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strange (turbo) mash

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  • januutreurle
    Hello group, I am quite puzzled. A few weeks ago I started a new mash. It was the first time I used turboyeast. After a few days fermentation still did not
    Message 1 of 15 , Nov 5, 2010
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      Hello group,

      I am quite puzzled.

      A few weeks ago I started a new mash. It was the first time I used turboyeast. After a few days fermentation still did not start so I concluded that the yeast was too old and added a more conventional distillesyeast to the wash. Fermentation started fast an vigourously. But a few days later the mash came out of the airlock (couple of liters during night, I am glad we have a stone floor in the kitchen ;) ). It turned out the mash was white and quite thick. I added some water to dilute it a little and waited for fermentation to stop, which it did in about a week. Left the wash to clear for some 1,5 week.

      Unfortunately it did not clear, It is still white and quite thick (maybe best described as a liquid gel) with lots of gas suspended.

      Does anyone have similar experiences? What could be in the wash (at the moment I consider throwing it away and start a new one) and what bio-mechanisms could have caused this?

      Ingredient for the mash were just sugar (for approximately 18 percent of alcohol), the turboyeast (with it own nutritients) and lateron the conventional yeast.

      All the best to all,

      Regards,

      Jan
    • goodyear1952
      Got me mate...never had that problem...did you follow the instructions on the packet? cheers Ken Mc ________________________________ From: januutreurle
      Message 2 of 15 , Nov 5, 2010
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        Got me mate...never had that problem...did you follow the instructions on the packet?
        cheers Ken Mc


        From: januutreurle <stoker@...>
        To: Distillers@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Sat, 6 November, 2010 3:53:11 AM
        Subject: [Distillers] strange (turbo) mash

         

        Hello group,

        I am quite puzzled.

        A few weeks ago I started a new mash. It was the first time I used turboyeast. After a few days fermentation still did not start so I concluded that the yeast was too old and added a more conventional distillesyeast to the wash. Fermentation started fast an vigourously. But a few days later the mash came out of the airlock (couple of liters during night, I am glad we have a stone floor in the kitchen ;) ). It turned out the mash was white and quite thick. I added some water to dilute it a little and waited for fermentation to stop, which it did in about a week. Left the wash to clear for some 1,5 week.

        Unfortunately it did not clear, It is still white and quite thick (maybe best described as a liquid gel) with lots of gas suspended.

        Does anyone have similar experiences? What could be in the wash (at the moment I consider throwing it away and start a new one) and what bio-mechanisms could have caused this?

        Ingredient for the mash were just sugar (for approximately 18 percent of alcohol), the turboyeast (with it own nutritients) and lateron the conventional yeast.

        All the best to all,

        Regards,

        Jan


         
      • januutreurle
        Sure Ken, mix water and sugar, add contents of package, wait till fermentation stops. Not too difficult ;)
        Message 3 of 15 , Nov 5, 2010
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          Sure Ken, mix water and sugar, add contents of package, wait till fermentation stops. Not too difficult ;)

          --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, goodyear1952 <goodyear1952@...> wrote:
          >
          > Got me mate...never had that problem...did you follow the instructions on the
          > packet?
          > cheers Ken Mc
          >
          >
          >
          >
          > ________________________________
          > From: januutreurle <stoker@...>
          > To: Distillers@yahoogroups.com
          > Sent: Sat, 6 November, 2010 3:53:11 AM
          > Subject: [Distillers] strange (turbo) mash
          >
          >  
          > Hello group,
          >
          > I am quite puzzled.
          >
          > A few weeks ago I started a new mash. It was the first time I used turboyeast.
          > After a few days fermentation still did not start so I concluded that the yeast
          > was too old and added a more conventional distillesyeast to the wash.
          > Fermentation started fast an vigourously. But a few days later the mash came out
          > of the airlock (couple of liters during night, I am glad we have a stone floor
          > in the kitchen ;) ). It turned out the mash was white and quite thick. I added
          > some water to dilute it a little and waited for fermentation to stop, which it
          > did in about a week. Left the wash to clear for some 1,5 week.
          >
          > Unfortunately it did not clear, It is still white and quite thick (maybe best
          > described as a liquid gel) with lots of gas suspended.
          >
          > Does anyone have similar experiences? What could be in the wash (at the moment I
          > consider throwing it away and start a new one) and what bio-mechanisms could
          > have caused this?
          >
          > Ingredient for the mash were just sugar (for approximately 18 percent of
          > alcohol), the turboyeast (with it own nutritients) and lateron the conventional
          > yeast.
          >
          > All the best to all,
          >
          > Regards,
          >
          > Jan
          >
        • just me
          could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the
          Message 4 of 15 , Nov 5, 2010
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            could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the sugar and water may help also.
             
