses of Hake (1998a) are tabulated and referenced. In
      addition the paper includes: (a) case histories for the seven IE
      courses of Hake (1998a) whose effectiveness as gauged by pre-to-post
      test gains was close to those of T courses, (b) advice for
      implementing IE methods, and (c) suggestions for further research.
      Submitted on 6/19/98 to the "Physics Education Research Supplement"
      (PERS) of the American Journal of Physics, but rejected by its editor
      on the grounds that the very transparent, well organized, and crystal
      clear Physical-Review-type data tables were "impenetrable"!

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      Hake, R.R. 2008. "Design-Based Research in Physics Education
      Research: A Review," in Kelly et al. (2008). A pre-publication
      version of that chapter is online as a 1.1 MB pdf at
      <http://bit.ly/9kORMZ>.

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      Hake, R.R. 2013a. "Responses to David Klahr's Criticism of Inquiry
      Science,"online on the OPEN! AERA-L archives at
      <http://bit.ly/11PpLqs>. Post of 17 Feb 2013 16:13:16-0800 to AERA-L
      and Net-Gold. The abstract and link to the complete post are being
      transmitted to several discussion lists and are also on my blog
      "Hake'sEdStuff" at <http://bit.ly/150EexL> with a provision for
      comments.

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      Hake, R.R. 2013b. "Direct Instruction rocks: Or does it?" APS News
      22(4), April, online at <http://bit.ly/10k3iN3>. [Response to Klahr
      (2012).]

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      Kelly, A.E., R.A. Lesh, & J.Y. Baek. 2008. "Handbook of Design
      Research Methods in Education: Innovations in Science, Technology,
      Engineering, and Mathematics Learning and Teaching," Routledge.
      Publisher's information at <http://bit.ly/dkLabI>; Amazon.com
      information at <http://amzn.to/gtRpbU>.

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      Klahr, D. & M. Nigam. 2004. "The equivalence of learning paths in
      early science instruction: effects of direct instruction and
      discovery learning" Psychological Science 15 (10): 661-667; online as
      a 1.1 MB pdf at <http://bit.ly/UmU6E2>.

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      Klahr, D. 2012. "Inquiry Science rocks: Or does it?" APS News 21(11),
      December; online at <http://bit.ly/WmqHMj>.


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