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  • Ackland, Tony (CALNZAS)
    Theres a heap of useful information about ethanol and distilling at Keith Addisons site. Just be aware that many of the still designs are for fuel alcohol,
    Message 1 of 1 , Jan 5, 2003
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      Theres a heap of useful information about ethanol and distilling at Keith Addisons site. Just be aware that many of the still designs are for fuel alcohol, and may not be totally appropriate for drinking alcohol (but easier enough to adapt)


      Date: Sun, 5 Jan 2003 21:55:33 +0900
      From: Keith Addison <keith@...>
      Subject: Biofuels resources

      The searchable message archives of the Biofuel and Biofuels-biz
      mailing lists are a treasure-house of biofuels information -- more
      than 20,000 messages from the worldwide membership covering all
      aspects of biofuels issues -- biodiesel, ethanol, SVO and more. Fast,
      one-time searches, Boolean searching, and NO ADS!

      Biofuels resources at Journey to Forever


      Biofuels Online Library (see below)

      Biofuels supplies and suppliers
      - Biodiesel suppliers
      - Biodiesel technology
      - Biodiesel processors
      - Glycerine purification
      - Gas Chromatographs
      - Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR)
      - Oilseed presses
      - Methanol suppliers
      - Dehydrating ethanol
      - pH testing
      - Washing
      - Straight vegetable oil systems, equipment
      - Fuel heaters, filters
      - Viscosity meters
      - Refractometers
      - Brewing equipment
      - Temperature gauges
      - Automatic temperature control valves
      - Rustproofing, anti-corrosion
      - General equipment
      - Diesel engines
      - Soldering, brazing


      Make your own biodiesel
      - Three choices
      1. Mixing it
      2. Straight vegetable oil
      3. Biodiesel
      - Biodiesel
      - Where do I start?
      - What's next?
      - The process
      - Our first biodiesel
      - Biodiesel from new oil
      - Biodiesel from waste oil
      - Washing
      - Using biodiesel
      - How much methanol?
      - More about lye
      - How much lye to use?
      - Basic titration
      - Better titration
      - Accurate measurements
      - pH meters
      - Phenolphthalein
      - High FFA levels
      - Deacidifying WVO
      - No titration?
      - The basic lye quantity -- 3.5 grams?
      - Mixing the methoxide
      - PET bottle mixers
      - Viscosity testing
      - How the process works
      - Which method to use?
      - Other uses
      - Identifying plastics
      - Separating glycerine/FFAs

      Mike Pelly's recipe
      Biodiesel From Used Kitchen Grease or Waste Vegetable Oil - the most
      popular biodiesel method

      Two-stage biodiesel process
      The two-stage adaptation of Mike Pelly's biodiesel recipe, by Aleks Kac
      (The base-base method)

      FOOLPROOF biodiesel process
      The FOOLPROOF way to make biodiesel, by Aleks Kac (the acid-base method)

      Bubble washing
      - The wash
      - Washing problems

      - General
      - Separating glycerine
      - Purifying glycerine
      - Paintbrush cleaner
      - Soap
      - Glop soap
      - High-explosives
      - Heart disease drug
      - Love potion
      - Safe sweetener
      - Health supplement
      - Preserving plants
      - Photocopying
      - Other uses
      - Disposal

      Ethyl-esters biodiesel
      - Ethanol-based Biodiesel
      - Anhydrous ethanol

      Biodiesel processors
      - Mike Pelly's new processor
      - "Foolproof" method processors
      - The touchless processor
      - Continuous reactors
      - Biodiesel technology
      - Simon's guide to building a biodiesel mixer
      - Ian's vacuum biodiesel processor
      - Chuck Ranum's biodiesel processor
      - How to make a cone-bottomed processor

      Biodiesel and your vehicle
      - Quality
      - Quality testing
      - Standards for biodiesel