            A picture is worth a thousand words, but it uses up three thousand
            times the memory.
          • januutreurle
            Unfortunately I did not save the sachet (with instructions on it) but what I now for sure is the following: Brand: Alcotec Mash: 25 L Water, 6 Kg sugar Temp
            Message 5 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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              Unfortunately I did not save the sachet (with instructions on it) but what I now for sure is the following:

              Brand: Alcotec
              Mash: 25 L Water, 6 Kg sugar
              Temp (when adding yeast): approx. 26 deg.C (checked it before adding)

              Fermentation should be over in 3-5 days according to the instructions. Since a day later fermentation had not started I added a (no-brand) standard distillers yeast (supplier Van Rein; description: fast acting, highly active yeast; should be capable to handle up to 18% of alcohol), no additional nutrition since I supposed that there were already enough in the turbo yeast mix.
              Fermentation came up quite satisfactory in approx. a half day.

              Surrounding temp approx. 20 deg.C (kitchen). We have floor heating so the bottom of the container could have been a little warmer (but definitely not over 30 deg.C). Did not have any problems with 2 previous washes in the same circumstances (in which I always used the no-brand distillers yeast).

              --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "just me" <hifa222@...> wrote:
              >
              > could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the sugar and water may help also.
              >
              > A picture is worth a thousand words, but it uses up three thousand
              > times the memory.
              >
            • Dick Box
              I use ( and am a dealer for) Still Spirits brand Turbo Yeast. I am going to assume that were using the Alcotech 48 (also sold as Alcotec 6 in some parts of the
              Message 6 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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                I use ( and am a dealer for) Still Spirits brand Turbo Yeast. I am going to assume that were using the Alcotech 48 (also sold as Alcotec 6 in some parts of the world). Your water temp. should have been 40 C prior to adding the sugar. The temp will then drop some as the sugar dissolves. When you add the turbo, your fermentation should start right away, sometimes within minutes. The Turbo's are all a little picky about temp. Your water might have been a little cool, your yeast old or even dead from improper storage. You also want to shoot for a little higher fermentation temp. Alcotec specifies 25 C as optimum.

                The good new is there really is no such thing as "too much yeast" so your wash should be fine. What is the specific gravity now? If it is under 1.000 you have converted most, if not all of the sugar to alcohol. I would add a "fining agent" (also know as a clearing agent) such as turbo clear. That will settle out the bulk of the particles remaining in the wash. Make sure you add an anti-foaming agent (distilling conditioner) before you boil. That will help prevent "puking" which sometimes occurs with problem washes.

                Best of luck!


                To: Distillers@yahoogroups.com
                From: stoker@...
                Date: Sat, 6 Nov 2010 11:32:33 +0000
                Subject: [Distillers] Re: strange (turbo) mash

                 
                Unfortunately I did not save the sachet (with instructions on it) but what I now for sure is the following:

                Brand: Alcotec
                Mash: 25 L Water, 6 Kg sugar
                Temp (when adding yeast): approx. 26 deg.C (checked it before adding)

                Fermentation should be over in 3-5 days according to the instructions. Since a day later fermentation had not started I added a (no-brand) standard distillers yeast (supplier Van Rein; description: fast acting, highly active yeast; should be capable to handle up to 18% of alcohol), no additional nutrition since I supposed that there were already enough in the turbo yeast mix.
                Fermentation came up quite satisfactory in approx. a half day.

                Surrounding temp approx. 20 deg.C (kitchen). We have floor heating so the bottom of the container could have been a little warmer (but definitely not over 30 deg.C). Did not have any problems with 2 previous washes in the same circumstances (in which I always used the no-brand distillers yeast).

                --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "just me" <hifa222@...> wrote:
                >
                > could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the sugar and water may help also.
                >
                > A picture is worth a thousand words, but it uses up three thousand
                > times the memory.
                >


              • januutreurle
                Hello Dick, Thank you for thinking along. I browsed a little searching for pictures of the Alcotec yeasts. From what I found I am inclined to think it was
                Message 7 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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                  Hello Dick,

                  Thank you for thinking along.

