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32063The True Meaning of Hanukkah

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  • Ed Pearl
    Dec 9, 2012
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      The True Meaning of Hanukkah

      Grady McFerrin


      Hilary Leila Krieger is the Washington bureau chief for The Jerusalem Post.

      WHEN my brother was in kindergarten, where he was the only Jewish student, a
      parent organizing enrichment activities asked my mother to tell the class
      the story of Hanukkah. My mother obligingly brought in a picture book and
      began to read about foreign conquerors who were not letting Jews in ancient
      Israel worship freely, even defiling their temple, until a scrappy group led
      by the Maccabee family overthrew one of the most powerful armies in the
      world and won their liberty.

      The woman was horrified.

      The Hanukkah story, she interrupted, was not about war. It was about the
      miracle of an oil lamp that burned for eight days without replenishing. She
      urged my mother to close the book. My mother refused.

      The woman wasn't alone. Many Americans, Jews as well as Christians, think
      that the legend of the long-lasting oil is the root of Hanukkah's
      commemoration. And perhaps that mistake is no surprise, given that for many
      the holiday has morphed into "Christmas for Jews," echoing the message of
      peace on earth accompanied by gift giving. In doing so, the holiday's own
      message of Jewish survival and faith has been diluted.

      Hanukkah is one of the most widely celebrated Jewish holidays in America.
      But unlike Rosh Hashana, Yom Kippur and Passover (or even the lesser-known
      Sukkot and Shavuot), all of which are explicitly mentioned in the Torah,
      Hanukkah gets only a brief, sketchy reference in the Talmud, the voluminous
      collection of Jewish oral law and tradition written down hundreds of years
      after the Maccabees' revolt.

      There for the first time the miracle of the oil is recorded: the ancient
      temple in Jerusalem held an eternal flame, but after the desecration by the
      foreign invaders - including the sacrificing of pigs, a non-kosher animal,
      on the altar - only one day's worth of purified oil remained. Yet the
      faithful went ahead and lighted it.

      The oil burned in the rededicated temple for eight days, long enough for a
      new supply to arrive. Hence the practice of lighting candles for eight
      nights to observe Hanukkah, which means dedication in Hebrew. (Perhaps just
      as significantly, the reference to oil also gave rise to a holiday tradition
      of eating foods like potato pancakes and doughnuts that had been cooked in

      Though Hanukkah is a minor Jewish holiday, 19th-century activists in America
      promoted it to encourage their coreligionists to take pride in their
      heritage. During the 20th century it was embraced more broadly by Jews who
      wanted to fit in with other Americans celebrating the holiday season - and
      to make their kids feel better about not getting anything from Santa.

      It helped, of course, that Hanukkah falls near Christmas on the calendar and
      traditionally involved candles and small monetary gifts. Over time, children
      began receiving grander presents, and Hanukkah-themed season's greeting
      cards proliferated. Some families even started to purchase "Hanukkah
      bushes," small trees often decked out with Stars of David and miniature

      By the 1980s, when I was a child, menorahs had been placed next to mangers
      in the public square and Hanukkah songs had been incorporated into winter
      holiday concerts. Despite this recognition, I still felt excluded enough to
      brag to classmates that my holiday was better than Christmas, since it had
      eight days of gift giving, instead of one.

      While elevating Hanukkah does a lot of good for children's morale, ignoring
      or sanitizing its historical basis does a great disservice to the Jewish
      past and present.

      The original miracle of Hanukkah was that a committed band of people led a
      successful uprising against a much larger force, paving the way for Jewish
      independence and perhaps keeping Judaism itself from disappearing. It's an
      amazing story, resonant with America's own founding, that offers powerful
      lessons about standing up for one's convictions and challenging those in

      Many believe the rabbis in the Talmud recounted the miracle of the light
      alongside the military victory because they did not want to glorify war.
      That in itself is an important teaching, as are the holiday's related
      messages of renewal, hope and turning away from darkness.

      But it's a story with dark chapters as well, including the Maccabean
      leaders' religious zealotry, forced conversions and deadly attacks on their
      neighbors. These transgressions need to be grappled with. And that is
      precisely what the most important Jewish holidays do: Jews on Passover spill
      out wine from their glasses to acknowledge Egyptian suffering caused by the
      10 plagues, and congregations at Rosh Hashana read and struggle with God's
      order to Abraham to bind his son Isaac as a sacrifice.

      If we're going to magnify Hanukkah, we should do so because it offers the
      deeper meaning and opportunity for introspection that the major Jewish
      holidays provide.

      Hilary Leila Krieger is the Washington bureau chief for The Jerusalem Post.


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