Re: FW: 3 items: Ethiopia says deaths do not deter Chinese energy company; Eth
- Dear sir,The article about chat from a travelling journalist or tourist in somalia doesnt seem to be scientific as well, but a pure politics; thus that caused the reaction from my side, like many more, who is tired of propagandas.Scientific researches are always being done upon chat: I know one done by Professor Ermias Dagne of Addis Ababa University, for detail researched article.wehib----- Original Message ----
From: Sisay Asefa <sisay.asefa@...>
To: wuhibus <wuhibus@...>
Sent: Tuesday, October 2, 2007 11:18:16 AM
Subject: Re: FW: 3 items: Ethiopia says deaths do not deter Chinese energy company; EthEsai: The following response should be posted for clarity of my view in response to Wuhib's e-mail on chat that appears it has come from me. The simple point is we should be able to separate chat politics from Chat itself which is a potential stimulant drug the effects on individuals should be carefully study by scientists.
You are providing an interesting perspective on Chat. But, my understanding of it is at least a potent or drug stimulant, certainly more than coffee. In my University days we used to get together with friends mostly from Harar and actually chewed it to stay up to study for examinations. If what you are saying is true, it is encouraging.
What I would like to see is a scientific analysis of Chat (its chemical, etc...composition). I am not interested with the politics around it, although I see your point. My concern is how does Chat for example compare to Marijwana for example or even stronger drugs such as "Hashish" or speed drugs, etc. This what I want to know.
If you or some one in ESAI can find studies of Chat as a potential product in terms of its potency etc.. Let me know.
Sisay Asefa, Ph.D.
Professor, Department of Economics
Director, Center for African Development Policy Research (CADPR)/HIGE
Western Michigan University
Kalamazoo, MI. USA. 49009
Phone: 269 387 5556 (Economics)
Office: 5545 Friedmann Hall
----- Original Message -----
From: wuhibus <wuhibus@...>
Date: Monday, October 1, 2007 10:25 pm
Subject: Re: FW: 3 items: Ethiopia says deaths do not deter Chinese energy company; Eth
> --- In ESAi@yahoogroups.com, Sisay Asefa <sisay.asefa@...> wrote:
> > Selam,
> I would like to say something to defend khat's positive image, its
> contribution to peace and reconciliation and the culture of tolerance,
> brotherhood and forgiveness that is built around this ancient
> indigenous plant for centuries, in the horn of Africa and the Arabian
> peninsula; specifically Yemen.
> Khat has been chewed in Hararghe-Somali region for more than 1000
> years at least, according to written evidences. It has always been
> chewed for maybe over a millennium and was never disregarded by the
> wise elders of these ancient people as a cause of violence. If it was
> found to have adversary effect, it would have been discarded by the
> wise elders of these people, who know much better than a tourist,
> centuries ago. Instead, the plant , has been found to assist the
> people in the region for mastering their environment and in their
> daily struggle of survival.
> The recent attempt to correlate the violence that has more to do with
> Imperialism in the horn of Africa; to Chat is a deliberate attempt to
> twist the real causes of the conflict, and looking for justification;
> a typical production of colonial mentalities.
> It is not even a validated argument to base our analysis and
> conclusion on an amateur western Journalist's personal opinion, whose
> perspective can only be confined to a western idea of our lives.
> One fact is that Khat chewing people of the horn of Africa (Harar,
> Diredawa, jimma, Wollo, Afar, Somali, etc...) are known for their
> strong social lives and bonds to one another; this is the fact.
> On the other hand , most of the violences on the people of Ethiopia
> and the horn had been initiated and conducted from the Non-khat
> chewing parts of the region. For this, we don't need any better
> evidence than our vast history of war and violences.
> If a serious study was meant to be conducted, it shall be based on
> scientific procedures of research methodologies. I can not simply say
> the reason why America is conducting war throughout the world is
> because its citizens are eating Mcdonalds everyday. The journalist who
> observed chat in Somalia said something similar like this.
> > Friends. Here are some Interesting stories. The chat story is
> > How much does Chat contribute to violence in Ethiopia and the
> Horn in
> > general?
> > Sincerely,
> > Sisay
> > _____
> > 1. http://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKL1726507720070917
> > 2.
> > ng_back_to_Jubba_regions_Military_sources_printer.shtml
> > 3.