                  I browsed a little searching for pictures of the Alcotec yeasts. From what I found I am inclined to think it was Alcotec 8 that I used. From what I can remember preparing the wash it could very well be 21 L of water and 8 Kg of sugar (yes I know, I said "sure" in my previous post ... ;) ).
                  I had the yeast for more than a year and not stored it cool so I guess it was dead when I added it.

                  Because of the thickness of my wash and the suspended gas using a hydrometer is not very accurate. I already added Alcotecs Turbo-Clear some 4 hours ago but up till now the thickness and whiteness stays unchanged.

                  I just measured a hydrometer reading of 1.010 although the wash does hardly taste sweet.

                  I heated a small amount of the wash in a pan to 85 deg.C, letting the vapour condense on a cold cover. The vapour does not smell or taste like alcohol at all. Tasting a little of the condensate just gives a vague sweet hint. I will let it cool down and see if it changes.

                  Starting this thread was not so much a search for making a good wash. I will throw it away anyway since I've never seem such a strange wash before.

                  It is just that I am very curious about what happened and what other products could form in the wash (during a quite vigorous fermentation for about 4 days) that could explain the thickness.

                  Kind regards,

                  Jan


                  --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, Dick Box <Dick_Box@...> wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > I use ( and am a dealer for) Still Spirits brand Turbo Yeast. I am going to assume that were using the Alcotech 48 (also sold as Alcotec 6 in some parts of the world). Your water temp. should have been 40 C prior to adding the sugar. The temp will then drop some as the sugar dissolves. When you add the turbo, your fermentation should start right away, sometimes within minutes. The Turbo's are all a little picky about temp. Your water might have been a little cool, your yeast old or even dead from improper storage. You also want to shoot for a little higher fermentation temp. Alcotec specifies 25 C as optimum.
                  >
                  > The good new is there really is no such thing as "too much yeast" so your wash should be fine. What is the specific gravity now? If it is under 1.000 you have converted most, if not all of the sugar to alcohol. I would add a "fining agent" (also know as a clearing agent) such as turbo clear. That will settle out the bulk of the particles remaining in the wash. Make sure you add an anti-foaming agent (distilling conditioner) before you boil. That will help prevent "puking" which sometimes occurs with problem washes.
                  >
                  > Best of luck!
                  >
                • tgfoitwoods
                  Just a wild thought, but is there any chance that sugar was what is called confectioner s sugar or powdered sugar in the US? If so, that gel is cornstarch,
                  Message 8 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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                    Just a wild thought, but is there any chance that sugar was what is called "confectioner's sugar" or "powdered sugar" in the US? If so, that gel is cornstarch, and it sounds like it got cooked somehow in the process.

                    Zymurgy Bob, a simple potstiller

                    --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "januutreurle" <stoker@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Unfortunately I did not save the sachet (with instructions on it) but what I now for sure is the following:
                    >
                    > Brand: Alcotec
                    > Mash: 25 L Water, 6 Kg sugar
                    > Temp (when adding yeast): approx. 26 deg.C (checked it before adding)
                    >
                    > Fermentation should be over in 3-5 days according to the instructions. Since a day later fermentation had not started I added a (no-brand) standard distillers yeast (supplier Van Rein; description: fast acting, highly active yeast; should be capable to handle up to 18% of alcohol), no additional nutrition since I supposed that there were already enough in the turbo yeast mix.
                    > Fermentation came up quite satisfactory in approx. a half day.
                    >
                    > Surrounding temp approx. 20 deg.C (kitchen). We have floor heating so the bottom of the container could have been a little warmer (but definitely not over 30 deg.C). Did not have any problems with 2 previous washes in the same circumstances (in which I always used the no-brand distillers yeast).
                    >
                    > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "just me" hifa222@ wrote:
                    > >
                    > > could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the sugar and water may help also.
                    > >
                    > > A picture is worth a thousand words, but it uses up three thousand
                    > > times the memory.
                    > >
                    >
                  • januutreurle
                    Good idea Zymurgy Bob, but no it was normal granulated sugar. I prepared already several washes with this sugar (sold here in Holland under the brand
                    Message 9 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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                      Good idea Zymurgy Bob, but no it was normal granulated sugar. I prepared already several washes with this sugar (sold here in Holland under the brand Euroshopper, the cheapest I can get ;) ). Also use it in making wine.

                      Anyhow, this kind of guessing, and hopefully, similar experiences, is what I am searching for in the group (unless of course somebody could clip and clear explain what happened).

                      Thanks buddy.

