Re: Newbie problems
--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, Gavin Flett <gavin_flett@...> wrote:
> Helo BC, I am by no means an expert, but I can say that your yield problem is definitely due to you using bakers yeast. At best I think it will get 6% ABV (and that's probably in a lab with everything perfect).
Not so Gavin. We regularly get 12% as standard, and with step-fermentations even 14% using common baker's yeast.
If you newcomers would join the new_distillers list you'd have access to all that knowledge. Take a look at this helper chart I've posted there many times...
Distillers Wort Chart
Hydrometer table Specific gravity (S.G.) Potential alcohol % vol. Sugar / litre grams
1.010 0.9 12.5 1.015 1.6 25 1.020 2.3 44 1.025 3.0 57 1.030 3.7 76 1.035 4.4 95 1.040 5.1 107 1.045 5.8 120 1.050 6.5 132
Range average for grain wort
1.055 7.2 145 1.060 7.9 157.5 1.065 8.6 170 1.070 9.2 182.5 1.075 9.9 195 1.080 10.6 208 1.085 11.3 225 1.090 12.0 240 1.095 12.7 252 1.100 13.4 265
Upper limit for bread yeasts
1.105 14.1 277 1.110 14.9 290 1.115 15.6 302.5
Upper limit for wine yeasts
1.120 16.3 315 1.125 17.0 327.5 1.130 17.7 340 1.135 18.4 352
Upper limit for turbo yeasts
To set a wort for fermentation: Use the hydrometer chart and adjust your sugar content for desired potential alcohol and type of yeast used. After adjustment, take your first hydrometer reading and record it as the Original Gravity (O.G.) figure.
When fermentation is complete, take your second hydrometer reading and record it as the Final Gravity (F.G.) figure.
Using the equation for % Alcohol By Volume, you can calculate the actual alcohol content achieved for the wort. Compare this to the potential alcohol volume given in the chart, and you will get an idea of how efficient, or otherwise, your attenuation is.
You can also calculate the percentage of Alcohol By Weight which is sometimes used in beer brewing.
Copyright © 2007 H Jackson. All rights reserved.
- Funny you should bring this up at this time, Geoff. I've just been digesting the information from the 2 ethanol-water mixture density tables that Harry sent me, and in the process, looking at my hydrometer and alcoholometer. While Waldo and Harry have covered all the important parts in depth, let me put some of this in some practical forms.
First, my hydrometer can measure densities from .990 to 1.170 g/cm^3, reading from the internal paper scale. In addition, doing some serious guesstimating, it appears that at densities below .950 g/cm^3 the hydrometer will sink to the bottom of the measured liquid.
Similarly, my alcoholometer measures (also on the internal paper scale) densities from .789 to 1.000 g/cm^3, amd looks to sink at any density less than about .774 g/cm^3
If we look at the density range where both instruments can serve as sugar-concentration hydrometer or ethanol-concentration alcoholometer, the range shared betweenthe 2 instruments is from 1.000 to .990, which means that the hydrometer (if you had some conversion from density to %ABV like the tables Harry sent me) could read ethanol concentrations form 0-7% ABV, and the alcoholometer could measure sugar concentrations from 0 to 0% (since all sugar-water solution must have a density greater than 1.000, even if an FG of .994 is common in wine).
Further, because after the hydrometer can still move downward, even after the liquid level is above the readable paper scale, at about 41%ABV, the hydrometer will sink to the bottom of the test jar and can not register (and sure as hell can not read) ethanol concentrations greater than 41% (a guess, but close).
So, at least with my instruments, you could use the hydrometer, with conversion tables, to crudely measure %ABV from 0-7, and my alcoholometer will give you no reading with any sugar solution.
If you're wondering why I dwell on the sinking instrument, it's because I started a spirit run with my hydrometer in my parrot beak, and the hydrometer did not lift at all when the beak overflowed. Starting ABV was probably 78-80.
I hope this helps.
Zymurgy Bob, a simple potstiller
--- In Distillers@yahoogroups.com, "geoff" <jeffrey.burrows@...> wrote:
> Hi Jim,
> I 'm not trying to be nit pick Jim but it has always bothered me why ner' the twain will do for the same job although in a different way, if you know what I mean