      Nitrogen Oxide emissions
      - NOx and biodiesel

      Biodiesel resources on the Web
      - What is biodiesel?
      - Home-made biodiesel
      - Straight vegetable oil (SVO)
      - Ethyl-esters biodiesel
      - Biofuels forums
      - Biodiesel information sources
      - Government sources
      - Education

      Vegetable oil yields and characteristics
      Vegetable oil yields:
      -- ascending order
      -- alphabetical order
      Other oil crops
      Oils and esters characteristics
      Iodine Values
      -- High Iodine Values
      -- Talking about the weather
      Quality standard for rapeseed oil fuel
      Cetane Numbers
      National standards for biodiesel
      Fuel properties of fats and oils
      Fuel properties of esters

      Food or fuel?
      - Fuel alcohol in Brazil
      - Starvation?
      - There is no food shortage
      - Facts
      - US grain exports
      - The real causes of hunger
      - Fuel AND food

      Straight vegetable oil as diesel fuel
      - Guide to using vegetable oil as diesel fuel
      - SVO systems
      - References
      - SVO vs biodiesel in Europe
      - European SVO resources
      - Diesel information
      - Fats and oils

      Straighter-than-straight vegetable oils as diesel fuels

      The TDI-SVO controversy
      - Pro
      - Con
      - Conclusion

      Do diesels have a future?
      - Old diesels
      - Quotes
      - Are diesels "old technology"?

      Diesels in the US
      - New cars
      - Used cars
      - Coming soon

      Diesel motorbikes

      Biodiesel in Hong Kong
      - News Stories

      The best car in the world
      - Energy consumption

      Spanish-language sister-site for DIY biodieselers
      EN ESPAƑOL, sitio hermano para biodieseleros DIY

      - What is ethanol?
      - The benefits
      - Backyard ethanol
      - How does it work?
      - Production
      - Energy balance

      Ethanol resources on the Web
      - Forums
      - General information
      - Small-scale ethanol
      - Ethanol from cellulose
      - Ethanol biodiesel
      - Hooch
      - Ethanol and your car
      - How-to books

      Is ethanol energy-efficient?
      - What standard farm?
      - Ethanol under fire

      Biofuels Library

      Mother Earth Alcohol Fuel -- a guide to the fine points of home
      alcohol production
      Basic information, methods, different feedstocks, processing, mash
      recipes, still designs and plans, low-cost backyard stills, Alcohol
      as an Engine Fuel, How To Adapt Your Automobile Engine For Ethyl
      Alcohol Use, Do-It-Yourself Water Injection System, MOTHER's Waste
      Oil Heater. Full text online.

      The Manual for the Home and Farm Production of Alcohol Fuel
      This excellent manual gives you all the information you need to get
      going with making your own alcohol fuel. Aimed at small-scale
      production, good chapters on fuel theory, everything about
      feedstocks, processing, fermentation, yeast, using ethanol,
      distillation. Full text online.

      A complete report covering all of the applications of ethanol in
      gasoline, in new and used engines: ERDC Project No 2511 Intensive
      Field Trial of Ethanol/Petrol Blend in Vehicles. This trial showed no
      harm to any engines, and documented the benefits. This is the
      Executive Summary, compliments of Apace Research Ltd -- 10 pages,
      32kb Acrobat file.

      Fuel From Sawdust -- by Mike Brown (from Acres, USA, 19 June 1983):
      Conversion of cellulose, such as sawdust, cornstalks, newspaper and
      other substances, to alcohol -- "a fairly uncomplicated and
      straightforward process".

      The UC Davis biodiesel study -- "Chemical and Bioassay Analyses of
      Diesel and Biodiesel Particulate Matter: Pilot Study -- Final Report"
      by Norman Y. Kado, Robert A. Okamoto and Paul A. Kuzmicky, Department
      of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis,
      California, November 1996. This U.S. Department of Energy study found
      that the use of pure biodiesel instead of petroleum-based diesel fuel
      could offer a 93.6% reduction in cancer risks from exhaust emissions
      exposure. Acrobat file, 3.1Mb.
      UC Davis biodiesel study -- summary: the Summary, Results and
      Discussion sections of the report, in html format.