                      --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "tgfoitwoods" <zymurgybob@...> wrote:
                      >
                      > Just a wild thought, but is there any chance that sugar was what is
                      > called "confectioner's sugar" or "powdered sugar" in the US? If so, that
                      > gel is cornstarch, and it sounds like it got cooked somehow in the
                      > process.
                      >
                      > Zymurgy Bob, a simple potstiller
                      >
                    • Pete H
                      The yeast you initially pitched appears to have been Alcotec 48hr. I have used this yeast in more than twenty batches. Never has the fermentation started the
                      Message 10 of 15 , Nov 6, 2010
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                        The yeast you initially pitched appears to have been Alcotec 48hr. I have used this yeast in more than twenty batches. Never has the fermentation started the same day. On occasion it has been so slow to start as to make me think it was stuck.

                        The instructions also recommend not to use an air lock because of rapid fermentation. My experience is that unless an airlock is installed, I couldn't tell if fermentation was active unless I floated an hydrometer.

                        Was the water clear and clean?
                        Was your sugar the same product you have always used?
                        If the answer is yes to these questions, then it may be that there was a reaction between the two yeasts.

                        There are so few steps to getting a wash into the fermenter and active, that it is difficult to imagine what may have caused your problem. Lack of sanitation perhaps?



                        --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "januutreurle" <stoker@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Unfortunately I did not save the sachet (with instructions on it) but what I now for sure is the following:
                        >
                        > Brand: Alcotec
                        > Mash: 25 L Water, 6 Kg sugar
                        > Temp (when adding yeast): approx. 26 deg.C (checked it before adding)
                        >
                        > Fermentation should be over in 3-5 days according to the instructions. Since a day later fermentation had not started I added a (no-brand) standard distillers yeast (supplier Van Rein; description: fast acting, highly active yeast; should be capable to handle up to 18% of alcohol), no additional nutrition since I supposed that there were already enough in the turbo yeast mix.
                        > Fermentation came up quite satisfactory in approx. a half day.
                        >
                        > Surrounding temp approx. 20 deg.C (kitchen). We have floor heating so the bottom of the container could have been a little warmer (but definitely not over 30 deg.C). Did not have any problems with 2 previous washes in the same circumstances (in which I always used the no-brand distillers yeast).
                        >
                        > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "just me" <hifa222@> wrote:
                        > >
                        > > could you tell me more please.We need to know the brand of turbo,the amount of sugar,the amount of water,and anything else you may think of.The temp of the sugar and water may help also.
                        > >
                        > > A picture is worth a thousand words, but it uses up three thousand
                        > > times the memory.
                        > >
                        >
                      • januutreurle
                        I am quite clean in preparing a wash. Always wash and rinse my equipment thoroughly before and after use. But it I guess it is possible that something
                        Message 11 of 15 , Nov 7, 2010
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                          I am quite clean in preparing a wash. Always wash and rinse my equipment thoroughly before and after use. But it I guess it is possible that something "strange" entered.

                          But what could turn sugar into something that looks like cooked starch meanwhile producing lots of gas?

                          --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "Pete H" <thursty2@...> wrote:
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > The yeast you initially pitched appears to have been Alcotec 48hr. I have used this yeast in more than twenty batches. Never has the fermentation started the same day. On occasion it has been so slow to start as to make me think it was stuck.
                          >
                          > The instructions also recommend not to use an air lock because of rapid fermentation. My experience is that unless an airlock is installed, I couldn't tell if fermentation was active unless I floated an hydrometer.
                          >
                          > Was the water clear and clean?
                          > Was your sugar the same product you have always used?
                          > If the answer is yes to these questions, then it may be that there was a reaction between the two yeasts.
                          >
                          > There are so few steps to getting a wash into the fermenter and active, that it is difficult to imagine what may have caused your problem. Lack of sanitation perhaps?
                          >
                        • missouri_bootlegger
                          I had a similar experience on an all wheat mash. the turbo I used was old and the yeast dead and I got a bacteria in it and didn t know it until later. It got
                          Message 12 of 15 , Nov 7, 2010
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                            I had a similar experience on an all wheat mash. the turbo I used was old and the yeast dead and I got a bacteria in it and didn't know it until later. It got white and foamy I repitched it and the yeast worked some. I let it sit for a couple of weeks and it smelled rotten, that's when I knew what had happened. The white foamy never went away.
                            I guess without the yeast getting started right away a bacteria got a foothold and ruined it.