> dyn/content/article/2007/08/17/AR2007081701> 714.html
> > 1. INTERVIEW-Ethiopia says deaths do not deter Sinopec
> > Mon Sep 17, 2007
> > Katie Nguyen
> > ADDIS ABABA, Sept 17 (Reuters) - China's biggest refiner and
> > producer, Sinopec, is interested in energy production-sharing
> deals with
> > Ethiopia in its troubled Ogaden region, a minister said on Monday.
> > State Minister for Mines and Energy Sinknesh Ejigu said initial
> talks began
> > even after separatist rebels raided an oil field in April, killing
> 74 people
> > including nine Chinese subcontractors working for Zhongyuan
> Petroleum> Exploration Bureau, part of Sinopec (0934.HK:
> > <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/quote?symbol=0934.HK> Quote,
> > <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=0934.HK>
> <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/researchReports?symbol=0934.HK> Research).
> > The attack was one of the worst on Beijing's growing energy
> interests in
> > Africa, which range from Angola to Sudan and Ethiopia.
> > "After this incident, the (Sinopec) vice-president came here and
> > with us, and they said they even wanted to directly enter into
> > production-sharing agreements with us," Sinknesh told Reuters in an
> > interview. "Nothing is concretised."
> > Under discussion were four out of 21 blocks in gas-rich Ogaden,
> which have
> > not yet been allocated in a production-sharing agreement.
> > Zhongyuan had provided subcontractors to dig wells in the western
> > region for Malaysian firm Petronas (PETR.KL:
> > <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/quote?symbol=PETR.KL> Quote,
> > <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=PETR.KL>
> <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/researchReports?symbol=PETR.KL>Research) and
> > to carry out exploratory activity for a private firm, Southwest,
> in the
> > Ogaden.
> > Sinknesh said the government had assured firms operating in the vast
> > bordering Somalia -- including Petronas and Sweden's Lundin
> (LUPE.ST:> <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/quote?symbol=LUPE.ST> Quote,
> > <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/companyProfile?symbol=LUPE.ST>
> <http://uk.reuters.com/stocks/researchReports?symbol=LUPE.ST>Research) --
> > that security would be stepped up.
> > In June, Prime Minister Meles Zenawi announced a military campaign
> to flush
> > out the rebel Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF), which has
> warned> foreign energy explorers to stay away.
> > "We're doing our part so that it will not happen again," Sinknesh
> said. "The
> > companies believe in this government, and that full security
> will be
> > undertaken."
> > The government believes the Ogaden basin covering 350,000 sq km
> contains gas
> > reserves of some 4 trillion cubic feet.
> > It has also identified four other basins with energy potential, but
> > said much more work needed to be done to determine if there were
> > reserves of crude and gas.
> > Last month, Ethiopia signed a deal letting Petronas develop the
> Kalub and
> > Hilal gas deposits in Ogaden. Sinknesh said it will take time before
> > Petronas could begin exporting.
> > "This needs very huge investment. They have to build pipelines. They
> have to
> > dig additional wells in the Hilal area. It will take a substantial
> amount of
> > time, two years something."
> > ______
> > Source: Garoweonline.com, Somalia
> > Ethiopian troops heading back to Jubba regions: Military sources
> > Sep 15, 2007
> > MOGADISHU
> > Thousands of Ethiopian troops have amassed along the country's
> border with
> > Somalia in preparation for military activities inside Somalia,
> military> sources confirmed to Garowe Online.
> > An unconfirmed number of Ethiopian troops equipped with full
> military gear
> > including tanks are preparing to deploy into Somalia to strengthen
> > operations against Islamist-led insurgents, who have turned
> Mogadishu into a
> > virtual war zone with daily attacks.
> > The troops are expected to deploy within the next coming weeks.
> > Most of the troops will be dispatched towards the Jubba regions, in
> > Somalia's deep south, according to our sources.
> > Ethiopian military sources who spoke to Garowe Online on the
> condition of
> > anonymity confirmed preparations for the fresh deployment. Some
> of the
> > troops would replace troops who have been serving in the Mogadishu
> > since the beginning of this year, the sources said.
> > The Ethiopian army's renewed interest to redeploy in the Jubba
> regions> follows media reports that a senior Islamic Courts military
> commander has
> > setup a base somewhere in the jungles of Lower Jubba region to train
> and arm
> > anti-government fighters.
> > Ethiopian forces withdrew from the Jubba regions, and from the port
> city of
> > Kismayo in particular, last March after relinquishing security
> control over
> > to Somali government troops.
