Nanoscale Electrochemistry Aluminium Batteries
Ab Europositron Oy
Alankotie 11 00730 Helsinki FINLAND
Tel. +358 9 673 224
Fax. +358 9 673 077
The new, patented technology based on nanoscale electrochemistry will allow
production of rechargeable aluminium batteries providing up to 20 times more
capacity than current batteries. The materials are environmentally safe and
Electric car of General Motors, EV 1 uses 736kg batteries giving max. range
145 km without recharge. A battery of 60 kg made with Europositron
technology allows EV 1 max. range 870 km without recharge.
For 200 years the basic theory of obtaining electricity from the energy
potential which exists between different materials has been the foundation
upon which the advances have been made in technology. It is only because of
this simple electrochemical fact that we have an amazing spectrum of
products and facilities available to us today. Vehicles, mobile phones,
camcorders, watches, laptop computers, cordless tools - the list of consumer
applications is endless. Military capability and scientific developments
depend upon batteries and space exploration, manned or unmanned would be
impossible without them. Over this time, enormous resources of time,
research and money have gone into finding the most efficient and viable
materials which can give the greater power needed to open the gates for the
vast range of products and developments waiting in the wings.
Many different combinations of materials and construction have been
investigated and the advances which have been made in the last 30 years have
been remarkable, but there is still a demand for even higher power ratings.
Some of the combinations have proved effective but have proved subsequently
to be dangerous to our environment and have been banned on ecological and
In 1989, Ab Europositron was founded to pursue a radical new theory which
had been propounded by Mr Rainer Partanen concerning one of the materials
which had been investigated before but had always run into the same
difficulties, namely the apparently insurmountable problem recharging a
sealed cell battery using aluminium. Rainer Partanen has progressed the
theory to the point of detailed specifications of cell construction, the
electrochemistry involved and has registered patents covering all the
The fundamental basis of the Partanen technology can be applied to all
formats of batteries, from tiny button batteries to high capacity stand-by
power supplies. Using one of the most abundant metals available and
incorporating existing manufacturing processes, this is an avenue which
demands and deserves investigation to fruition.
Aluminium is one of the most plentiful materials on earth with a low cost
and has the highest electrical charge storage per unit weight except for
alkali metals. It has already proved itself to be a viable material in
battery application: the Zaromb cell produced in 1960 stored 15 times the
energy of a comparable lead acid battery and achieved 500 Wh/Kg with a plate
density current of 1A/sq.cm
Salomon Zaromb working for US Philco Company and in this concept for an
aluminium air cell, the anode was aluminium partnered with potassium
hydroxide with air as the cathode.
The main drawback was corrosion in the off condition which resulted in the
production of jelly of aluminium hydroxide and the evolution of hydrogen
gas. To overcome this problem Philco added inhibitors to avoid the corrosion
and had a space below the cell for the aluminium hydroxide to collect. The
battery had replaceable aluminium electrode plates.
Another more recent attempt was made in 1985 by DESPIC using saline
electrolyte. Additions of small quantities of tin, titanium, iridium or
gallium move the corrosion potential in the negative direction. DESPIC built
this cell with wedge shaped anodes which permitted mechanical recharging
using sea water as electrolyte in some cases. The battery was commercially
developed by ALUPOWER.
Other attempts have involved aluminium chloride (Chloroaluminate) which is
molten salt at room temperature with chlorine held in a graphite electrode.
This attempt in 1988 by Gifford and Palmison gives limited capacity due to
high ohmic resistance of the graphite.
Equally significant is work by Gileardi and his team who have succeeded in
depositing aluminium from organic solvents though the mechanisms of the
reactions are not well understood at this time.
Between 1990 and 1995 Eltech Research (Fairport Habour, Ohio, U.S.A.) built
a mechanically recharge Aluminium battery for the PNGV program. It had 280
cells and stored 190 kWh with a peak power of 55 kW and weighed 195 kg. This
battery used a pumped electrolyte system with a separate filter/precipitator
to remove the Aluminium Hydroxide jelly.
Since then, even higher ratings have been achieved but only in primary
batteries i.e. where a single use is applicable. Examples of this are
emergency stand-by power or torpedoes.
The reason for this is that there has been no way up to overcome the problem
of aluminium hydroxide 'sludge' building up during the generation of
electro- chemical energy. This has meant either disposal of the battery, or
complete rebuilding and replenishing the active materials with no
possibility of recharging the battery. The Partanen technology has overcome
this barrier which means that the energy potential of an aluminium based
battery can be utilised to a degree never before attainable and, radically
can be recharged to over 3000 cycles.