                            Missouri Bootlegger
                          • januutreurle
                            Hello Missouri Bootlegger, This looks similar to my experience. I think the yeast I initially pitched was quite dead. Still the question remains, what was
                            Message 13 of 15 , Nov 7, 2010
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                              Hello Missouri Bootlegger,

                              This looks similar to my experience. I think the yeast I initially pitched was quite dead.

                              Still the question remains, what was formed from the sugar since most of it is gone and no (or almost no) alcohol was formed.

                              I heated a small amount of the wash in a pan to 85 deg.C, letting the vapor condense on a cold cover. The vapor does not smell or taste like alcohol at all. Tasting a little of the condensate just gives a vague sweet hint.

                              Well, I am inclined to think I 'll never find out what actually was in that wash and how it came there. Unsatisfactory for my curiosity but life is harsh sometimes ;) .

                              Thank you all for your kindness of helping me. I wish you all the very best.

                              Regards,

                              Jan


                              --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "missouri_bootlegger" <siscoweb@...> wrote:
                              >
                              >
                              >
                              > I had a similar experience on an all wheat mash. the turbo I used was old and the yeast dead and I got a bacteria in it and didn't know it until later. It got white and foamy I repitched it and the yeast worked some. I let it sit for a couple of weeks and it smelled rotten, that's when I knew what had happened. The white foamy never went away.
                              > I guess without the yeast getting started right away a bacteria got a foothold and ruined it.
                              >
                              > Missouri Bootlegger
                              >
                            • ACKERFORGE
                              Greetings. Haven t posted for a while, and thought I might offer a thought on slow starting or sluggish fermentations. I work for a winery/meadery/distillery,
                              Message 14 of 15 , Nov 8, 2010
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                                Greetings. Haven't posted for a while, and thought I might offer a thought on slow starting or sluggish fermentations. I work for a winery/meadery/distillery, and therefore have dealt with a myriad of fermentables and fermentation "situations." Something I was wondering regarding this thread, is concerning fermentation nutrition, and was wondering what your thoughts might be on whether or not it might play a part in problem fermentations?

                                Before going further, I should note that as a distillery that is attatched to a winery, we are forbidden by Federal law from working with grain products in any form--everything we ferment has to have the sugar in it when it enters the building--no starch to sugar conversions allowed, so I cannot, with any authority, advise those woring with grain mashes. I did brew beer for about 10 years as a home brewer, and never once added nutrients to my beer fermentations, and was blessed to never have one to fail, or develop off flavors or aromas.

                                Not so in the winery. Several things I've fermented were very slow to begin, or would ferment very slowly or would plod along down to about 3 or 4% sugar left and just stop. Or in some cases grape or fruit wine would, if nutrient poor, develop hydrogen sulfide or sulfurous smells. A vigorous splashing or contact with copper will often take care of the problem, but it can often be put to rest or avoided by timely additions of nitrogenous and yeast nutritive substances.

                                The more processing a fermentable goes through before hand, the more devoid they are of nutrients necessary for the yeast to get down to business and work in a timely fashion. Dr. Cone from Lallemand, who, I believe, developed the product FERMAID-K, advised me to use a good yeast rehydration nutrient when yeasting. I use Lallemand's GO-FIRM @ 30 grams per hectoliter at yeast innoculation. I mix it in warm H2O and when 104 degrees F or a little lower, I then add 25 grams per hectoliter of yeast and an equal amount of sugar. Within fifteen to twenty minutes I generally have noticeable activity present. I add an equal amount of mash/juice to the mix very slowly to help prevent temperature shock, then add to the entire batch. So far this has always worked, and I generally see active fermentation within 12-24 hours.

                                With rum fermentations either made from brown sugar or molasses, Dr. Cone advised me to add a good nutrient like FERMAID-K, or DAP or SUPERFOOD or whatever you like to use, within 24 hours of the commencement of fermentation. I did this and had no problems either in commencing fermentation or completing it within a reasonable time frame. The same is especially true in honey fermentations as well as those from processed juice or fruit concentrates. Yeast loves being fed.

                                Also just for possible other culprits, temperature can be a factor in fermentation. With honey, molasses, and sugar primarily, I have found the fermentations proceeded better at no less than 70 degrees F or warmer, rather than at cooler temperatures. Also keeping the fermentation sugar at no more than 24% initially is crucial for getting fermentations to start quickly.

                                Just some things to ponder. Even if they aren't part of the problem or solution, pursuing them won't cause any harm.