> > But the Somali soldiers turned on each other within a month after
> > along clan lines. Soldiers-turned-clan gunmen overpowered the
> > government-appointed administration and assumed control of Kismayo
> and the
> > wider Jubba regions since deadly battles in April.
> > Analysts believe the absence of government order in the Jubba
> regions has
> > created ideal ground for the establishment of training facilities,
> > especially in the region's forested areas.
> > In January, when Islamist fighters and leaders retreated from
> Mogadishu,> they fled to Kismayo and the Jubba regions where they
> became targets for
> > U.S. warplanes.
> > ____________
> > Source: Washington Post
> > DISPATCH SOMALIA
> > 3. Where Khat Is King, But Not Much Else Works
> > Anna Husarska
> > Sunday, August 19, 2007
> > GALKAYO, Somalia On a dusty street that runs through this town of
> 80,000 in
> > central Somalia, a cluster of men sit on low stools, lost in
> their daily
> > ritual -- chewing the green leaves of a mild narcotic called khat.
> > and stupefied, they seem oblivious to everything. Only when their
> > jangle -- a surreal sound in this otherwise primitive place -- do
> they snap
> > to life. Soon they've arranged the money transfers they've been
> waiting for
> > and lapse back into their somnolent masticating.
> > Nothing much works in
> <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/related/topic/Somalia?tid=informline>> Somalia -- not water or sanitation, not health or education. But
> despite the
> > absence of state structures (or perhaps because of it), three things
> > function with amazing smoothness: the commerce of khat, an
> impressive system
> > of cellphone networks, and the business of international money
> > Welcome to the paradox that is the failed state of Somalia. This
> nation of 9
> > million in the
> > ne> Horn of Africa hasn't had a functioning government since January
> > when dictator
> > rmline> Mohamed Siad Barre was ousted from power by the country's
> > Over the past 16 years, a permanent clan conflict has engulfed most
> of the
> > country. The United States tried to end the chaos in the 1990s but
> > That "humanitarian intervention" never lived up to its code name,
> > Restore Hope. It's better known by its unfortunate final chapter,
> Black Hawk
> > Down, the 1993 Battle of
> > Mogadishu.
> > A transitional federal government was formed three years ago and
> sat in
> <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/related/topic/Baidoa?tid=informline>> Baidoa, in central-western Somalia. Last December, with external
> support, it
> > took on the radical Muslims who had run ("governed" is not quite the
> > word) the southern and central portion of the country for six
> months. With
> > tacit approval from Washington, which saw the move as part of the
> > war on terror," Ethiopian troops forced the
> > =informline> Union of Islamic Courts out of Mogadishu. Since
> then an
> > guerrilla war -- complete with roadside explosive devices, mortar
> fire and
> > suicide bombs -- has been raging in the capital, with no end in
> > In the past six months, reports of unrest coming out of the Somali
> > have been almost as dramatic and monotonous as those from the Iraqi
> > only on a smaller scale. In Mogadishu, a town that reporters have
> > "
> > Baghdad-on-the-Sea," 30 people were killed last week, including two
> > prominent journalists. Hundreds of thousands of displaced Somalis
> have had a
> > compelling reason to flee their capital: It's awash in mayhem.
> > Yet somehow, despite the bloodshed, a few things work. The
> import and
> > internal distribution of Catha edulis, or khat, from neighboring
> > has endured all the "failed state" periods, with the exception of
> the months
> > between June and December 2006, when the Union of Islamic Courts
> ran the
> > country. The Islamists banned khat, along with alcohol and
> cigarettes,> sparking protests. Yet it turned out that not only
> was it possible for
> > Somali men not to chew khat, but all the locals I spoke to agreed
> that it
> > was the first peaceful period in Mogadishu since 1991. Women
> mentioned that
> > their husbands had even started working in the afternoons.
> > Khat, which is similar to amphetamines in its effects, is a
> narcotic, but
> > it's not illegal in Somalia. Far be it from me as a humanitarian aid
> > to praise the khat industry, but I can't help envying the clockwork
> > precision of its operations. The flights taken by aid
> organizations like
> > mine have to adjust their schedules repeatedly in response to
> fighting, but
> > the planes that are used to import khat land with a promptness you
> can set
> > your watch by. We need armed guards to escort us on our travels, so
> we have
> > to rent an extra vehicle to transport them. We've never gotten our
> > private car on time. By contrast, the khat's armed escort is always
> > impeccably punctual.