      Kinetics of Palm Oil Transesterification in a Batch Reactor, by D.
      Darnoko and Munir Cheryan, University of Illinois, Department of Food
      Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural Bioprocess Laboratory,
      Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society (JAOCS) Vol. 77, No. 12
      (2000) --What happens during the biodiesel process reaction. Acrobat
      file, 72Kb.

      Cornmeal Adsorber for Dehydrating Ethanol Vapors -- by Michael R.
      Ladisch et al., Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Purdue
      University. Ground corn is an effective and energy efficient means to
      remove water from ethanol. And when its drying capacity is worn out,
      it can be fermented and distilled to make more ethanol. About half
      the ethanol now produced in the US is dried using corn grits. This
      1981 paper is the original work on the subject.

      The Butterfield Still -- This report provides details of the design,
      construction, operation and performance of the FSB Energy Fuel
      Alcohol Plant.

      Farm-scale ethanol fuel production plant -- the Gildred/Butterfield
      Fuel Alcohol Plant, winner of the California Department of Food and
      Agriculture's Ethanol Fuel Plant Design Competition: Floyd
      Butterfield's on-farm still operation in full, complete with
      blueprints. Plant Description, Plant Operating Manual, Plant
      Performance Data, Plant Construction Guide, Recommendations,
      Appendixes and eight blueprints of the still, cooker and operating
      set-up. Operates continuously, 24 hours per day, 10 gallons per hour
      of 190 proof ethanol. Includes screw press blueprints and
      construction details.

      The Fats and Oils: a General View, by Carl L. Alsberg and Alonzo E.
      Taylor, 1928, Food Research Institute, Stanford University, California
      First in a series of five Fats and Oils Studies published in the
      1920s by the Food Research Institute. World War 1 had demonstrated
      the basic importance of the fats and oils for food, feed, and raw
      material for industry. These publications sought to address a lack of
      reliable data on which to base policy and business decisions. Good
      overview of the subject written in layman's terms, covers nature and
      sources of fats and oils, properties, technology, production,
      international trade and more. Not that much has changed since then,
      it's just grown more complex. A clear and informative guide -- useful
      information for anyone making biodiesel, also much of interest on how
      agricultural production and the trade in commodities can influence
      prices and availability of feedstock. Also much of interest for
      soapmakers. Full text online.

      See also:

      Oils -- King's American Dispensatory, by Harvey Wickes Felter, M.D.,
      and John Uri Lloyd, Phr. M., Ph. D., 1898

      Chemical Reactions of Oil, Fat and Fat Based Products

      Food Fats and Oils (1994) -- online book (Acrobat file, 1.3Mb):

      Minor Oil Crops, B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman,
      Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby, UK, FAO
      Agricultural Services Bulletin No. 94, Rome, 1992, ISBN
      92-5-103128-2: Part I - Edible oils, Part II - Non-edible oils, Part
      III - Essential oils -- Full text online:

      Put a chicken in your tank -- Eccentric British inventor Harold Bate
      found a way of converting chicken droppings to gas -- and runs his
      car on it. He claims chicken power will run a car faster, cleaner,
      and better than gasoline. Bate says he has driven his 1953 Hillman at
      speeds up to 75 mph without the use of gasoline.

      Optimization of a Batch Type Ethyl Ester Process -- recipe for
      biodiesel from ethanol (which you can make yourself), instead of
      methanol (which is toxic, fossil-fuel derived, and you can't make it
      yourself). NOTE: This resource is hosted by the Biomass Resource
      Information Clearinghouse (BRIC) at the Renewable Resource Data
      Center, which is supported by the US Department of Energy.

      Production and Testing of Ethyl and Methyl Esters, University of
      Idaho, Dec 1994.