                                Best wishes on your fermentations.

                                Dana





                                --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "januutreurle" <stoker@...> wrote:
                                >
                                > Hello Missouri Bootlegger,
                                >
                                > This looks similar to my experience. I think the yeast I initially pitched was quite dead.
                                >
                                > Still the question remains, what was formed from the sugar since most of it is gone and no (or almost no) alcohol was formed.
                                >
                                > I heated a small amount of the wash in a pan to 85 deg.C, letting the vapor condense on a cold cover. The vapor does not smell or taste like alcohol at all. Tasting a little of the condensate just gives a vague sweet hint.
                                >
                                > Well, I am inclined to think I 'll never find out what actually was in that wash and how it came there. Unsatisfactory for my curiosity but life is harsh sometimes ;) .
                                >
                                > Thank you all for your kindness of helping me. I wish you all the very best.
                                >
                                > Regards,
                                >
                                > Jan
                                >
                                >
                                > --- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "missouri_bootlegger" <siscoweb@> wrote:
                                > >
                                > >
                                > >
                                > > I had a similar experience on an all wheat mash. the turbo I used was old and the yeast dead and I got a bacteria in it and didn't know it until later. It got white and foamy I repitched it and the yeast worked some. I let it sit for a couple of weeks and it smelled rotten, that's when I knew what had happened. The white foamy never went away.
                                > > I guess without the yeast getting started right away a bacteria got a foothold and ruined it.
                                > >
                                > > Missouri Bootlegger
                                > >
                                >
                              • Harry
                                Dana, Thank you very much for that contribution. It s always nice to get hands on confirmation from those who work day to day in the industry. Your summary
                                Message 15 of 15 , Nov 8, 2010
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                                  Dana,

                                  Thank you very much for that contribution. It's always nice to get 'hands on' confirmation from those who work day to day in the industry. Your summary reflects exactly what many of the hobbyists have found through trial & error.

                                  Here's my list of causes of stuck fermentations, in order of most-to-least frequent. Check each. Remedy as necessary, one at a time...

                                  1. No oxygen:
                                  - cause - Over-zealously boiling the added water. We see this often with newcomers who have a beer-making history, where sanitation is so much more important.
                                  - remedy - vigorously aerate with an airpump setup or O2 bottle during the first several hours of fermentation (aerobic yeast growth phase).

                                  2. Osmotic pressure:
                                  - cause - Too much sugar, not enough water. We see this usually with newcomers who think (wrongly) that more sugar = more alcohol. It's the old mindset: If a little is good, then more must be better. NOT SO! Not in fermentations anyhow. Too much sugar prevents the yeast cells from absorbing vital water & nutrients across their semi-permeable cell membranes. So they shrivel & die. This relates to Dana's nutrient findings to some degree.
                                  - remedy - Add enough water to bring the madh back into balance i.e. 1 of sugar to 4 of water by weight. Then repitch yeast to replace the dead yeast.

                                  3. Yeast starvation:
                                  - cause - No nitrogen, no nutrients. Just as 'man cannot live by bread alone', so too yeast cannot live by sugar alone. They need food, mainly nitrogen but also vitamins & trace elements just like we do. Sugar & water mashes (thin mash) have almost none of these.
                                  - remedy - Add the missing ingredients in several doses to your fermentation. Follow the instructions of the recipe, or from Dana, Dr Clayton Cone, or any of the nutrient manufacturers. Then re-pitch yeast to re-start the fermentation.

                                  3. Yeast too cold:
                                  - cause - Low ambient temperature or low initial water temp. Yeast has an optimum working temp. & environment. Too cold and it goes dormant, won't multiply or do anything.
                                  - remedy - Use whatever means necessary to raise the temperature to the yeast's ideal working temp and keep it there. Do it SLOOOWLY, so as not to cause shock, which will kill the yeast. If shock does happen, re-pitch the yeast after you've stabilized the temperature.

                                  Some tried 'n' true methods are: to add a portion of warmer water (not 'hot' water); to stand the fermentation vessel in a large tub of warm water; to raise the fermentation room temperature with an electric heater; use heater belts or cables wrapped around the fermenter; use a cooling coil in reverse i.e. pump the mash through the coil that's placed in a warm bath. What method you use will depend on what you have available & where in the world you are. If cold is a problem, always wrap your fermenters in space blankets or similar to insulate them.


                                  HTH

                                  Slainte!
                                  regards Harry
                                  http://distillers.tastylime.net
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