> > Here is how the khat delivery works. Every day, large cargo
> flights land
> > from Kenya: three in Mogadishu, two here in Galkayo and one more
> in the
> > south, in the town of Kismayo. As soon as the planes land in
> Galkayo, most
> > of the khat is transferred to five vehicles that head north toward
> > -- a town on the Gulf of Aden-- under heavily armed guard, as
> befits a
> > precious cargo. The cars --
> > d=informline> Toyota Mark Twos and Toyota Hilux pickups -- are known
> > as "missiles" for the speed with which they travel. The distribution
> > schedule means that life grinds to a halt at various hours in
> various> places. The munching starts just after 10 a.m. in
> Galkayo, around 1
> p.m. in
> > Garowe (180 miles to the north) and at 4 p.m. in Bossaso (360 miles
> to the
> > north, over a very bad road).
> > Only men chew khat, but retail sales (and, in Galkayo, wholesale as
> > are the exclusive task of women. And it's a serious business: a
> bunch of
> > twigs to satisfy a man for a day costs the equivalent of $10. (Per
> > income is roughly $130 a year.) If payment is made in Somali
> shillings, the
> > banknotes fill a shopping bag.
> > Khat is a mild drug, but very addictive. The other Somali
> addiction is
> > cellphones. They're everywhere. But the communications networks
> aren't> uniform. Your tribal affiliation determines your area
> code. In Galkayo,
> > there are two networks (with no way to call from one to the other)
> > reflecting the clan division that runs through the town from the
> south,> where cell numbers start with a 4, to the north, where
> they start
> with a 7.
> > About 60 miles south of Galkayo, we came across Docol, a village
> where the
> > only modern feature is a huge mobile phone tower. The owner of two
> > cellphones (one 4, one 7) told me excitedly that he was
> expecting a
> > one soon. I tried to envision the advantages this would bring: Soon
> many of
> > the 3,000 inhabitants of Docol will be able to call their
> cousins in
> > and complain -- in real time, at a relatively low cost of 45
> cents a
> > -- about the lack of latrines in Docol. They'll have the option of
> sending a
> > text message to friends who emigrated to
> <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/related/topic/Sweden?tid=informline>> Sweden, describing the decline of their camel and goat herds because
> > no functioning watering hole within a several-hundred-mile radius,
> or even
> > take a digital picture of the primitive berked, or pond, with
> its filthy
> > water.
> > Somalia may have a global wireless connection, but many of its
> people have
> > nowhere to relieve themselves and no water to drink. According
> to the
> > formline> World Bank, Somalia has 1.5 more telephones per capita
> than> Djibouti, Kenya and
> > Ethiopia, but only one-third as many Somalis have access to safe
> water as
> > their neighbors in those countries.
> > On an expedition to the field to survey water and sanitation needs,
> I went
> > to peek into the dry wells in a camp for displaced former
> residents of
> > Mogadishu. The women there immediately surrounded me, shaking their
> > jerry cans. I didn't need an interpreter; I knew what they wanted.
> > Later, I met with the head of the camp committee, who complained
> about the
> > lack of school and health facilities for the displaced. As he
> > toward the camp, I noted that he was holding a cellphone better than
> the one
> > I'd just bought to accommodate our many clan-correct SIM cards.
> > It struck me as ironic, because I assumed that this man earned his
> income in
> > a camp for the displaced. But he set me straight -- most of his
> income> consists of money transfers from his wife, a refugee in
> <http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/related/topic/Nairobi?tid=informline>> Nairobi. Remittances from abroad are in fact the main source of
> income for
> > countless Somalis, and the transfers work amazingly well. A 2004
> World Bank
> > study on Somalia, aptly titled "Anarchy and Invention," reports:
> "The hawala
> > system, a trust-based money transfer system, used in many Muslim
> > moves US$0.5--1 billion into Somalia every year."
> > If Somalis can deliver khat on time, establish a nationwide
> cellphone system
> > to coordinate its delivery and set up a functioning money-transfer
> > why can't they bring water to their taps and build latrines for
> their> people? It would be too easy to blame these failures on the
> effectsof khat.
> > Reconstruction and development would require a minimum of unity and
> > reconciliation. But is that possible among Somalis? More than a
> month ago,
> > 1,300 delegates, clan elders and warlords from various parts of the
> > came together in Mogadishu. Their reconciliation mega-conference is
> > going on, but the main effect so far appears to have been a sharp
> > in violence in the capital and a resulting exodus on an order not
> seen since
> > the days of Barre's dictatorship.
> > A failed state doesn't fail because of khat-munching alone.
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