Current development of batteries
Over the recent years a great deal of time and money has been spent
developing increased energy ratings of secondary batteries. The latest Lead
Acid, Nickel Metal Hydride and Lithium Ion batteries have produced up to 200
Wh/Kg and although USABC (United States Advanced Battery Consortium) have
invested $90 million over the last six years and produced a NiMH battery
with a capacity of 100 Wh/Kg, it is deemed commercially non-viable because
of the high expense in producing it. The required target for a viable
battery system for electric vehicles is 300 Wh/litre and 200 Wh/Kg.
However the latest advanced batteries are, without exception, just
variations of the same basic 200 years old principle.
Aluminium is a good solution because of three reasons
b) Low Cost
c) High Energy Storage
In all attempts to benefit the energy of aluminium is that no one has
succeeded in solving the recharging except mechanically (by replacing the
aluminium plate with a new one). As the right solution was not found the
results were such drawbacks as aluminium hydroxide jelly, too big current
resistance, corrosion problems etc.
Partanen Europositron technology overcomes the existing difficulty and
electropositive metal ions are reduced to metal through analytic and
reactions in normal temperature and with a calculated electrical current.
The flow resistance of the solution and the required excess voltage are
taken into account.
The creation of aluminium hydroxide is eliminated and recharging for large
number of cycles is possible. The technology applies to all existing methods
of battery production including spiral wound sandwich examples. Another
advantage of the Partanen Technology is that there is no "memory" effect as
is found with many existing versions of today's batteries.
Thus batteries of various sizes can be manufactured with the following
calculated performance characteristics:
Energy Density/Volume: 2100 Wh/litre
Energy Density/Weight: 1330 Wh/kg
Cycle Life: 3000+ cycles
Minimum Working Temperature: - 40C
Maximum Working Temperature: +70C
Life: 10-30 years
Discharge Rate: Adjustable
A good example of the difference the Partanen Technology would have is EV 1
by General Motors.
The total weight of the car without batteries is 816 kg. With the batteries
the weight goes to 1550 kg. The power supply consists of 26 Lead-Acid
batteries of 53 Ah each, which weigh 736 kg i.e. almost half of the total
weight of the car. Without recharge the EV 1 runs 145 km on highway and in
city traffic about 115 km.
With a Partanen technology battery weighing 60 kg, and with a volume 40
liters it would have a capacity of 80 kWh. Installed in a 816 kg EV 1 it
could run 870 km on highway and 690 km in the city traffic.
Implications for Aluminium manufacture
After the Partanen Technology has been proven and verified, the subsequent
consequences for aluminium manufacture will be significant. Large scale
energy savings will be possible and the siting of aluminium producing plants
will not be governed by the proximity of large scale power resources such as
There are many other aspects which will be affected and these will be taken
into consideration and how they can be exploited by collaboration with
energy and aluminium industry bodies.
The present patent applications were submitted in on August 29th 2003 and
have the numbers 20031213, 20031214 and 20031215. They are in the name of
Mr. Rainer Partanen. Here is a link to " Patentti- ja rekisterihallitus "
pdf-file. The applications can be found on page 6 and 7 (Only in Finnish,
sorry). On basis of an earlier patent application the National Patent and
Register Office of Sweden has made an international research and found that
no corresponding patents or applications exist which could in any way
infringe or stand in the way of registration.
Techniques compared Inventor Partanen Special issue of the shares Inventor
The thought to investigate why electric cars are not more common rose to Mr.
Rainer Partanen in the late 1970's. He had worked all his career in the
metal industry. In 1982 he founded TIETOMETALLI OY, a company which
delivered various metals to the industry. Already from the start Mr.
Partanen left the management of his successful company to his brother in ord
er to be able to concentrate on his research work.
The research phase lasted about 12 years. He studied the patents related to
electric vehicles and their source of power. Furthermore he studied articles
and books on the matter. With the same persistence he studied the English
vocabulary of this area as well as mathematics, electricity and
In the late 1980's after several tests the inventor knew where the solution
could be and concentrated on researching technology the basis of which was
to release the energy of aluminium so that it could be recharged. He founded
for his inventing activities the company Ab Europositron Oy. In the 1990's
the final solution was found and development phase of 10 years began.
During that phase Rainer Partanen developed construction models, where
chemicals of the invention gave best possible result in releasing and
recharging the energy of aluminium. He had many subcontractors, who supplied
him with series of different components for development work.
As a result of this development phase Rainer Partanen has final construction
designs for two production ready batteries of which the function and
reduction of aluminium can be verified. The plan includes a prototype
equivalent to the present 12 V start battery of car and a battery for
electric car with capacity of 80 kWh.
The whole development work in the 1990's has been made within the limits of
Mr. Partanen's financial situation. All tests, equipment designs, material
purchases and applications of patents have been financed by the inventor
himself. The financial investments until now are about USD 120 000 which
does not include input work of inventor.