      Transesterification Process to Manufacture Ethyl Ester of Rape Oil by
      Roger A. Korus, Dwight S. Hoffman Narendra Barn, Charles L. Peterson,
      and David C. Drown, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of
      Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA (Acrobat file, 672Kb)

      Making and Testing a Biodiesel Fuel Made From Ethanol and Waste
      French-Fry Oil by Charles L. Peterson, Daryl Reece, Brian Hammond,
      Joseph C. Thompson, Sidney Beck, University of Idaho, Idaho, USA
      (Acrobat file, 2.4Mb)

      Separating Ethanol From Water -- by Renaldo V. Jenkins of Langley
      Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA. More economical methods of
      separating water from ethanol to produce anhydrous ethanol, using
      sulphur or castor oil.

      Biochemical Sources of Fuels -- by John D. Keenan, Assistant
      Professor of Civil and Urban Engineering, University of Pennsylvania,
      Philadelphia, Pa. From Considine, Douglas M. (Ed-in-Ch) : Energy
      Technology Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1977). Survey of biofuels potential
      -- Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic Hydrogen, Biochemical Oxidations,
      Ethanol Fermentation, Butanol-isopropanol Fermentation, Methane
      Fermentation, Hydrogen Fermentation, Cellulose Degradation,
      Biochemical Fuel Cells, Extraction of Shale Oil, Conversion
      Economics, with extensive references.

      Apparatus for the Continuous Manufacture of Absolute Alcohol -- US
      Patent 1,704,213, E. Ricard, filed January 23, 1924. Acrobat pdf
      file, 524kb.
      In html

      Absolute Alcohol Using Glycerine -- Mariller-Granger Processes, from
      E. Boullanger: Distillerie Agricole et Industrielle (Paris: Ballire,
      1924). Mariller's absolute alcohol production process by dehydration
      using glycerine, various systems examined and explained.

      Wood Alcohol -- from E. Boullanger: Distillerie Agricole et
      Industrielle (Paris: Ballire, 1924). An examination of the technology
      of producing ethanol from wood, going back to 1819. This survey
      covers the field excepting for the new enzymes, which still haven't
      arrived after 20 years of promises.

      Wood-to-Oil Process -- by S. Friedman, A.S. Mehta and P.L. Thigpen,
      from Considine, Douglas M. (Ed-in-Ch): Energy Technology Handbook
      (McGraw-Hill, 1977). Scientists at the Pittsburgh Energy Research
      Center of the Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior,
      converted wood wastes, cowdung and garbage into oil in the
      laboratory. Any cellulosic material can be converted to oil by this
      process. Economics, Process, Drying and Grinding, Feed Systems,
      Wood-Oil Slurry Feed System, Solids Feed System, Pretreated Wood-Oil
      Slurry System, Reaction, Reactor Off-Gases, Oil Recovery,
      Environmental Considerations.

      Biodiesel quality testing: Scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research
      Service have adapted a sophisticated tool known as near-infrared
      spectroscopy -- NIR -- to help speed the development of biodiesel
      fuels made with vegetable oils. The standard for measuring biodiesel
      quality has been a complex analytical method called gas
      chromatography (GC). But GC is a complex piece of laboratory
      equipment, requiring technical expertise and at least an hour to
      perform. It also requires chemical reagents and solvents that need
      special handling and costly disposal. NIR is a safer and faster way
      to check the quality of biodiesel fuel, and no special training is

      NIR Helps Turn Vegetable Oil into High-Quality Biofuel -- ARS News
      Release, June 15, 1999

      Rapid Monitoring of Transesterification and Assessing Biodiesel Fuel
      Quality by Near-infrared Spectroscopy Using a Fiber-Optic Probe, by
      Gerhard Knothe, ARS, JAOCS 76, 795-800 (July 1999)

      Monitoring a Progressing Transesterification Reaction by Fiber-Optic
      Near Infrared Spectroscopy with Correlation to 1H Nuclear Magnetic
      Resonance Spectroscopy, by Gerhard Knothe, ARS, JAOCS 77, 489-493
      (May 2000)
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